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THE BUTTERFLY BOOK 



THE BUTTERFLY BOOK 



A POPULAR GUIDE 

TO A KNOWLEDGE OF THE BUTTERFLIES OF 

NORTH AMERICA 



/ BY 

W. J. HOLLAND, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

CHANCELLOR OF 

THE WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA; DIRECTOR OF 

THE CARNEGIE MUSEUM, PITTSBURGH, PA.; FELLOW OF THE ZOOLOGICAL AND ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETIES OF LONDON ; MEMBER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF FRANCE, ETC., ETC. 



WITH 48 PLATES IN COLOR-PHOTOGRAPHY, REPRO- 
DUCTIONS OF BUTTERFLIES IN THE AUTHOR's COL- 
LECTION, AND MANY TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS PRESENTING 
MOST OF THE SPECIES FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES 



NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY & McCLURE CO. 

1898 



^ 



1^^ 



20053 



COPYRIGHT; 1895, BY 

W. J. Holland. 

jT)W3C0Pi£S SECOVfcD- 




\pC\^a'22 



/ /^D 






TO MY GOOD WIFE 

AND MY TWO BONNY BOYS, 

THE COMPANIONS OF MY LEISURE HOURS 

AND MY VACATION RAMBLES, 

I DEDICATE THIS BOOK, 

WITHOUT ASKING THEIR PERMISSION 



PREFACE 



AT some time or other in the life of every healthy young per- 
I\ son there appears to be developed what has been styled 
*'the collecting mania." Whether this tendency is due to the 
natural acquisitiveness of the human race, to an innate apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful and the curious, or to the development of an 
instinct such as is possessed by the bower-bird, the magpie, and 
the crow, which have the curious habit of gathering together and 
storing away trifles which are bright and attractive to the eye, I 
leave to students of the mind to decide. The fact is patent that 
there is no village without its youthful enthusiast whose collection 
of postage-stamps is dear to his heart, and no town in which 
there are not amateur geologists, archaeologists, botanists, and 
zoologists, who are eagerly bent upon the formation of collections 
of such objects as possess an attraction for them. 

One of the commonest pursuits of boyhood is the formation 
of a collection of insects. The career of almost every naturalist 
of renown has been marked in its early stages by a propensity 
to collect these lower, yet most interesting and instructive, forms 
of animal life. Among the insects, because of their beauty, 
butterflies have always held a foremost place in the regard of 
the amateur collector. For the lack, however, of suitable in- 
struction in the art of preserving specimens, and, above all, by 
reason of the almost entire lack of a convenient and well-illus- 
trated manual, enabling the collector to identify, name, and 
properly classify the collections which he is making, much of 
the labor expended in this direction in the United States and 
Canada fails to accomplish more than the furnishing of tem- 
porary recreation. It is otherwise in Europe. Manuals, compre- 
hensive in scope, and richly adorned with illustrations of the 



./ 



Preface 

leading insect forms of Great Britain and the Continent, have been 
produced in great numbers in recent years in England, France, 
and Germany. The result is that the youthful collector enters the 
field in those countries in the possession of a vast advantage over 
his less fortunate American fellow. It is to meet this want on 
this side of the Atlantic that this volume has been written. Its 
aim is to guide the amateur collector in right paths and to pre- 
pare him by the intelligent accomplishment of his labors for the 
enjoyment of still wider and more difficult researches in this and 
allied fields of human knowledge. The work is confined to the 
fauna of the continent of North America north of the Rio Grande 
of Texas. It is essentially popular in its character. Those who 
seek a more technical treatment must resort to the writings of 
others. 

If I shall succeed in this book in creating a more wide-spread 
interest in the world of insect life and thereby diverting attention 
in a measure from the persecuted birds, which I love, but which 
are in many species threatened with extinction by the too eager 
attentions which they are receiving from young naturalists, who 
are going forth in increased numbers with shot-gun. in hand, I 
think I shall render a good service to the country. 

I flatter myself that 1 have possessed peculiar facilities for the 
successful accomplishment of the undertaking I have proposed to 
myself, because of the possession of what is admitted to be un- 
doubtedly the largest and most perfect collection of the butterflies 
of North America in existence, containing the types of W. H. Ed- 
wards, and many of those of other authors. I have also enjoyed 
access to all the other great collections of this country and Europe, 
and have had at my elbow the entire literature relating to. the 
subject. 

The successful development in recent months of the process of 
reproducing in colors photographic representations of objects has 
been to a certain degree the argument for the publication of this 
book at the present time. A few years ago the preparation of 
such a work as this at the low price at which it is sold would 
have been an utter impossibility. ''The Butterflies of North 
America," by W. H. Edwards, published in three volumes, is 
sold at one hundred and fifty dollars, and, as I know, is sold even 
at this price below the cost of manufacture. " The Butterflies of 
New England," by Dr. S. H. Scudder, in three volumes, is sold 
at seventy-five dollars, and likewise represents at this price only 

vi 



Preface 

a partial return to the learned author for the money, labor, and 
time expended upon it. The present volume, while not pretend- 
ing to vie in any respect with the magnificence of the illustrations 
contained in these beautiful and costly works, nevertheless pre- 
sents in recognizable form almost every species figured in them, 
and in addition a multitude of others, many of which have 
never before been delineated. So far as possible I have em- 
ployed, in making the illustrations, the original types from which 
the author of the species drew his descriptions. This fact will no 
doubt add greatly to the value of the work, as it will not only 
serve as a popular guide, but have utility also for the scientific 
student. 

I am under obligations to numerous friends and correspondents 
who have aided me, and take the present opportunity to extend 
to them all my hearty thanks for the generous manner in which 
they have assisted me in my pleasant task. I should fail, how- 
ever, to follow the instincts of a grateful heart did 1 not render an 
especial acknowledgment to Mr. W. H. Edwards, of Coalburg, 
West Virginia, and Dr. Samuel H. Scudder, of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. Justly esteemed as the two foremost lepidopterists of 
America, it is my honor to claim them as personal friends, whose 
kindness has much aided me in this labor of scientific love which 
I have undertaken. For the kind permission given me by Dr. 
Scudder to use various illustrations contained in the "Butterflies 
of New England" and other works, I am profoundly grateful. 

I am under obligations to Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons for 
permission to use the cuts numbered 46-49, 51-56, 59, 61, 62, 
and 73, which are taken from the work entitled "Taxidermy and 
Zoological Collecting," by W. T. Hornaday, and to the authorities 
of the United States National Museum and the heirs of the late 
Professor C. V. Riley for other illustrations. 

Should this book find the favor which 1 have reason to think it 
deserves, 1 shall endeavor shortly to follow it by the preparation 
of a similar work upon the moths of the United States and Canada. 

Office of the Chancellor, W, J. H. 

Western University of Pennsylvania, 
August 16, 1898. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAP. PAGE 

I. The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies . . 3-2^ 

The Ei>i{s 0/ Bullerjlii's. Cnti'ipillcrrs: Struciiire, Form, Color, etc. ; 
Moults; Food of Caterpillars; Duration of Larval State; Transformation. 
T/v Pupa, or Chrysalis: The Form of Chrysalids; Duration of Pupal 
Life; The Transformation from the Chrysalis to the Imago. Anatomy 
of Butlerjlii's: The Head; The Thorax; The Abdomen; The Legs; 
The Wings; Internal Organs; Polymorphism and Dimorphism; Albi- 
nism and Melanism; Monstrosities; Mimicry. The Distribution of Bui- 
ti-rjlics. 

II. The CapturI', Pri:paration, and Preservation of Spf.ci- 

MENs ^^^-57 

Collecting Apparatus : Nets; Collecting-Jars; Field-Boxes; The Use 
of the Net; Baits; Boating. Tho Breeding of Specimens : How to Get 
the Eggs of Butterflies; Breeding-Cages; How to Find Caterpillars; 
Hibernating Caterpillars. The Preservation of Specimens : Papering 
Specimens; Mounting Butterflies; Relaxing Specimens; The Prepara- 
tion and Preservation of Butterfly Eggs; The Preservation of Chrysa- 
lids; The Preservation of Caterpillars. The Preservation and 
Arrangement of Collections : Boxes; Cabinets and Drawers; Label- 
ing; Arrangement of Specimens; Insect Pests; Greasy Specimens; 
Mould; Repairing Specimens; Packing and Forwarding Specimens; 
Pins; The Forceps. 

III. The Classification of Butterflies 58-68 

The Place of Butterflies in the Animal Kingdom; The Principles of 
Scientific Arrangement; The Species; The Genus; The Family, etc.; 
Scientific Names; Synonyms; Popular Names. 

IV. Books about North American Butterflies . . . 69-74 

Early Writers; Later Writers; Periodicals. 

ix 



Table of Contents 



THE BOOK 

PAGE 

The Butterflies of North America North of Mexico. 

Family I. NvnipbiiliJiV, the Brush-footed Buttertlies . . 77 

Subfamily Eiiphriiuw the Milkweed Buttertlies ... So 

Subfamily Ithomiind\ the Long-winged Buttertlies . . S=; 

Subfamily Hcliconiitur, the Heliconians 91 

Subfamily Nymphalind', the Nymphs 93 

Subfamily Satvrj)id\ the Satyrs, Meadow-browns, and 

Arctics 197 

Subfamily Libvthciiuv, the Snout-buttertlies .... 226 

Family II. LiDuviiidce 22^ 

Subfamily Erw/fu'/ur, the Metal-marks 228 

Family III. LwwniJa' 2^6 

Subfamily Lvcdiu'/hv, the Hair-streaks, the Blues, and 
the Coppers 2^6 

Family 1\'. Pdpiliottidd'. the Swallowtails and Allies . . 272 
Subfamily Picrifhv, the Whites, the Sulphurs, the 

Orange-tips 272 

Subfamily PdpiIio}iiud\ the Parnassians and Swallowtails 504 

Family \'. Hcspcn'iJd\ the Skippers . 318 

Subfamily Pyrrhopvgi}ix . .319 

Subfamily Hcspcritiuv, the Hesperids 320 

Subfamily Pamphiliiuv 33g 

Subfamily Megatbymiihw genus Megatbymus .... 307 



DIGRESSIONS AND QL'OTATIONS 



PAGE 

Immortality (Sigourney) =^7 

Hugo's "Flower to Butterfly" (Translated by Eugene Field) 74 

Superstitions (Frank Cowan) QO 

Luther's Saddest Experience (Yale Literary Magazine, iS^2) 100 
A Race after a Butterfly 127 

X 



Table of Contents 

PAGE 

Suspicious Conduct »« .... 136 

Collecting in Japan ^ . o . . . 149 

Faunal Regions 161 

Widely Distributed Butterflies 171 

The Butterflies' Fad (Ella Wheeler Wilcox) 186 

Fossil Insects 195 

In the Face of the Cold 224 

Uncle Jotham's Boarder (Annie Trumbull Slosson) . . . 233 

Mimicry 235 

The Utility of Entomology 256 

Size 271 

Instinct 280 

Red Rain (Frank Cowan) 299 

For a Design of a Butterfly Resting on a Skull (Mrs. 

Hemans) 303 

The Caterpillar and the Ant (Allan Ramsay) 316 

Collections and Collectors 337 

Exchanges 344 



XI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 

FIG. PAGE 

1. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, magnified 3 

2. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, natural size . . . „ . 3 

3. Egg of Papilio turnus, enlarged 4 

4. Egg of Anosia plexippus, magnified 4 

5. Egg of Anosia plexippus, natural size 4 

6. Egg of Anthocharis genutia, magnified 4 

7. Egg of Lycasna pseudargiolus, magnified 4 

8. Egg of Melitsea phaeton, magnified 4 

9. Micropyle of egg of Pieris oleracea, magnified ... 5 

10. Eggs of Grapta comma, magnified 5 

11. Eggs of Vanessa antiopa, magnified 5 

12. Caterpillar of Papilio philenor 6 

13. Head of caterpillar of Papilio asterias, magnified . . . 6 

14. Head of caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, magnified . . 6 

15. Head of caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, side view, 

enlarged 7 

16. Caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, natural size .... 7 

17. Fore leg of caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa, enlarged . . 7 

18. Anterior segments of caterpillar of A. plexippus . . 7 

19. Proleg of caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa, enlarged . . 7 

20. Caterpillar of Basilarchia disippus 8 

21. Early stages of goatweed butterfly 9 

22. Head of caterpillar of Papilio troilus 9 

2}. Caterpillar of milkweed butterfly changing into 

chrysalis .....11 

24. Chrysalis of milkweed butterfly 12 

25. Chrysalis of Papilio philenor 12 

26. Caterpillar and chrysalis of Pieris protodice . . . . 12 

27. Chrysalis of Pieris oleracea 13 

xiii 



List of Illustrations in Text 

FIG. PAGE 

28. Butterfly emerging from chrysalis 13 

29. Head of milkweed butterfly, showing parts .... 14 

30. Cross-section of sucking-tube of butterfly .... 15 

31. Longitudinal section of the head of the milkweed 

butterfly 15 

"^2. Interior structure of head of milkweed butterfly . . . 16 

■^}. Labial palpus of butterfly .16 

34. Legs of butterfly , . . . . 17 

35. Parts of leg of butterfly 17 

j^. Scales on wing of butterfly 18 

37. Androconia from wing of butterfly 18 

38. Outline of wing of butterfly 20 

39. Arrangement of scales on the wing of a butterfly . . 20 

40. Figure of wing, showing names of veins . . . . 21 

41. Internal anatomy of caterpillar of milkweed butterfly . 22 

42. Internal anatomy of milkweed butterfly 2^ 

43. Plan for folding net-ring 27 

44. Insect-net , . . . . 2'i 

45. Plan for making a cheap net 27 

46. Cyanide-jar 29 

47. Paper cover for cyanide . 29 

48. Method of pinching a butterfly 30 

49. Cheap form of breeding-cage 35 

50. Breeding-cage ^^ 

31. Butterfly in envelope 38 

52. Method of making envelopes 38 

53. Setting-board 39 

54. Setting-block 39 

55. Butterfly on setting-block 39 

56. Setting-needle 40 

57. Setting-board with moth upon it 40 

58. Butterfly pinned on setting-board 41 

59. Drying-box 41 

60. Drying-box 42 

61. Apparatus for inflating larvae » 45 

(i2. Tip of inflating-tube 46 

6-^. Drying-oven 46 

64. Drying-oven 47 

65. Detail drawing of book-box . . 48 

(i6. Detail drawing of box 48 

xiv 



List of Illustrations in Text 

FIG. ' PAGE 

67. Detail drawing of box 49 

68. Insect-box = 49 

69. Detail drawing of drawer for cabinet 51 

70. Detail drawing for paper bottom of box to take place 

of cork 52 

71. Manner of arranging specimens in cabinet or box . 52 

72. Naphthaline cone 53 

73. Butterflies packed for shipment 55 

74. Forceps 56 

75. Forceps 37 

76. Antennae of butterfly 61 

77. Antennae of moths 62 

78. Neuration of genus Anosia 81 

79. Swarm of milkweed butterflies, photographed at night 83 

80. Neuration of genus Mechanitis . 86 

81. Neuration of genus Ceratinia 8S 

82. Neuration of genus Dircenna 89 

83. Fore leg of female Dircenna klugi . 89 

84. Neuration of genus Heliconius 91 

85. Young caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa 94 

86. Neuration of genus Colaenis 95 

87. Neuration of genus Dione 96 

88. Neuration of genus Euptoieta 98 

89. Neuration of genus Argynnis loi 

90. Neuration of genus Brenthis 129 

91. Neuration of genus Melitaea 138 

92. Neuration of genus Phyciodes 151 

93. Neuration of genus Eresia 157 

94. Neuration of genus Synchloe 159 

95. Neuration of genus Grapta 163 

96. Neuration of genus Vanessa 167 

97. Neuration of genus Pyrameis 170 

98. Neuration of genus Junonia 172 

99. Neuration of genus Anartia 174 

100. Neuration of genus Hypanartia , . 175 

loi. Neuration of genus Eunica .176 

102. Neuration of genus Cystineura 177 

103. Neuration of genus Callicore 178 

104. Neuration of genus Timetes » ^79 

105. Neuration of genus Hypolimnas 181 

XV 



List of Illustrations in Text 

FIG. PAGE 

1 06. Neuration of genus Basilarchia 182 

107. Leaf cut away at end by the caterpillar of Basilarchia . 183 

108. Hibernaculum of caterpillar of Basilarchia 183 

109. Neuration of genus Adelpha 187 

no. Neuration of genus Chlorippe 188 

111. Neuration of genus Pyrrhanaea 192 

112. Neuration of genus Ageronia 193 

113. Neuration of genus Victorina 195 

114. Neuration of genus Debis 199 

115. Neuration of genus Satyrodes 200 

116. Neuration of genus Neonympha 201 

117. Neuration of genus Coenonympha 205 

118. Neuration of genus Erebia 208 

119. Neuration of genus Geirocheilus . 211 

120. Neuration of genus Neominois 212 

121. Neuration of genus Satyrus 214 

122. Neuration of genus CEneis 219 

123. Caterpillars of CEneis macouni 221 

124. Neuration of genus Libythea 226 

125. Neuration of base of hind wing of genus Lemonias . . 228 

126. Neuration of genus Lemonias 229 

127. Neuration of genus Calephelis 2}2 

128. Neuration of genus Eumseus 237 

129. Neuration of Thecla edwardsi 238 

130. Neuration of Thecla melinus ......... 242 

131. Neuration of Thecla damon o . 246 

132. Neuration of Thecla niphon . 249 

133. Neuration of Thecla titus 250 

134. Neuration of genus Feniseca 251 

135. Neuration of genus Chrysophanus 252 

136. Neuration of Lycsena pseudargiolus , . 267 

137. Neuration of Lycaena comyntas 268 

138. Neuration of genus Dismorphia » . 273 

139. Neuration of genus Neophasia 274 

140. Neuration of genus Tachyris 276 

141. Neuration of genus Pieris 277 

142. Neuration of genus Nathalis 281 

143. Neuration of genus Euchloe 282 

144. Neuration of genus Catopsilia . . 286 

145. Neuration of genus Kricogonia 287 

xvi 



List of Illustrations in Text 

FIG. PAGE 

146. Neuration of genus Meganostoma 288 

147. Neuration of genus Colias » . . . . 289 

148. Neuration of genus Terias 295 

149. Neuration of genus Parnassius 305 

An Astronomer's Conception of an Entomologist . .317 

150. Head and antenna of genus Pyrrhopyge 319 

151. Neuration of genus Pyrrhopyge ........ 319 

152. Neuration of genus Eudamus 321 

153. Antenna and neuration of genus Plestia ^22 

154. Neuration of genus Epargyreus }2} 

155. Neuration of genus Thorybes 324 

156. Neuration of genus Achalarus ^26 

157. Antenna and neuration of genus Hesperia 327 

158. Neuration of genus Systasea 329 

159. Neuration of genus Pholisora 330 

160. Neuration of genus Thanaos . ^^2 

161. Neuration of genus Amblyscirtes 340 

162. Neuration of genus Pamphila 342 

163. Neuration of genus Oarisma 343 

164. Neuration of genus Ancyloxypha 345 

165. Neuration of genus Copaeodes 346 

166. Neuration of genus Erynnis 347 

167. Neuration of genus Thymelicus 351 

168. Neuration of genus Atalopedes 332 

169. Neuration of genus Polites - • 353 

170. Neuration of genus Hylephila .... o ... . 354 

171. Neuration of genus Prenes 355 

172. Neuration of genus Calpodes , 355 

173. Neuration of genus Lerodea 356 

174. Neuration of genus Limochores 337 

175. Neuration of genus Euphyes 360 

176. Neuration of genus Oligoria 361 

177. Neuration of genus Poanes 362 

178. Neuration of genus Phycanassa 362 

179. Neuration of genus Atrytone 364 

180. Neuration of genus Lerema 366 

181. Megathymus yuccae, $ 367 

182. Larva of Megathymus yuccae 368 

183. Chrysalis of Megathymus yuccae 368 

The Popular Conception of an Entomologist .... 369 

xvii 



LIST OF COLORED PLATES 



FACING 
PAGE 



I. Spring Butterflies Frontispiece 

II. Caterpillars of Papilionidae and Hesperiidae ... 6 

III. Caterpillars of Nymphalidae i8 

IV. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline — Nymphalidae 30 
V. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline — Nymphalidae, 

Lycaenidae, Pierinae 44 

VI. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline — Papiloninae 

and Hesperiidae 58 

VII. Anosia and Basilarchia 80 

VIII. Ithomiinae, Heliconius, Dione, Colaenis, and Eup- 

toieta m 

IX. Argynnis 100 

X. Argynnis 104 

XI. Argynnis 108 

XII. Argynnis 112 

XIII. Argynnis 116 

XIV. Argynnis 122 

XV. Brenthis 130 

XVI. Melit^a 138 

XVII. Melitaea, Phyciodes, Eresia 152 

XVIII. Argynnis, Brenthis, Melitaea, Phyciodes, Eresia, 

Synchloe, Debis, Geirocheilus 156 

XIX. Grapta, Vanessa 164 

XX. Grapta, Vanessa, Junonia, Anartia, Pyrameis . .168 
XXI. Timetes, Hypolimnas, Eunica, Callicore . . . .178 

XXII. Basilarchia, Adelpha 184 

XXIII. Chlorippe 190 

XXIV. Pyrrhanaea, Ageronia, Synchloe, Cystineura, Hy- 

panartia, Victorina 196 

xix 



List of Colored Plates facing 

PAGE 

XXV. Satyrodes, Coenonympha, Neonympha, Neomi- 

nois, Erebia 204 

XXVI. Satvrus 214 

XXVII. CEneis 220 

XXVIII. Libythea, Lemonias, Calephelis, Eumseus, Chrys- 

ophanus, Feniseca 228 

XXIX. Chrysophanus, Thecia 236 

XXX. Thecia, Lvcsena 246 

XXXI. Lvc^na ' 256 

XXXII. Lyccena. Thecia, Nathalis, Euchloe 266 

XXXIII. Catopsilia, Pyrameis 272 

XXXIV. Euchloe, Neophasia, Pieris. Kricogonia .... 280 
XXXV. Tachyris, Pieris, Colias 288 

XXXVI. Meganostoma, Colias 294 

XXXVII. Terias, Dismorphia 298 

XXXVIII. Papilio 302 

XXXIX. Parnassius 306 

XL. Papilio 310 

XLI. Papilio 314 

XLII. Papilio 316 

XLIII. Papilio, Colias, Pvrameis, Epargyreus . . . .318 

XLIV. Papilio ...'.... T 322 

XLV. Papilio, Pholisora, Eudamus Achalarus, Pyrrho- 

pyge, Plestia, Calpodes, Thanaos 330 

XLVl. Hesperiidse 338 

XLVII. Hesperiidae 3=;o 

XLVllI. Hesperiidse and Colias eurytheme 360 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER I 

THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF BUTTERFLIES 

'' The study of butterflies,— creatures selected as the types of airiness and frivolity, 
—instead of being despised, will some day be valued as one of the most important 
branches of biological science."— Bates, Naturalist on the Ama^ions. 

In studying any subject, it is always well, if possible, to com- 
mence at the beginning; and in studying the life of animals, or of 
a group of animals, we should endeavor to obtain a clear idea at 
the outset of the manner in which they are developed. It is a 
familiar saying that "all life is from an tgg." This statement is 
scientifically true in wide fields which come under the eye of the 
naturalist, and butterflies are no exception to the rule. 

THE EGGS OF BUTTERFLIES 



The eggs of butterflies consist of a membranous shell con- 
taining a fluid mass composed of the germ of the future cat- 
erpillar and the liquid food which is 
necessary for its maintenance and de- 
velopment until it escapes from the 
shell. The forms of these eggs are 
various. Some are spherical, others 
hemispherical, con- 
ical, and cylindri- 
cal. Some are bar- 
rel-shaped ; others Fig. 2. -Egg of Basilar- 
?\Q. \. -Egg oi Basilar chia have the shape of chiadisippus,v\^i\xx2i\s\ze, 





disippus, magnified 30 diame 
ters (Riley). 



, 1 ^-ii at the end of under surface 

a cheese, and still of leaf (Riley). 
others have the 



form of a turban. Many of them are angled, some depressed 
at the ends. Their surface is variously ornamented. Some- 

3 




Fig. 3.— Egg of Papilio 
turnus, greatly magnified. 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

times they are ribbed, the ribs running from the center out- 
wardly and downwardly along the sides like the meridian lines 
upon a globe. Between 
these ribs there is fre- 
quently found a fine 
network of raised lines 
variously arranged. 
Sometimes the sur- 
face is covered with 
minute depressions, 
sometimes with a 
series of minute ele- 
vations variously disposed. As there is 
great variety in the form of the eggs, so 

also there is great variety in their 
color. Brown, blue, green, red, and 
yellow eggs occur. Greenish or 
greenish-white are common tints. 
The eggs are often ornamented with 
dots and lines of darker color. Species 
which are related to one another show 
their affinity even in the form of their 
eggs. At the upper end of the eggs of insects there are one or 
more curious structures, known as micropyles (little doors), 



Fig. 4. — Eggoiy4nosia 
plexippus, magnified 30 
diameters (Riley). 




Fig. 5.— Egg of Anosia 
plexippus, natural size, on 
under side of leaf (Riley). 




Fig. 6.— Egg 
of Anthocharis 
genutia, magni- 
fied 20 diameters. 




Fig. 7.— -Turban-shaped 
egg of Lyccena pseiidar- 
giolus, greatly magnified. 




Fig. 8. — Egg of 
Melitcea phaeton, 
greatly magnified. 



through which the spermatozoa of the male find ingress and they 
are fertilized. These can only be seen under a good micro- 
scope. 

The eggs are laid upon the food-plant upon which the cater- 

4 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 





Fig. 9. — Upper end of 
egg of Pier is oleracea, 
greatly magnified, show- 
ing the micropyle. 



Fig. 10.— Eggs 
oiGrapta com- 
ma, laid in 
string-like clus- 
ters on the 
under side of 
leaf. (Magni- 
fied.) 



pillar, after it is hatched, is destined to live, and the female re- 
veals wonderful instinct in selecting plants which are 
appropriate to the develop- 
ment of the larva. As a 
rule, the larvae are restricted in 
the range of their food-plants to 
certain genera, or families of 
plants. 

The eggs are deposited 
sometimes singly, sometimes 
in small clusters, sometimes 
in a mass. Fertile eggs, a few 
days after they have been deposited, frequently undergo a change 
of color, and it is often possible with a magnifying-glass to see 
through the thin shell the form of the minute caterpillar which is 
being developed within the tgg. Unfruitful eggs gen- 
erally shrivel and dry up after the lapse of a short time. 
The period of time requisite for the development 
of the embryo in the egg varies. Many butterflies 
are single-brooded ; others produce two orthree gen- 
erations during the summer in temperate climates, 
and even more generations in subtropical or tropical 
climates. In such cases an interval of only a few 
days, or weeks at the most, separates the time when 
the tgg was deposited and the time when the larva 
is hatched. When the period of hatching, or emer- 
gence, has arrived, the little caterpillar cuts its way 
forth from the tgg through an opening made either 
atthe side or on the top. Many species have eggs which appearto be 
provided with a lid, a portion of the shell being separated from the re- 
mainder by a thin section, which, when the caterpillar has reached the 
full limit allowed by the tgg, breaks under the pressure of the enlar- 
ging embryo within, one portion of the egg flying off, the remainder 
adhering to the leaf or twig upon which it has been deposited. 




Fig, 1 1.— Eggs 
of yanessa an- 
tiopa, laid in a 
mass on a twig. 



CATERPILLARS 



Structure, Form, Color, etc.— The second stage in which the 
insects we are studying exist is known as the larval stage. The 
insect is known as a larva, or a caterpillar. In general cater- 

5 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



pillars have long, worm-like bodies. Frequently they are 
thickest about the middle, tapering before and behind, flat- 
tened on the under side. While the 
cylindrical shape is most common, there 
are some families in which the larvae 
are short, oval, or slug-shaped, sometimes 
curiously modified by ridges and promi- 
nences. The body of the larvae of lepi- 
doptera consists normally of thirteen rings, 
or segments, the first constituting the 
head. 

The head is always conspicuous, com- 
posed of horny or chitinous material, 
but varying exceedingly in form and 
size. It is very rarely small and retracted. 
It is generally large, hemispherical, 
conical, or bilobed. In some families it 
is ornamented by horn-like projections. 
On the lower side are the mouth-parts, 
consisting of the upper lip, the mandibles, 
the antennae, or feelers, the under lip, the 
„^'?' '^•"^^^^'P'!]^'' ^J maxillae, and two sets of palpi, known as 

Papilio phtlenor (Riley). , .„ , , , , . , 

the maxillary and the labial palpi. In 
many genera the labium, or under lip, is provided with a 
short, horny projection known as the spinneret, through 
which the silk secreted by the cater- 
pillar is passed. On either side, 
just above the man- 
dibles, are located the 
eyes, or ocelli, which 
in the caterpillar are ^ ,, . . 

J 1 • • Fig. 14. — Head of caterpillar 

simple, round, shining oiy^nosiaplexippus, lower side, 

magnified 10 diameters: lb, la- 






FiG.i3.-Head Prominences, generally 
of caterpillar of only to be clearly dis- 



Papilio aste- 
fW5, front view, 
enlarged. 



brum, or upper lip; md, mandi- 
bles; mx, maxilla, with two 



tinguished by the aid P^Jpi; ^"h labium, or lower lip, 

with one pair of palpi; 5, spin- 



neret; a, antenna; 0, ocelli. 
(After Burgess.) 



of a magnifying-glass. 

These ocelli are fre- 
quently arranged in series on each side. The palpi are organs 
of touch connected with the maxillae and the labium, or under 
lip, and are used in the process of feeding, and also when the 

6 



Explanation of Plath II 

Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S. H. Scudder, tVoni '' The Butterflies 
ot" New England," vol. iii, Plate 70. 



Cati-rimll.aks or Papi 

1 . Colicis cufylbcnii. 

2. Callidryas eiibiilc. 
■^. Ti't'ias lisa. 
4. Callichyas cubiiL . 
=,. Euchloi' gemitia. 
0. Tcrias nicippc. 

7. Pie lis protodice. 

8. Pier is napi, var. olcrcicea. 
<). Pieris iiapi, var. olcract'a. 

i(». Colias philodicc. 

1 I . Pieris rapa\ 

12. Pieris rapa'. 

1 ",. Papilio phileuor. 

i-4. Papilio ajax. 

1 =;. Papilio tiiriiits. Just before pupation. 

16. Papilio cresphoiites. 

17. Papilto aaterias. in second stage. 
iS. Papilio I roil us. 
10. Papilio troiliis. In thirdslage; plain. 



I.IONID.+ .AM) HESI'ERllD/b 


20. 


Papilio pbiUiior. 


21 


Papilio phileuor. In third stage 




dorsal view. 


2 2 


Papilio troiliis. In third stage: dor- 




sal view. 


2-; 


Achalariis Ijcidas. Dorsal view. 


-4 


Papilio aslerias. In tburth stage 




dorsal view. 


-) - 


Tborvbes pr lades. 


20 


Papilio tiiniiis. Dorsal view. 


27 


Papilio aslerias. 


28 


Papilio til runs. 


20 


Tborvbes pvlades. 


;o 


Ppargyyctis tityriis. 


. -,i 


Epargyreiis tilynis. 


',2 


Tborvbes halbyllus. 


t;-, 


Epargyreiis tityrus. 


>4 


Ell da in us profeiis. 


-,^ 


Epargyreiis tilynis. In third stage 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate II. 







_^^^^#^%_ 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

caterpillar is crawling about from place to place. The larva 
appears to guide itself in great part by means of the palpi. 

The body of the caterpillar is covered by a thin skin, which 
often lies in wrinkled folds, admitting of great freedom of 
motion. The body is composed, as we have seen, of rings, or 
segments, the first three of which, back of the head, correspond 



Fig. 15.— Head 
of caterpillar of 
Anosia plexip- 
pus, side view, 
showing ocelli. 




FiG„ 16.— Caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, milkweed 
butterfly (Riley). 



to the thorax of the perfect insect, and the last nine to the abdomen 
of the butterfly. On each ring, with the exception of the second, 
the third, and the last, there is found on either side a small oval 
opening known as a spiracle, through which the creature breathes. 
As a rule, the spiracles of the first and eleventh rings are larger in 
size than the others. 

Every caterpillar has on each of the first three segments a pair 
of legs, which are organs composed of three somewhat horny 
parts covered and bound together with skin, and armed at their 
extremities by a sharp claw (Fig. 17). These three pairs of feet 
in the caterpillar are always known as the fore legs, and corre- 




FiG. 17.— Fore 
leg of caterpil- 
lar of yanes- 
sa antiopa,en- 
larged. 



Fig. 18.— Ante- 
rior segments of cat- 
erpillar of milkweed 
butterfly, showing 
thoracic or true legs 
(Riley). 




Fig. 19. — Proleg 
of caterpillar of 
Vanessa antiopa, 
enlarged. 



spond to the six which are found in the butterfly or the moth. 
In addition, in most cases, we find four pairs of prolegs on 
the under side of the segments from the sixth to the ninth, 
and another pair on the last segment, which latter pair are 

7 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butter:£ies 




Fig. 20.— Caterpillar of Bjsi7^r<:/iiJ disippus, 
the \icerov. natural size fRilev). 



called the anal prolegs. These organs, which are necessan,' to 
the life of the caterpillar, do not reappear in the perfect insect, but 
are lost when the transformation from the caterpillar to the 
chr\^salis takes place. There are various modifications of this 
scheme of foot-like appendages, only the larger and more highly 
developed forms of lepidoptera having as many pairs of prolegs 
as have been enumerated. 

The bodies of caterpillars are variously ornamented: many 
of them are quite smooth: many are provided with homy 
projections, spines, and eminences. The coloration of cater- 
pillars is as remarkable in the 
variety which it displays as is 
the ornamentation by means 
of the prominences of which 
we have just spoken. As 
caterpillars, forthe most part, 
feed upon growing vegeta- 
tion, multitudes of them are 
green in color, being thus 
adapted to their surroundings 
and securing a measure of 
protection. .Many are brown, and exactly mimic the color of the 
twigs and branches upon w^hich they rest when not engaged in 
feeding. Not a few are wtvy gaily colored, but in almost every 
case this gay coloring is found to 6ear some relation to the color 
of the objects upon which they rest. 

Caterpillars vary in their social habits. Some species are 
gregarious, and are found in colonies. These frequently build 
for themselves defenses, weaving webs of silk among the 
branches, in which they are in part protected from their enemies 
and also from the inclemencies of the weather. Most caterpillars 
are, however, solitary', and no communit}' life is maintained by 
the vast majority of species. Many species have the habit of 
drawing together the edges of a leaf, in which way they form 
a covering for themselves. The caterpillars of some butter- 
flies are wood-boring, and construct tunnels in the pith, or 
in the soft layers of growing plants. In these cases, being 
protected and concealed from view, the caterpillars are gener- 
ally white in their coloration, resembling in this respect the 
lar\'ae of wood-boring beetles. A most curious phenomenon has 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



within comparatively recent years been discovered in connection 
with the larval stage of certain small butterflies belonging to 
the family Lyccenidce. The caterpillars are carnivorous, or rather 
aphidivorous; they live upon aphids, or plant-lice, and scale- 
insects, and cover ^ 

themselves with the 
white exudations or 
mealy secretions of 
the latter. This trait 
is characteristic of 
only one of our North 
American species, the 
Harvester {Feniseca 
tarqtimms). 

In addition to 
being protected from 
enemies by having 
colors which enable 
them to elude obser- 
vation, as has been 
already stated, some 
caterpillars are pro- 
vided with other 

means of defense. Fig. 21.— Early stages of the goatweed butterfly: a, 
T^, ^ .,, r ^, caterpillar; h, chrysalis; c, leaf drawn together at edges 

The caterpillars of the to form a nest. (Natural size.) (Riley.) 

swallowtail butter- 
flies are provided with a bifurcate or forked organ, generally 
yellow in color, which is protruded from an opening in the skin 
back of the head, and which emits a powerful 
odor (Fig. 22), This protrusive organ evidently 
exists only for purposes of defense, and the secre- 
tion of the odor is analogous to the secretion 
of evil odors by some of the vertebrate ani- 
mals, as the skunk. The majority of caterpil- 
lars, when attacked by insect or other enemies, 
defend themselves by quickly hurling the an- 
terior part of the body from side to side. 
Mo^^//5.— Caterpillars in the process of growth and develop- 
ment from time to time shed their skins. This process is called 
moulting. Moulting takes place, as a rule, at regular intervals, 

9 





Fig. 22. — Head 
of caterpillar of Pa- 
pilio troilus, with 
scent-organs, or os- 
materia,protruded. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

though there are exceptions to this rule. The young larva, having 
emerged from the egg, grows for a number of days, until the 
epidermis, or true skin, has become too small. It then ceases 
feeding, attaches itself firmly to some point, and remains quiet for 
a time. During this period certain changes are taking place, and 
then the skin splits along the middle line from the head to the 
extremity of the last segment, and the caterpillar crawls forth from 
the skin, which is left behind it, attached to the leaf or branch to 
which it was fastened. The skin of the head sometimes remains 
attached to the head of the caterpillar for a time after it has 
moulted, and then falls off to the ground. Ordinarily not more 
than five, and frequently only four, moults take place between 
hatching from the egg and the change into the chrysalis. In cases 
where caterpillars hibernate, or pass the winter in inaction, a long 
interval necessarily elapses between moults. Some arctic species 
are known in which the development from the egg to the perfect 
insect covers a period of two or three years, long periods of 
hibernation under the arctic snows taking place. The manner in 
which the caterpillar withdraws itself from its exuviae, or old skin, 
is highly interesting. Every little spine or rough prominence is 
withdrawn from its covering, and the skin is left as a perfect cast 
of the creature which has emerged from it, even the hairs and 
spines attached to the skin being left behind and replaced by 
others. 

Tbe Food of the Caterpillar.— The vast majority of the cater- 
pillars of butterflies subsist upon vegetable food, the only excep- 
tions being the singular one already noted in which the larvse 
feed upon scale-insects. Some of the Hesperiidce, a group in 
which the relationship between butterflies and moths is shown, 
have larvae which burrow in the roots and stems of vegetation. 

Duration of the Larval State.— The duration of the larval state 
varies greatly. In temperate climates the majority of species exist 
in the caterpillar state for from two to three months, and where 
hibernation takes place, for ten months. Many caterpillars which 
hibernate do so immediately after emerging from the egg and be- 
fore having made the first moult. The great majority, however, 
hibernate after having passed one or more moults. With the 
approach of spring they renew their feeding upon the first reap- 
pearance of the foliage of their proper food-plant, or are trans- 
formed into chrysalids and presently emerge as perfect insects. 

lO 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

A few species live gregariously during the period of hibernation, 
constructing for themselves a shelter of leaves woven together 
with strands of silk. 

Transformation.— Ihe larval or caterpillar stage having been 
completed, and full development having been attained, the cater- 
pillar is transformed into a pupa, or chrysalis. Of this, the third 
stage in the life of the insect, we now shall speak at length. 

THE PUPA, OR CHRYSALIS 

The caterpillars of many butterflies attach themselves by a 
button of silk to the under surface of a branch or stone, or 
other projecting surface, and are transformed into chrysalids, 




Fig. 23. — Caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, undergoing 
change into chrysalis: a, caterpillar just before rending of the 
skin- h, chrysalis just before the cremaster, or hook, at its end 
is withdrawn ; c, chrysalis holding itself in place by the folds 
of the shed skin caught between the edges of the abdominal 
segments, while with the cremaster, armed with microscopic 
hooks, it searches for the button of silk from which it is^to 
hang (Riley). (Compare Fig. 24, showing final form of the 
chrysalis.) 

which are naked, and which hang perpendicularly from the sur- 
face to which they are attached. Other caterpillars attach them- 
selves to surfaces by means of a button of silk which holds the 
anal extremity of the chrysalis, and have, in addition, a girdle of 
silk which passes around the middle of the chrysalis, holding it 
in place very much as a papoose is held on the back of an Indian 
squaw by a strap passed over her shoulders. 

The Form of Chrysalids.— The forms assumed by the insect 
in this stage of its being vary very greatly, though there is a general 
resemblance among the different families and subfamilies, so that 

1 1 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



it is easy for one who has studied the matter to tell approximately 
to what family the form belongs, even when it is not specifically 
known. Chrysalids are in most cases obscure in coloring, though 
a few are quite brilliant, and, as in the case of the common milk- 
weed butterfly {Anosia plexippus), ornamented with golden-hued 
spots. The chrysalids of the Nymphalidce, one of the largest 




Fig. 24.— Chrysalis 
of Anosia plexippus, 
final form (Riley). 





Fig. 25. — Chrysalis of Papilio philenor: a, 
front view; h, side view, showing manner in which 
it is held in place by the girdle of silk (Riley). 



groups of butterflies, are all suspended. The chrysalids of the 
Papilionidce, or swallowtail butterflies, are held in place by girdles, 
and generally are bifurcate or cleft at the upper end (Fig. 25), and 
are greenish or wood-brown in color. 

A study of the structure of all chrysalids shows that within 
them there is contained the immature butterfly. The segments of 
the body are ensheathed in the corresponding segments of the 

chrysalis, and soldered 

£\ ^Ml u'mS ^^^^ ^^^^^ segments are 
^ . m\ W//MW ensheathing plates of 

chitinous matter under 
which are the wings of 
the butterfly, as well as all 
the other organs neces- 
sary to its existence in the 
airy realm upon which it 
enters after emergence 
from the chrysalis. The 
practised eye of the ob- 
server is soon able to distinguish the location of the various parts 
of the butterfly in the chrysalis, and when the time for escape 

\2 




Fig. 26.—Pieris protodice: a, 
chrysalis (Riley). 



caterpillar; &, 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 




Fig, 27.— 
Chrysalis of 
Pier is' olera- 
cea (Riley). 



draws near, it is in many cases possible to discern through the 
thin, yet tough and hard, outer walls of the chrysalis the spots and 
colors on the wings of the insect. 

Duration of Pupal Lz/>. — Many butterflies remain in the chrys- 
alis stage only for a few weeks; others hibernate in this state, and 
in temperate climates a great many butterflies pass the winter as 
chrysalids. Where, as is sometimes the case, there are two or 
three generations or broods of a species during the year, the life 
of one brood is generally longer than that of the 
others, because this brood is compelled to over- 
winter, or hibernate. There are a number of but- 
terflies known in temperate North America which 
have three broods : a spring brood, emerging from 
chrysalids which have overwintered; an early sum- 
mer brood; and a fall brood. The chrysalids in the 
latter two cases generally represent only a couple 
of weeks at most in the life of the insect. In 
tropical and semi-tropical countries many species re- 
main in the chrysalis form during the dry season, and emerge at 
the beginning of the rains, when vegetation is refreshed and new 
and tender growths occur in the forests. 

The Transformation from the Chrysalis to the Imago.— The 
perfectly developed insect is known technically as the imago. 
When the time of maturity in the chrysalis state has been reached, 
the coverings part in such a way as to allow of the 
escape of the perfect insect, which, as it comes 
forth, generally carries with it some suggestion of 
its caterpillar state in the lengthened abdomen, 
which it with apparent difficulty trails after it until 
it secures a hold upon some object from which 
it may depend while a process of development 
(which lasts generally a few hours) takes place pre- 
paratory to flight. The imago, as it first emerges, 
is provided with small, flaccid wings, which, to- 
gether with all the organs of sense, such as the 
antennae, require for their complete development 
the injection into them of the vital fluids which, 
upon first emergence, are largely contained in the 
cavities of the thorax and abdomen. Hanging pendant on a pro- 
jecting twig, or clinging to the side of a rock, the insect remains 

13 




Fig. 28. -But- 
terfly (Papilio 
asterias) just 
emerging from 
chrysalis. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

fanning its wings, while by the strong process of circulation a 
rapid injection of the blood into the wings and other organs takes 
place, accompanied by their expansion to normal proportions, in 
which they gradually attain to more or less rigidity. Hardly any- 
thing in the range of insect life is more interesting than this rapid 
development of the butterfly after its first emergence from the 
chrysalis. The body is robbed of its liquid contents in a large 
degree; the abdomen is shortened up; the chitinous rings which 
compose its external skeleton become set and hardened; the 
wings are expanded, and then the moment arrives when, on airy 
pinions, the creature that has lived a worm-like life for weeks 
and months, or which has been apparently sleeping the sleep of 
death in its cerements, soars aloft in the air, the companion of 
the sunlight and the breezes. 



ANATOMY OF BUTTERFLIES 



The body of the butterfly consists of three parts— the head, 
the thorax, and the abdomen. 

The Head.— The head is globular, its breadth generally exceed- 
ing its length. The top is called the vertex; the anterior portion, 

corresponding in location to 
the human face, is called 
the front. Upon the sides 
of the head are situated the 
hrge compound eyes, between 
which are the antennce, or 
"feelers," as they are some- 
times called. Above the 
mouth is a smooth horny 
plate, the clypeus. The la- 
brum, or upper lip, is quite 
small. On both sides of the 
mouth are rudimentary man- 
dibles, which are microscopic 
objects. The true suctorial 
apparatus is formed by the 
maxillce, which are produced in the form of semi-cylindrical 
tubes, which, being brought together and interlocking, form a com- 

14 




Fig. 29.— Head of milkweed butterfly, 
stripped of scales and greatly magnified 
(after Burgess): v, vertex;/, front; cl, cly- 
peus; lb, labrum, or upper lip; md, mandi- 
bles; a, antennae; oc, eyes; tk, spiral tongue, 
or proboscis. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

plete tube, which is known as the proboscis, and which, when not 
in use, is curled up spirally, looking like a watch-spring. At 




Fig. 30. — Cross-section of the sucking-tube of the 
milkweed butterfly, to show the way in which the halves 
unite to form a central canal (c): tr, tracheae, or air- 
tubes; n, nerves; in, m^, muscles of one side. (Magnified 
125 diameters.) (Burgess.) 

the upper end of the proboscis, in the head, is a bulb-like en- 
largement, in the walls of which are inserted muscles which have 




Fig. 31.— Longitudinal section of the head of the 
milkweed butterfly: cl, clypeus; mx, left maxilla, 
the right being removed; mfl, floor of mouth; ce, 
oesophagus, or gullet; ov, mouth-valve; sd, salivary 
duct; dm and//;?, dorsal and frontal muscles, which 
open the sac. (Magnified 20 diameters). (Burgess.) 

their origin on the inner wall of the head. When these muscles 
contract, the bulb-like cavity is enlarged, a vacuum is produced, 

15 



N 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

and the fluids in the cup of the flower flow up the proboscis and 
into the bulb. The bulb is also surrounded by muscles, which, 
when contracting, compress it. The external opening of the 
tube has a flap, or valve, which, when the bulb is compressed, 



cor 




Fig. 32.— Interior view of head of milkweed butter- 
fly: c/, clypeus; cor, cornea of the eye; x, oesophagus, or 
gullet; /m, frontal muscle; clm,^ dorsal muscles; /«?, lat- 
eral muscles; prn^ muscles moving the palpus (Burgess). 



closes and causes the fluid in it to flow backward into the gullet 
and the stomach. The arrangement is mechanically not unlike 
that in a bulb-syringe used by physicians. The process of feeding 
in the case of the butterfly is a process of pump- 
ing honeyed water out of the flowers into the stomach. 
The length of the proboscis varies; at its base and on 
either side are placed what are known as the maxillary 
palpi, which are very small. The lower lip, or la- 
Mum, which is also almost obsolete in the butterflies, 
has on either side two organs known as the labial 
palpi, which consist of three joints. In the butter- 
flies the labial palpi are generally well developed, 
though in some genera they are quite small. The 
antennae of butterflies are always provided at the ex- 
tremity with a club-shaped enlargement, and because 
of this clubbed form of the antennae the entire group are known 
as the Rhopalocera, the word being compounded from the Greek 

16 




Fig. ^^.- 
Labial palpus 
of Colias, 
magnified 10 
diameters. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



word pw-jraXov {rhopalon), which means a club, and the word xspa? 
(keras) which means a bout. 

It will be observed from what has been said that the head in 
these creatures is to a large extent the seat of the organs of sense 
and alimentation. What the function of the antennae may be is 
somewhat doubtful, the opinion of scientific men being divided. 
The latest researches would indicate that these organs, which 
have been regarded as the organs of smell and sometimes 
as the organs of hearing, have probably a compound function, 
possibly enabling the creature to hear, certainly to smell, but also, 
perhaps, being the seat of impressions which are not strictly like 
any which we receive through our senses. 

Thorax.— The thorax is more or less oval in form, being 
somewhat flattened upon its upper surface. It is composed of 
three parts, or segments, closely united, which can only be dis- 
tinguished from one another by a careful dissection. The anterior 
segment is known as the prothorax, the 
middle segment as the mesothorax, and the 
after segment as the metathorax. The legs 
are attached in pairs to these three subdivi- 
sions of the thorax, the anterior pair being 
therefore sometimes spoken of as the pro- 
thoracic legs, the second pair as the meso- fig. }4.—Coiias philo- 
thoracic legs, and the latter pair as the ^^V^.* ^, antenna; ^, extrem- 
metathoracic legs (Fig. 34). On either ieg;""^;,^/^,^^^^^^^^ 
side of the mesothorax are attached the ^h metathoradc or hind 
anterior pair of wings, over which, at ^^' ' ^'° 
their insertion into the body, are the tegulce, or lappets ; on either 
side of the metathorax are the posterior pair of wings. It will 
be seen from what has been said that the thorax 
bears the organs of locomotion. The under side 
of the thorax is frequently spoken of by writers, 
in describing butterflies, as the pectus, or breast. 
The Abdomen. —The abdomen is formed nor- 
mally of nine segments, and in most butterflies 
is shorter than the hind wings. On the last seg- 
ment there are various appendages, which are 
mainly sexual in their nature. 
The I^^5. — Butterflies have six legs, arranged in three pairs, 
as we have already seen. Each leg consists of five parts, the 

17 





Fig. 35. — Leg ot 
butterfly: c, coxa; 
tr^ trochanter; f, 
femur ; t, tibia ; 
tar, tarsi. 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

first of which, nearest the body, is called ,the coxa, with 
which articulates a ring-like piece known as the trochanter. To 
this is attached the femur, and united with the femur, forming 
an angle with it, is the tibia. To the tibia is attached the tarsus, 
or foot, the last segment of which bears the claws, which are often 
very minute and blunt in the butterflies, though in moths they are 
sometimes strongly hooked. The tibiae are often armed with 
spines. In some groups of butterflies the anterior pair of legs is 
aborted, or dwarfed, either in one or both sexes, a fact which is 
useful in determining the location of species in their systematic 
order. 

The IVings.— The wings of butterflies consist of a framework 
of horny tubes which are in reality double, the inner tube being 





Fig. 36. — Magnified representation of 
arrangement of the scales on the wing of a 
butterfly. 



Fig. 37.— Androconia from 
wings of male butterflies: a, 
Neonympha eurjftus; b, Ar- 
gynnis aphrodite; c, Pieris 
oleracea. 



filled with air, the outer tube with blood, which circulates most 
freely during the time that the insect is undergoing the process of 
development after emergence from the chrysalis, as has been al- 
ready described. After emergence the circulation of the blood in the 
outer portion of the tubes is largely, if not altogether, suspended. 
These horny tubes support a broad membrane, which is clothed 
in most species upon both sides with flattened scales which are 
attached to the membrane in such a way that they overlap one 
another like the shingles on a roof. These scales are very beau- 
tiful objects when examined under a microscope, and there is 
considerable diversitv in their form as well as in their colors. The 



Explanation of Pi;ath 111 

Reproduced, with the kind per.missioii of Dr. S. H. Scudder, .iVoni " The Butterflies 
if New England," vol. iii, Plate 74. 

("AI l-Rl'll.l.AKS Ol- NVMI'HAI.ID.V 



(.Ends scniidi'i.}. Penultimate stage. 

(Eiu'ls si'inich'Li. 

Nt'oi/yniplhi I'tirj'l us. 

(Eiwls seniidi'cj. 

Axosia pJexippiis. 

Nfoiivnipha eityvhis. 

iEiicis semidcti. Just hatched. 

Ncoiiriiipbci p hoc ion. 

Siylvroch-s Ci.iiilhiis. 

Ncouvniphii curri Its. 

(Ends jiilta. Just hatched. 

h'coiirniphj phocion. 

Ni'Oin'niplhi cinytus. Penultimate 
stage. 

Nt'oin'mpba riirvfiis. Plain and en- 
larged. 

CEi/i'is si'midc'ci. 

Di'bis poilhiudii.1. 

Basil jicbia iislvaiuix. 

SljIvius a lope. 

Biisiliircbia clisippiis. 



Cblorippi' cirloii. 

Bcisilarcbia a sly a mix. 

Biisiliircbia disippiis. Plain out- 
line to show the attitude some- 
times assumed. 

(J rap 111 iiiterro^nlioitis. 

Basilaicbia disippiis. 

Basilaicbia asU\iiiax. Plain. 

Basil a re hi a a r I be in is . 

(Jrapla inlerrogalionis. 

{■'anessa anfiopa. 

Jiinonia ea'iiia. 

fiinonia ea'iiia. 

G rapt a p rogue. 

Grapla faumts. 

Grapla salynis. 

Pyranieis bun I era. 

Pvranieis alalanta. 

Vanessa niilbcrli. 

Pyranieis cardiii. 

Grapla comma. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate III. 




Ti -llfnllf iiiiiliiliii- 1 ^^* h 



31 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

males of many species have peculiarly shaped scales arranged in 
tufts and folds, which are called androconia, and are useful in 
microscopically determining species (Fig. 37). The portion of the 
wings which is nearest to the thorax at the point where they are 
attached to the body is called the base; the middle third of the wing 
is known as the median or discal area, the outer third as the limhal 
area. The anterior margin of the wings is called the costal margin; 
the outer edge is known as the external margin, the inner edge 
as the inner margin. The shape of the wings varies very much. 
The tip of the front wing is called the apex, and this may be 
rounded, acute, falcate (somewhat sickle-shaped), or square. The 
angle formed by the outer margin of the front wing with the inner 
margin is commonly known as the outer angle. The correspond- 
ing angle on the hind wing is known as the anal angle, and the 
point which corresponds to the tip or apex of the front wing is 
known as the external angle (Fig. 38). A knowledge of these 
terms is necessary in order to understand the technical descrip- 
tions which are given by authors. 

If a wing is examined with the naked eye, or even with a lens, 
a clear conception of the structure of the veins can rarely be 
formed. Therefore it is generally necessary to remove from the 
wings the scales which cover them, or else bleach them. The 
scales may be removed mechanically by rubbing them off. They 
may be made transparent by the use of chemical agents. In the 
case of specimens which are so valuable as to forbid a resort to 
these methods, a clear knowledge of the structure of the veins 
may be formed by simply moistening them with pure benzine or 
chloroform, which enables the structure of the veins to be seen 
for a few moments. The evaporation of these fluids is rapid, and 
they produce no ill effect upon the color and texture of the wings. 
In the case of common species, or in the case of such as are abun- 
dantly represented in the possession of the collector, and the 
practical destruction of one or two of which is a matter of no 
moment, it is easy to use the first method. The wing should be 
placed between two sheets of fine writing-paper which have been 
moistened by the breath at the points where the wing is laid, and 
then by lightly rubbing the finger-nail or a piece of ivory, bone, 
or other hard substance over the upper piece of paper, a good 
many of the scales may be removed. This process may be repeated 
until almost all of them have been taken off. This method is 

19 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



efficient in the case of many of the small species when they are 
still fresh ; in the case of the larger species the scales may be re- 
moved by means of a camel's-hair pencil such as is used by paint- 
ers. The chemical method of bleaching wings is simple and inex- 
pensive. For this purpose the wing should be dipped in alcohol 
and then placed in a vessel containing a bleaching solution of some 
sort. The best agent is a solution of chloride of lime. After the 
color has been removed from the wing by the action of the 
chloride it should be washed in a weak solution of hydrochloric 
acid. It may then be cleansed in pure water and mounted upon 
a piece of glass, as microscopic slides are mounted, and thus pre- 
served. When thus bleached the wing is capable of being mi- 
nutely studied, and all points of its anatomy are brought clearly 
into view. 

The veins in both the fore and hind wings of butterflies 

may be divided into simple and 
compound veins. In the fore 
wing the simple veins are the 
costal, the radial, and the subme- 
dian; in the hind wing, the cos- 
tal, the subcostal, the upper and 
lower radial, the submedian, and 
the internal are simple. The 





Fig. 38.— Outline of wing, giv- 
ing names of parts. 



Fig. 39. —Arrangement of scales 
on wing of butterfly. 



costal vein in the hind wing is, however, generally provided near 
the base with a short ascending branch which is known as the 
precostal vein. In addition to these simple veins there are in the 
fore wing two branching veins, one immediately following the 



20 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



costal, known as the subcostal, and the other preceding the sub- 
median, known as the median vein. The branches of these com- 
pound veins are known as nervules. The median vein always 
has three nervules. The nervules of the subcostal veins branch 
upwardly and outwardly toward the costal margin and the apex 
of the fore wing. There are always from four to five subcostal 
nervules. In the hind wing the subcostal is simple. The median 
vein in the hind wing has three nervules as in the fore wing. Be- 
tween the subcostal and the median veins, toward the base in both 
wings, is inclosed the cell, which may be wholly or partially open 
at its outer extremity, or closed. The veinlets which close the cell 
at its outward extremity are known 
as the discocellular veins, of which 
there are normally three. From the 
point of union of these discocellular 
veins go forth the radial veins known 
respectively as the upper and lower 
radials, though the upper radial in 
many genera is emitted from the 
lower margin of the subcostal. 

An understanding of these terms 
is, however, more readily derived 
from a study of the figure in which 
the names of these parts are indi- 
cated (Fig. 40). 

Butterflies generally hold their 
wings erect when they are at rest, Fig. 40.— Wmg of y4nosia phx- 

•^u ^u • *. r • ippus, showing the names of the 

With their two upper surfaces in veins and newules: C, C, costal 

proximity, the under surfaces alone veins; 5C, subcostal vein; 5Ci, etc., 

J- , • ,, . , ^ ^1. subcostal nervules; UR, upper ra- 

displaying their colors to the eye. dial ; Z/?, lower radial ; M, median 

Only in a few genera of the larger veins; Mi, M2, Ms, median ner- 

1 . . ri • J . u J. -1 • vules ; SM, submedian veins ; /, in- 

butterflies, and these tropical species, temal veins; PC, precostai ner- 

with which this book does not deal, vule; UDC, MDC, LDC, upper, 

• ,i ,. . -1- 1 middle, and lower discocellulars. 

is there an exception to this rule, ' 

save in the case of the Hesperiidce, or "skippers," in which very 
frequently, while the anterior wings are folded together, the 
posterior wings lie in a horizontal position. 

Internal Organs.— Ihus far we have considered only the ex- 
ternal organs of the butterfly. The internal organs have been 
made the subject of close study and research by many writers, 

21 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 







'^ >^ 



CO 

:'^.£ O •- 

^^ ^-^ 
i^ i^ a; to 

E -.>^-'' 



TO u o 



s C ,. 

Ill 

K. <U "^ 






CO 



and a volume might be prepared upon this subject. It will, how- 
ever, suffice for us to call the attention of the student to the prin- 
cipal facts. 

The muscular system finds its principal development in the 
thorax, which bears the organs of locomotion. The digestive sys- 
tem consists of the proboscis, 
which has already been de- 
scribed, the gullet, or oesoph- 
agus, and the stomach, over 
which is a large, bladder-like 
vessel called the food-reser- 
voir, a sort of crop preceding 
the true stomach, which is a 
cylindrical tube; the intestine 
is a slender tube, varying in 
shape in different genera, di- 
vided into the small intestine, 
the colon, and the rectum. 
Butterflies breathe through 
spiracles, little oval openings 
on the sides of the segments 
of the body, branching from 
which inwardly are the tra- 
chese, or bronchial tubes. 
The heart, which is located in 
the same relative position as 
the spine in vertebrate ani- 
mals, is a tubular structure. 
The nervous system lies on 
the lower or ventral side of 
the body, its position being 
exactly the reverse of that 
which is found in the higher 
animals. It consists of nerv- 
ous cords and ganglia, , or 
nerve-knots, in the different 
segments. Those in the head 
are more largely developed than elsewhere, forming a rudimen- 
tary brain, the larger portion of which consists of two enor- 
mous optic nerves. The student who is desirous of informing 

22 



i .y 3 ^ c ^• 

N r3 03 TO ti -*-i 



O .ir 



> TO 



fA 



^ o • "^ s .£ -g 



(D U (L> . — 



■^•^ 



§ S E 

> CL a; 



C 

_ ^' i^ OJ C +-" 
TO TO -^ -O ^ O 

''T3 £ r- OJ TO 5> 

.^ 3 -2 o c^ ^ 

O TO ?5_ o c 

— <LI 'T TO >:; 



to 



>^§'i E "^ 
C CO •= O <3-' 
O O CO c/) +j 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 



<T) T) 

3 o 



himself more thoroughly and accurately as to the internal anat- 
omy of these insects may consult with profit some of the treatises 
which are mentioned in the list of works dealing with the sub- 
ject which is given elsewhere in this book. 

Polymorphism and Dimorphism. —S^QCXts, of butterflies often 
show great differences in the different broods which appear. The 
brood which emerges in the springtime from the chrysalis, which 
has passed the winter 
under the snows, may 
differ very strikingly 
from the insect which 
appears in the second or 
summer brood; and the 
insects of the third or 
fall brood may differ 
again from either the 
spring or the summer 
brood. The careful stu- 
dent notes these differ- 
ences. Such species are 
called polymorphic, that 
is, appearing under dif- 
ferent forms. Some spe- 
cies reveal a singular 
difference between the 
sexes, and there may be 
two forms of the same 
sex in the same species. 
This is most common in 
the case of the female 
butterfly, and where 
there are two forms of 
the female or the male 
such a species is said to 
have dimorphic females 
or males. This phenomenon is revealed in the case of the 
well-known Turnus Butterfly; in the colder regions of the 
continent the females are yellow banded with black, like the 
males, but in more southern portions of the continent black 
females are quite common, and these dark females were once 

23 



^ C ^ ^ D- S- 
< v. a p O 



i— ^— ^ V — > ■ 

^ IT c, rr.-c! • • eg 
- • ^ . - w 3- ^ ^• 

S. ri ._, _ (T) n r^ 
r?5Q 2G w ^ ^ 

3^2 I - -n'5" 

S = < S-^ ^ c d 

^42 ;^ 2 := - • J^ ^ 
^~- _ w oi 2 E£ fci 

5 ^ 5- ^ c^ 23 

'^ r-l- ZT.ST Q - • " 

- ft O W ^ S 

§811"^ 2:1 
o 2 ^^^o ^ 

rt-""^ i^ CfQ CfQ - ■ X 
•y -, rr. =r". -4 -T?- 
,_, ns ~^ EJ o =: ^ 
3 n t^ _ 3 r5> Ti- 

o p--y 2.- • -i^ g 



0- 2 ■- 



rt! O) to t/! ^^ 

-2 _- o- 



(T> ^ . 




The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

thought, before the truth was known, to constitute a separate 
species. 

Albinism an J Mtianisni.—Albmos. white or light-colored 
forms, are quite common among butterflies, principally among 
the females. On the other hand, melanism, or a tendency to the 
production of dark or even black forms, reveals itself. Melanism 
is rather more common in the case of the male sex than in 
the female sex. The collector and student will always endeavor, 
if possible, to preserve these curious aberrations, as they are 
called. We do not yet entirely understand what are the causes 
which are at work to produce these changes in the color, and all 
such aberrant specimens have interest for the scientific man. 

Monstrosities. — Curious malformations, producing monstrosi- 
ties, sometimes occur among insects, as in other animals, and 
such malformed specimens should likewise be preserved when 
found. One form of malformation which is not altogether un- 
common consists in an apparent confusion of sexes in specimens, 
the wings of a male insect being attached to the body of a female, 
or half of an insect being male and half female. 

Mimicry.— Ox\Q of the most singular and interesting facts in 
the animal kingdom is what has been styled mimicry. Certain 
colors and forms are possessed by animals which adapt them to 
their surroundings in such wise that they are in a greater or less 
degree secured from observation and attack. Or they possess 
forms and colors which cause them to approximate in appear- 
ance other creatures, which for some reason are feared or disliked 
by animals which might prey upon them, and in consequence of 
this resemblance enjoy partial or entire immunity. Some butter- 
tlies. for instance, resemble dried leaves, and as they are seated 
upon the twigs of trees they wholly elude the eye. This illustrates 
the first form of mimicry. Other butterflies so closely approxi- 
mate in form and color species which birds and other insects will 
not attack, because of the disagreeable juices which their bodies 
contain, that they are shunned by their natural enemies, in spite 
of the fact that they belong to groups of insects which are 
ordinarily greedily devoured by birds and other animals. A 
good illustration of this fact is found in the case of the Disippus 
Butterfly, which belongs to a group which is not specially pro- 
tected, but is often the prey of insect-eating creatures. This 
butterfly has assumed almost the exact color and markings of the 

24 



The Life-History and Anatomy of Butterflies 

milkweed butterfly, Anosia plexippiis, which is distasteful to 
birds, and hence enjoys peculiar freedom from the attacks of 
enemies. Because this adaptation of one form to another evi- 
dently serves the purpose of defense this phenomenon has been 
called " protective mimicry." The reader who is curious to know 
more about the subject will do well to consult the writings of 
Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace and Mr. Darwin, who have written at 
length upon mimicry among butterflies. There is here a field of 
most interesting inquiry for the student. 

The Distribution of Butterflies. — Butterflies are found every- 
where that plant life suited to the nourishment of the caterpillars 
is found. There are some species which are arctic and are found 
in the brief summer of the cold North and upon the lofty summits 
of high mountains which have an arctic climate. Most of them 
are, however, children of the sun, and chiefly abound in the tem- 
perate and tropical regions of the earth. While the number of 
species which are found in the tropics vastly exceeds the number 
of species found in the temperate zone, it is apparently true that 
the number of specimens of certain species is far more numerous 
in temperate regions than in the tropics. Very rarely in tropical 
countries are great assemblages of butterflies to be seen, such as 
may be found in the summer months in the United States, swarm- 
ing around damp places, or hovering over the fields of blooming 
clover or weeds. In the whole vast region extending from the 
Rio Grande of Texas to the arctic circle it is doubtful whether 
more than seven hundred species of butterflies are found. On 
the continent of Europe there are only about four hundred and 
fifty species. The number of species of butterflies and the num- 
ber of species of birds in the United States are very nearly the 
same. 



25 



CHAPTER II 

THE CAPTURE, PREPARATION, AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS 

" What hand would crush the silken-winged fly, 
The youngest of inconstant April's minions, 

Because it cannot climb the purest sky, 
Where the swan sings, amid the sun's dominions? 

Not thine." Shelley. 

" Do not mash your specimens! "—The Professor. 

COLLECTING APPARATUS 

Nets. — In the capture of insects of all orders, and especially of 
butterflies and moths, one of the most important instruments is 
the net. German naturalists make use of what are known as 
shears (Scheren), which are made like gigantic scissors, having at 
the end two large oval rings upon which wire gauze or fine netting 
is stretched. With this implement, which looks like an old- 
fashioned candle-snuffer of colossal size, they succeed in collect- 
ing specimens without doing much injury. Shears are, however, 
not much in vogue among the naturalists of other countries. The 
favorite instrument for the ordinary collector is the net. Nets may 
be made in various ways and of various materials. There are a 
multitude of devices which have been invented for enabling the 
net to be folded up so as to occupy but little space when not 
in use. The simplest form of the net, which can be made 
almost anywhere, is constructed as follows: A rod— preferably 
of bamboo, or some other light, stiff material— is used as the 
handle, not more than five feet in length. Attached to this at its 
upper end, a loop or ring made of metal, or some moderately stiff 

26 



« 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

yet flexible material, should be tied securely. Upon this there 
should be sewed a bag of fine netting, preferably tarletan. The 




Fig. 43. — Plan for folding net-ring: c, halves of 
ring detached; &, upper joint of the halves; a, ring 
set; d, cap of ferrule;/, cap of ferrule, showing screw 
in place ; e, screw (Riley). 





bag should be quite long, not less than eighteen inches deep; 

the ring should be not less than a foot in diameter. 

Such a net can be made at a cost of but a few 

cents, and will be, in most cases, as efficient as 

any of the more 
expensive nets 
which are more 
carefully con- 
structed. A good, 
cheap ring for a 
net may be made 
* c by using thebrass tied with 

Fig. 44.- «, net; &, ferrule to receive han- ferrule of a fish- I pW nut' m 
die ; c, wire hoop to be fastened in the upper . , iv & v . 



Z 

Fig. 45.— (3!, 
ring of metal 
wire 



end of the ferrule (Riley). 



Xhe before pouring 
.^ . . insolder(Riley). 

ferrule should be 
at least three quarters of an inch in diameter. Into this insert the 
ends of a metal ring made by bending brass, aluminium, or iron 

27 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

wire into the proper form. When the ends have been inserted 
into the ferrule, melted solder or lead may be poured into it, and 
the ends of the wire forming the ring will be thus firmly secured 
in the ferrule. The ferrule can then be inserted into its mate 
placed at the end of a bamboo rod. I have commonly ob- 
tained for this purpose the last joint or butt of a fishing-rod as 
the handle of a net. Such a handle can often be purchased 
for a small sum from a dealer in fishing-rods. It can be made 
very cheaply. Any kind of a stick, if not too heavy, will do. It is 
sometimes convenient to have it in your power to lengthen the 
handle of your net so as to reach objects that are at some elevation 
above the head, and for this purpose I have had nets made with 
handles capable of being lengthened by jointed extensions. In 
collecting in tropical countries, among tall shrubbery and under- 
growth, nets thus made, capable of having their handles greatly 
lengthened, have often proved serviceable. One of the most 
successful collectors I have ever had in my employment made 
his net by simply bending a piece of bamboo into the form 
of the frame of an Indian snow-shoe, to which he attached a 
handle about a foot and a half in length, and to this he affixed 
a bag of netting. He was, however, a Japanese, and possessed a 
singular dexterity in the capture of specimens with this simple 
apparatus to which I myself never attained. When tarletan can- 
not be had, ordinary mosquito-netting will do as the material for 
the bag. It is, however, too coarse in the mesh for many delicate 
and minute species. Very fine netting for the manufacture of the 
bags is made in Switzerland, and can be obtained from reputable 
dealers. 

In order to protect and preserve the net, it is well to bind it 
with some thin muslin at the point where it is joined to the ring. 
Nets are sometimes made with a strip of muslin, about two inches 
wide, attached to the entire circumference of the ring, and to this 
strip of muslin the bag is sewed. For my part, I prefer gray or 
green as the color for a net. White should be avoided, as ex- 
perience shows that a white net will often alarm an insect when 
a net of darker material will not cause it to fly before the collector 
is ready to bring the net down over the spot where it is settled. 

Collecting-Jars. — \x\ killing insects various methods have been 
used. In practice the most approved method is to employ a jar 
charged with cyanide of potash or with carbonate of ammonia. 

28 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 




For large moths and butterflies cyanide of potash and carbonate 
of ammonia serve very well, but it must be remembered that 
carbonate of ammonia bleaches insects which are green in color. 
It is well, in my judgment, to use a drop or two of chloroform in 
the jar charged with carbonate of ammonia, for the collection of 
diurnal lepidoptera. By putting a few drops of chloroform into 
the jar, the insect is anesthetized, and its struggles are made 
quickly to cease. The principal objection to chloroform is the 
fact that it induces rigidity of the thoracic muscles, 
which subsequently sometimes interferes with 
handsome setting. 

In the preparation of the poisoning-jar it is 
well to use a jar which has a ground-glass stop- 
per, and the mouth of which is about three inches 
in diameter. This will be large enough for most 
specimens. The one-pound hydrate of chloral jars, 
provided with glass stoppers and sold by Schering, 
make the neatest collecting-jars that are known to 
the writer. I have found it well to have such jars 
partly covered with leather after the fashion of a 
drinking-flask. 

on either side, permitting an inspection of 
contents of the jar. The leather protects from 
breakage. At the bottom of such a jar a few lumps of cyanide 
of potash, about the size of a filbert, should be placed. Over 
this may be laid a little cotton, to prevent the lumps from rat- 
tling about loosely at the bottom of the jar. Over the cotton 
there is pasted a sheet of strong white paper, 
perforated with a multitude of holes. In securing 
the white paper over the cyanide, the writer has 
resorted to a simple method which is explained 
in the annexed diagram. A piece of paper is 
placed under the jar, and a circle the size of the 
Fig. 47. -Piece of inside of the jar is traced upon it. Then a disk 

paper punctured and . . ^ , r - ^ 

slit for pasting over IS cut out about three quarters of an mch greater 
the cyanide in the in diameter than the original circle (Fig. 47). The 

collecting-! ar. . , ^, ../,,, 

paper is punctured over the entire surface included 
within the inner line, and then, with a scissors, little gashes are 
made from the outer circumference inward, so as to permit of 
the foldmg up of the edge of the disk. A little gum tragacanth is 

2Q 



Fig. 46.— Cya- 
nide-jar prepared 
for use: P, perfo- 

An Opening in the leather is left rated cardboard; 

the ^^' lumps of cya- 
nide of potash. 




The. Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

then applied to these upturned edges; and it is inserted into the 
jar and pasted securely over the cyanide by the upturned flaps. 
A jar thus charged will last for a long time, if kept properly closed 
when not in use. Cyanide of potash has a tendency to deliquesce, 
or melt down in the presence of moisture, and in very humid cli- 
mates or damp places, if the jar is not kept well stoppered, the 
cyanide will quickly become semi-fluid, the paper will become 
moist, and specimens placed in the jar will be injured or com- 
pletely ruined. It is well, however, to bear in mind the fact that 
the fumes of hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid), which are active in 
producing the death of the insect, will not be given off in suffi- 
cient volume unless there is some small amount of moisture pres- 




FiG. 48.— Method of disabling a butterfly by pinch- 
ing it when in the net. 

ent in the jar; and in a very dry climate the writer has found it 
sometimes necessary to add a drop or two of water from time to 
time to the cyanide. The same method which has been described 
for charging a jar with cyanide of potash can be employed in 
charging it with carbonate of ammonia. 

Field-Boxes.— \n collecting butterflies it is often possible to 
kill, or half kill, the specimens contained in the net by a smart 
pinch administered to the insect by the thumb and the first finger, 
the pressure being applied from without the net (Fig. 48). This 
mode of procedure, however, unless the operator is careful, is apt 
to somewhat damage the specimens. The writer prefers to hold 
the insect firmly between the thumb and the first finger, and apply 
a drop or two of chloroform from a vial which should be carried in 

30 



Explanation of Plate IV 

Reproduced, withthekind permission of Dr. S. H. Scudder, from "The Butterflies 
of New England," voL iii. Plate 8,. 

Chkysalids in Color and in Outline — Nymphaliu.!-. 

A}iosia plcxippiis. Side view. ;■;. GrapLifaitiiiis. Side view. 

Aiwsia ph-xippus. In outline. •^4. Grapla faumts. Siile view in out- 

Aiiosij picxipptis. Dorsal view. line. 

CEiitis s.'jiiiclrj. ~,^. Gmpla fauinis. Ventral view in 

CJEiicis sc'midi\7. Dorsal \'ievv'. outline. 

Debts porlhnidij. ',0. yaiicssa j-jilbiini. Outline of meso- 
Si.ilynis .iiipbclc. thoracic tubercle from the side. 

Satynis jiephtL . Dorsal \'ie\\', '^~. Giapla progiu-. Side view. 

Sjlyrodcs caiilhus. Side \'iew. ^S. (Jrjptj progm. Side vieu'. 

\coj/_viiipl.\i pJMh'ioi/. Side \-iew. '-.<■). Gi'jplj coiiiiiu. Side view. 

NiW/vniplhi pbocioi/. Side \'ie\\-. 40. GmpLi inlcrrogjlionis. Side view. 

B^siLircbiJ .islwTiUTx. Side \'Iew. ..j i . Grapta Siitynis. Side view. 

BjsiLirchij jslwiiiax. Side view. 42. Gi\ipla >\-!h'riis. Ventral view. 

Bjsiljrcbij jflbctiiis. Side \'iew. 4',. l^'crihssj }iiilbcrH. Side view. 

Cb'ionppe chloii. Side\-iew. 44. I'jiicssj j-albiiiii. Side view. 

Gblonppc civioii. Side\'ie\s. 4^. I'jiussa j-albui)i. Ventral view. 

Gblonppi ch'/oJi. Dorsal \-icw. 40. Grapla coiimm. Side view. 

BjsiLircbiJ tiisippiis. W-ntra! ,iew. 47. Graptj coinnm . Side view, 

Bi7siljrcbij iiislppiis. Side\iew. 4S. Gr.iplci coinina. DcM'sal view. - 

BList/jrcbij (iisippiis. Side \iew. 40. U\iiu<<.j niilbirii . Side view. 

GrjpLi nib ircgj/ioj/is. Dorsal \-iew. ^o. yaiicssa niiUwrli. Dorsal view. 

GfJpta n/li'iTogj/ioi/is. Side \iew. ^1. yjiitssa a iitiopa . Side view. 

Bjsiljrcbij arlbiiiiis. Dorsal \'iew. ^2. Prraiiicis alalaiiLi. Side view. 

(jfjpLi inlcrrog.itioiiis. Outline of ^-. Prranuis ciLilaiiLi. Dorsal view. 

mesothoracic tubercle from the side. ^4. Pvi\iineis buiilcr.i. Side view. 

Gi-iipla iDlcrrogjIioins. ^^. Prraiiuis jLiLiiila. Side view. 

Grapt.i ii/li'rrngalioiiis. Outline of ^o. J iiuoiua aviiui . Side x'iew. 

headi from in front. ^-. Jiiuotim avnui. Dorsal view. 

(f'-jp/j coiiiiiij. Outline of head ^S. I'ji/.ys.i .intiopii. Side view. 

from in tVont ; enlarged. ;o. yaiuss,! ji/liopj. Dorsal view. 

\\'oi/Vi)ipbir i-iirvliis. Side x'ievw no. Pvi\j)}U'is cjtdiii. Side view. 

(ji\iplj coiinih! Outline of meso- oi. Pn\rii/iis cjicl/tl . Side view. 

thoracic tubercle from the side. 02. PviiTiiwis cardiii. Dorsal view. 

Grjpla coiiium. The same from o',. Pyrainns biiiilcra. Dorsal view. 

anc^ther specimen. 04, Prrjiiiris buiiUta. Side view, with 
Grcipla faiiiiiis. Outline of he:id nest woven before pupation. 

trom in front. o^;. fiii/oi/ii7 C(riiij. Side view. 

(}rapUi progiw. Outline of head 00. Jui/oiiia ca'in\7. Side view. 

from in front. 07. JKiioiiia C(rin\i. Side view. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate IV. 




The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

the upper left-hand vest-pocket. The application of the chloro- 
form will cause the insect to cease its struggles immediately, and 
it may then be placed in the poisoning-jar, or it may be pinned 
into the field-box. The field-box, which should be worn at the 
side, securely held in its place by a strap going over the shoulder 
and by another strap around the waist, may be provided with the 
poisoning apparatus or may be without it. In the former case the 
box should be of tin, and should have securely fastened in one cor- 
ner some lumps of cyanide, tied in gauze. The box should be very 
tight, so that when it is closed the fumes of the cyanide may be 
retained. The bottom should be covered with cork, upon which 
the specimens, as they are withdrawn from the poisoning-jar, 
should be pinned. It its well to bear strictly in mind that it is a 
mistake to continue to put one specimen after another into the 
poisoning-jar until it is half filled or quite filled with specimens. 
In walking about the field, if there are several insects in the jar at 
a time, they are likely to become rubbed and their beauty partially 
destroyed by being tossed about as the collector moves from place 
to place; and a large insect placed in a jar in which there are one 
or two smaller insects will in its death-struggles possibly injure the 
latter. So, as fast as the insects are partially asphyxiated, or de- 
prived of the power of motion, they should be removed from the 
poisoning-jar to the poisoning-box, where they are pinned in place 
and prevented from rubbing one against the other. Some col- 
lectors prefer simply to stun the insects, and then pin them into the 
field-box, where they are left, in whole or in part, to recover their 
vitality, to be subsequently put to death upon the return of the 
collector from the field. This mode of procedure, while undoubt- 
edly it yields in the hands of a skilful operator the most beauti- 
ful specimens, appears to the writer to be somewhat cruel, and he 
does not therefore approve of it. 

The Use of the Net — In the use of the net the old saying is 
true that " practice makes perfect." The bag of the net should be 
sufficiently long to allow of its being completely closed when 
hanging from the ring on either side. It is possible to sweep 
into the net an insect which is fluttering through the air, and then 
by a turn of the hand to close the bag and to capture the speci- 
men. When the insect has alighted upon the ground it is best 
to clap the net over it and then to raise the net with one hand. 
Very many species have the habit of flying upward. This is par- 

31 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

ticularly true of the skippers, a group of very vigorou-s and swift- 
flying butterflies. The writer prefers, if possible, to clap the net 
over the specimens and then to allow them to rise, and, by insert- 
ing the wide-mouthed collecting-jar below, to capture them with- 
out touching them at all with the fingers. So far as possible the 
fingers should not be allowed to come in contact with specimens, 
whether in or out of the net, though some persons acquire an ex- 
tremely delicate yet firm touch which enables them to handle the 
wings of frail species without removing any of the scales. No- 
thing is more unsightly in a collection than specimens that have 
been caught and rubbed by the fingers. 

Baits. — Moths are frequently taken by the method of collecting 
known as ''sugaring." But it may also be employed for butter- 
flies. For this purpose a mixture of beer and cheap brown sugar 
may be used. If the beer be stale drippings, so much the better. 
In fact, it is well, if the collector intends to remain in one locality 
for some time, to make a mixture of beer and sugar some hours 
or a day in advance of its application. In semi-tropical countries 
a mixture of beer and sugar is hardly as good as a mixture of 
molasses and water into which a few tablespoonfuls of Jamaica 
rum have been put. A mixture thus prepared seems to attract 
more effectually than the first prescription. Having provided a 
pail with a quart or two of the mixture, the collector resorts to the 
point where he proposes to carry on his work. With an ordinary 
whitewash brush the mixture is applied to the trunks of trees, 
stumps, fence-rails, and other objects. It is well to apply the 
mixture to a series of trees and posts located on the side of a bit 
of woodland, or along a path through forests, if comparatively 
open and not too dense. The writer has rarely had success in 
sugaring in the depths of forests. His greatest success has al- 
ways been on paths and at the edge of woods. Many beetles 
and other insects come to the tempting sweets, and separate jars 
for capturing these should be carried in the pocket. The collector 
never should attempt to kill beetles in the same jar into which he 
is putfing butterflies. The hard, horny bodies and spiny legs of 
beetles will make sad havoc with the delicate wings of butterflies. 

Many other baits besides this may be employed to attract in- 
sects. Some writers recommend a bait prepared by boiling dried 
apples and mashing them into a pulp, adding a little rum to the 
mixture, and applying this to the bark of trees. In tropical coun- 

32 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

tries bananas, especially rotten bananas, seem to have a charm for 
insects. The cane-trash at sugar-mills is very attractive. If pos- 
sible, it is well to obtain a quantity of this trash and scatter it 
along forest paths. Some insects have very peculiar appetites and 
are attracted by things loathsome. The ordure of carnivorous 
animals seems to have a special charm for some of the most mag- 
nificently colored and the rarest of tropical butterflies. A friend of 
mine in Africa, who collected for me for a number of years, used 
to keep civet-cats, the ordure of which was collected and placed 
at appropriate points in the forest paths; and he was richly re- 
warded by obtaining many insects which were not obtained in 
any other way. Putrid fish have a charm for other species, and 
dead snakes, when rankly high, will attract still others. It may 
be observed that after the trees have been treated for a succession 
of days or nights with the sweetening mixture spoken of above, 
they become very productive. When collecting in Japan I 
made it a rule to return in the morning to the spots that I had 
sugared for moths the evening before, and I was always amply 
repaid by finding multitudes of butterflies and even a good many 
day-flying moths seated upon the mossy bark, feasting upon the 
remnants of the banquet I had provided the evening before. There 
is no sport— I do not except that of the angler— which is more 
fascinating than the sport derived by an enthusiastic entomologist 
from the practice of "sugaring." It is well, however, to know 
always where your path leads, and not to lay it out in the dusk, as 
the writer once did when staying at a well-known summer resort 
in Virginia. The path which he had chosen as the scene of 
operations was unfortunately laid, all unknown to himself, just 
in the rear of the poultry-house of a man who sold chickens to 
the hotel; and when he saw the dark lantern mysteriously moving 
about, he concluded that some one with designs upon his hens 
was hidden in the woods, and opened fire with a seven-shooter, 
thus coming very near to terminating abruptly the career of an 
ardent entomologist. 

Beating.— There are many species which are apparently not 
attracted by baits such as we have spoken of in the preceding 
paragraph. The collector, passing through the grove, searches 
diligently with his eye and captures what he can see, but does 
not fail also with the end of his net-handle to tap the trunks of 
trees and to shake the bushes, and as the insects fly out, to note 

33 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

the point where they settle, and then make them his prey. It 
is well in this work, as in all collecting, to proceed somewhat 
leisurely, and to keep perfectly cool. The caricature sometimes 
found in newspapers of the ardent lepidopterist running like a 
" quarter-back " across a ten-acre lot in quest of some flying insect 
does not represent the truly skilful collector, whose movements 
are more or less stealthy and cautious. . 



THE BREEDING OF SPECIMENS 

By breeding it is possible to obtain specimens in the most 
perfect condition. Bred specimens which have not had an oppor- 
tunity to fly are always preferred on account of their freshness of 
color and perfection of form. A great many species which ap- 
parently are exceedingly rare may often be obtained in consider- 
able numbers by the process of breeding, the caterpillar being 
more readily found than the perfect insect. Although the process 
of breeding involves a good deal of labor and care, it affords a 
most delightful field for observation, and the returns are fre- 
quently of the very greatest value. 

Hozv to Get the Eggs of Butterflies.— Tht process of breeding 
may begin with the tgg. The skilful eye of the student will de- 
tect the eggs of butterflies upon the leaves upon which they have 
been deposited. The twig may be cut and placed in a vase, in 
water, and kept fresh until the minute caterpillar emerges, and 
then from time to time it may be transferred to fresh leaves of the 
same species of plant, and it will continue to make its moults 
until at last it is transformed into a chrysalis, and in due season 
the butterfly emerges. Eggs may frequently be obtained in con- 
siderable numbers by confining the female under gauze, with the 
appropriate food-plant. A knowledge of the food-plant may 
often be obtained by watching the female and observing upon 
what plants she deposits her eggs. The exceedingly beautiful 
researches of Mr. W. H. Edwards were largely promoted by his 
skill in inducing females to oviposit upon their food-plants. He 
did this generally by confining the female with the food-plant in 
a barrel or nail-keg, the bottom of which had been knocked 
out, and over the top of which he tied mosquito-netting. 
The plant was placed under the keg. The insects thus con- 

34 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



fined may be fed with a mixture of honey and water placed 
upon the leaves. 

In collecting caterpillars it is well to have on hand a number 
of small boxes in which to place them, and also a botany-box in 
which to bring from the field a supply of their appropriate food. 

The process of breeding may begin with the caterpillar. The 
collector, having discovered the caterpillar feeding upon the branch 
of a certain plant, provides the creature with a constant supply 
of the fresh foliage of the same plant, until it finally pupates. 

Breeding-Cages.— V-cirious devices for breeding caterpillars and 
rearing moths and butterflies are 
known. One of the most impor- 
tant of these devices is the breed- 
ing-cage, which is sometimes called 
a vivarium. The simplest form 
of the vivarium is often the best. 
In breeding some species the best 
method is simply to pot a plant 
of the species upon which the lar- 
va is known to feed, and to place 
the potted plant in a box over 
which some mosquito-netting is c- /-i ^ ^ u j- 

^ • ^ Fig. 49. — Cheap form of breeding- 

tied. The writer frequently em- cage: G, iid covered with mosquito- 
ploys for this purpose cylinders of ^^If'^^^f P'" '^^'^'"^^' ^' ^°^^^' ^°' 
glass over the top of which per- 
forated cardboard is placed. This method, however, can be re- 
sorted to only with the more minute forms and with plants that 
do not attain great height. Another form of vivarium is repre- 
sented in the adjoining woodcut (Fig. 50). The writer has suc- 
cessfully employed, for breeding insects upon a large scale, ordi- 
nary store boxes provided with a lid made by fastening together 
four pieces of wood, making a frame large enough to cover the top 
of the box, and covering it with gauze. The food-plant is kept 
fresh in bottles or jars which are set into the boxes. Be careful, 
however, after you have put the branches upon which the caterpil- 
lars are feeding into the jars, to stuff something into the neck of the 
jar so as to prevent the caterpillar from accidentally getting into 
the water and drowning himself— a mishap which otherwise 
might occur. When breeding is undertaken on a still larger scale, 
it may be well to set apart for this purpose a room, preferably in 

35 




The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

an outbuilding, all the openings leading tVoni which should be 
carefully closed so as to prevent the escape of the caterpillars. 

Hozc to Find Caterpillars. — }Amy species of caterpillars are not 
hard to discover; they are more or less conspicuous objects, and 
strike the eye. Some species conceal themselves by weaving 
together the leaves of the plant on which thev feed, or bv bending 




::£ —^^y 



Flo. 50.— Breeviing-cage: J. base, battened at^' to 
prevent w^arping: b, renio\able b<xly of cage, in- 
closing zinc pan. /". /". containing jar tor plant, i. 
and tfllevi with tive inches of soil. {\ c, reino\able 
top. covered with wire gauze. The doors and 
sides are of glass vRiley\ 



a single leaf into a curved receptacle in which they lie hidden. 
Others conceal themselves during the daytime about the roots of 
trees or under bark or stones, only emerging in the night-time to 
feed upon the foliage. The collector will carefully search for 
these. The presence of caterpillai-s is generally indicated by the 
ravages which they have committed upon the foliage. By care- 
fully scanning a branch the collector will observe that the leaves 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

have been more or less devoured. Generally underneath the tree 
will be found the frass, or ejectamenta, of the caterpillar. The 
presence of the ejectamenta and the evidence of the ravages com- 
mitted by the larvae upon the foliage will give the collector a clue 
to the whereabouts of the caterpillar. The writer has found it 
generally advantageous to search for caterpillars that feed upon 
trees along the wide, sandy margins of brooks and rivers. The 
frass is easily discovered upon the sand, and by casting the eye 
upward into the foliage it is often easy to detect the insect. The 
pavements in towns and cities which are bordered by trees may 
also very well be scanned for evidence of the presence of cater- 
pillars. A favorite collecting-ground of the writer is one of the 
large cemeteries of the city in which he lives, in which there are 
numerous trees and a great quantity of shrubbery. Wood-boring 
species, as a rule, are more difficult to obtain and rear than those 
that feed upon the foliage. 

Hibernating Caterpillars. —While some difficulty attends the 
preservation of chrysalids in the case of those species which 
pupate in the fall and pass the winter in the chrysalis state under 
the ground, far more difficulty attends the preservation of species 
which hibernate in the caterpillar state. As a rule, it is found best 
to expose the. boxes containing these species in an ice-house or 
other cold place, keeping them there until there is available an 
abundant supply of the tender shoots of the plant upon which 
they are in the habit of feeding. They may then be brought forth 
from cold storage and placed in proximity to the food-plant, 
upon which they will proceed to feed. 



THE PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS 

Papering Specimens.— When time and opportunities do not 
suffice for the proper preparation of butterflies for display in 
the permanent collection, the collector may, in the case of the 
larger species, conveniently place them in envelopes, with their 
wings folded (Fig. 51), and they may then be stored in a box 
until such time as he is able to relax the specimens and properly 
mount them. Thousands of insects are thus annually collected. 
The small drug envelopes, or the larger pay-roll envelopes, 
which may be bought in boxes by the thousand of any stationer for 

37 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 




Fig. 51.— Butterfly in envelope. 



a comparatively small sum, are preferable because of their conve- 
nience. Many collectors, hov/ever, paper their specimens in envel- 
opes which they make of oblong bits of paper adapted to the size 
of the insect. The process of making the envelope and of paper- 
ing the insect is accurately depicted in the accompanying cut 

(Fig. 52). The writer finds it good in 
the case of small butterflies to place 
them in boxes between layers of cheap 
plush or velvet. A small box, a few 
inches long, may be provided, and at 
its bottom a layer of velvet is placed; 
upon this a number of small butterflies 
are laid. Over them is placed a layer of velvet, with its soft 
pile facing the same side of the velvet at the bottom. On top 
of this another piece of velvet is laid, with its pile upward, 
and other specimens are again deposited, and over this another 
piece of velvet is laid, and so on. If the box is not filled full at 
once, it is well to have enough pieces of velvet cut to fill it, or else 
place cotton on top, so as to keep the layers of velvet from mov- 
ing or shaking about. A yard or two 
of plush or velvet will suffice for the 
packing of a thousand specimens of 
small butterflies. 

Mounting Butterflies.— When the 
collector has time enough at his dis- 
posal he should at once mount his 
specimens as they are intended to be 
displayed in the collection. We shall 
now proceed to explain the manner in 
which this is most advantageously ac- 
complished. Theinsectshouldfirstofallbepinned. Thepinshould 
be thrust perpendicularly through the thorax, midway between the 
wings, and at a considerable elevation upon the pin. It should 
then be placed upon the setting-board or setting-block. Setting- 
boards or setting-blocks are pieces of wood having a groove on 
the upper surface of sufficient depth to accommodate the body of 
the insect and to permit the wings to be brought to the level 
of the upper surface of the board (Fig. 53). They should also be 
provided either with a cleft or a hole which will permit the pin to 
be thrust down below the body of the insect for a considerable 

38 




Fig. 52.— Method of folding pa- 
per for envelopes : first fold on line 
y4B ; then on y4D and CB ; then on 
BF and E^. 



I 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 




distance. As a rule, the wings of all specimens should be mounted 
at a uniform elevation of about seven eighths of an inch above the 
point of the pin. This is known as the " continental method " of 
mounting, and is infinitely prefer- 
able to the old-fashioned ''English 
method," in which the insect was 
pinned low down upon the pin, so 
that its wings touched the surface of 
the box. 

Setting-blocks are most advanta- 
geously employed in setting small 
species, especially the Hesperiidce, 
the wings of which are refractory. 
When the insect has been pinned ^^ c ^.- x. a a • a 

^ Fig. 53.— Setting-board designed 

upon the setting-board or setting- by the author. The wings of the 

block, the next step is to set the f^^Pt are held in place by strips of 

^ tracing-muslin, such as is used by 

wings jn the position which they engineers. The grooves at the side 

are to maintain when the specimen f'^'l ^« ^old the board in place in 

.^ the drying-box. (bee Fig. 59.) 

IS thoroughly dry. This is accom- 
plished by means of what are known as " setting-needles " 
(Fig. 56). Setting-needles may be easily made by simply stick- 
ing ordinary needles into wooden matches from which the tips 
have been removed. In drawing the wings into position, care 
should be taken to plant the setting-needle 
behind the strong nervure on the costal 
margin of the 
wing; otherwise 
the wings are lia- 
ble to be torn and 
The 




disfigured. 

rule in setting lep- 




FiG. 54.— Setting-block: 
A, holes to enable the pin jdoptera is tO draw 
to reach to the cork ; C, cork, ^ 

filling groove on the bottom the anterior wing 

of the block; 5, slit to hold fnr\x/nrrl in ciirh F'G. 55. -Setting-block with 
thread. TOrwara in SUCn butterfly expanded upon it. 

a manner that the 
posterior margin of this wing is at right angles to the axis of 
the body, the axis of the body being a line drawn through the 
head to the extremity of the abdomen. The hind wing should 
then be moved forward, its anterior margin lying under the op- 
posing margin of the front wing. When the wings have thus 

39 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



been adjusted into the position which they are to occupy, slips 
of tracing-muslin or of paper should be drawn down over them 
and securely pinned, the setting-needles being removed. 

In pinning down the 

f— ^ .^ . ^ .-. .rr..^.^ m s strips which are to hold the 

Fig. 56.— Setting-needle. wings in place, be careful 

to pin around the wing, but 
never, if possible, through it. When the wings have been adjusted 
in the position in which they are to remain, the antennae, or feelers, 
should be attended to and drawn forward on the same plane as the 
wings and secured in place. This may ordinarily be done by set- 
ting pins in such a position as to hold them where they are to stay. 
Then the body, if it has a tendency to sag down at the end of the 
abdomen, should be raised. This may also be accomplished by 
means of pins thrust beneath on either side. The figure on the 
next page shows more clearly what is intended. When the 
insect has been set, the board should be put aside in a place where 
it will not be molested or attacked by pests, and the specimens 
upon it allowed to dry. A box with shelves in it is often used 
for this purpose. This box should 
have a door at the front covered 
with wire gauze, and the back 
should also be open, covered with 
2:auze, so as to allow a free circu- 
lation of air. A few balls of naph- 
thaline placed in it will tend to keep 
away mites and other pests. The 
time during which the specimen 
should remain on the board until it 
is dried varies with its size and the 
condition of the atmosphere. Most butterflies and moths in dry 
weather will be sufficiently dried to permit of their removal from 
the setting-boards in a week; but large, stout-bodied moths may 
require as much as two weeks, or even more time, before they are 
dry enough to be taken off the boards. The process of drying 
may be hastened by placing the boards in an oven, but the tem- 
perature of the oven must be quite low. If too much heat is 
applied, great injury is sure to result. Only a careful and expert 
operator should resort to the use of the oven, a temperature above 
120° F. being sure to work mischief. 

40 




Fig. 57.— Setting-board with moth 
expanded vipon it (Riley). 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



Relaxing Specimens.— When butterflies or moths have been 
put up in papers or mounted on pins without having their wings 
expanded and set it becomes necessary, before setting them, to 
relax them. This may be ac- 
complished in several ways. 
If the specimens have been 
pinned it is best to place them 
on pieces of sheet-cork on a 
tray of sand which has been 
thoroughly moistened and 
treated with a good dose of 
carbolic acid. Over all a bell- 
glass is put. A tight tin box 

will serve the same purpose, Fig. 58.— Butterfly pinned on board, showing 
but a broad sheet of bibulous ^^^^^^ of holding up body and pinning down 

antennae. 

paper should always be put 

over the box, under the lid, before closing it, and in such a way as to 
leave the edges of the paper projecting around the edges of the lid. 
This is done to absorb'the moisture which might settle by condensa- 
tion upon the lid and drop upon the specimens. In a bell-glass the 





Fig. 59. — Drying-box: a, setting-board partly pulled 
out; b, T-shaped strip working in groove on setting- 
board ; c, front door, sliding down by tongue, d, work- 
ing in a groove at side in front. 



moisture generally trickles down the sides. Earthenware crocks 
with closely fitting lids are even better than tin boxes, but they 
must have paper put over them, before closing, in the same way 
as is done when tin boxes are used. When specimens have been 

41 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

preserved in papers or envelopes these should be opened a little 
and laid upon damp, carbolized sand under a bell-glass or in a 
closed receptacle of some kind. Papered specimens may also be 
placed in their envelopes between clean towels, which have been 
moistened in water to which a little carbolic acid has been added. 
The towels should be wrung out quite dry before using them. 




Fig. 6o. — Drying-box (Riley). 

The method of placing between towels should never be used in 
the case of very small and delicate species and those which are 
blue or green in color. Great care must be exercised not to allow 
the insects to become soaked or unduly wet. This ruins them. 
They should, however, be damp enough to allow the wings and 
other organs to be freely moved. When the insects have been 
relaxed they may be pinned and expanded on setting-boards like 
freshly caught specimens. It is well in setting the wings of re- 
laxed specimens, after having thrust the pin through the body, to 
take a small forceps and, seizing the wings just where they join 
the body, gently move them so as to open them and make their 
movement easy before pinning them upon the setting-board. 
The skilful manipulator in this way quickly ascertains whether 
they have been sufficiently relaxed to admit of their being readily 
set. If discovered to be too stiff and liable to break they must be 
still further relaxed. Dried specimens which have been relaxed 
and then mounted generally require only a short time to dry 
again, and need rarely be kept more than twenty-four hours upon 
the setting-boards. 

The process of setting insects upon setting-blocks is exactly the 

42 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

same as when setting-boards are used, with the simple difference 
that, instead of pinning strips of paper or tracing-muslin over the 
wings, the wings are held in place by threads or very narrow 
tapes, which are wound around the block. When the wings are not 
covered with a very deep and velvety covering of scales the threads 
or tapes may be used alone ; but when the wings are thus clothed 
it becomes necessary to put bits of paper or cardboard over the 
wings before wrapping with the threads. Unless this is done 
the marks of the threads will be left upon the wings. Some 
little skill, which is easily acquired by practice, is necessary in order 
to employ setting-blocks to advantage, but in the case of small 
species and species which have refractory wings they are much 
to be preferred to the boards. 

The Preparation and Preservation of Eggs.— The eggs of but- 
terflies may be preserved by simply putting them into tubes con- 
taining alcohol, or they may be placed in vials containing dilute 
glycerine or a solution of common salt. The vials should be kept 
tightly corked and should be marked by a label written with a 
lead-pencil and placed within the bottle, upon which the name 
of the species and the date of collection should be noted, or a 
reference made to the collector's note-book. Unless the eggs of 
insects are preserved in fluid they are apt in many cases to dry up 
and become distorted, because, on account of their small size, it 
is impossible to void them of their contents. The larvae escaping 
from eggs often void the shell very neatly, leaving, however, a 
large orifice. Such remnants of shells may be preserved, as they 
often are useful in showing some of the details of marking; but 
great vigilance in securing them should be exercised, for almost 
all the larvae of butterflies have the curious habit of whetting their 
appetites for future repasts by turning around and either wholly 
or partially devouring the shell of the Qgg which they have quitted. 
Eggs are most neatly mounted in the form of microscopic slides 
in glycerine jelly contained in cells of appropriate depth and diam- 
eter. It is best, if possible, to mount several specimens upon the 
same slide, showing the side of the egg as well as the end. A 
cabinet filled with the eggs of butterflies thus mounted is valu- 
able and curious. 

The Preservation of Chrysalids. — ChYysalids may be deprived 
of their vitality by simply immersing them in alcohol, or they 
may be killed by means of chloroform, and they may then be 

43 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

fastened upon pins like the imago, and arranged appropriately 
in the collection with the species. Some chrysalids, however, 
lose their color when killed in this way, and it is occasion- 
ally well to void them of their contents by making an opening 
and carefully removing the parts that are contained within, re- 
placing with some material which will prevent the chrysalis from 
shrinking and shriveling. This method of preserving need, how- 
ever, be resorted to only in exceptional cases. When a butterfly 
has escaped from its chrysalis it frequently leaves the entire shell 
behind, with the parts somewhat sundered, yet, nevertheless, 
furnishing a clear idea of the structure of the chrysalis. If no 
other specimen of the chrysalis can be obtained than these voided 
shells they should be preserved. 

The Preservation of Caterpillars. —The caterpillars of butterflies 
when they first emerge from the tgg, and before they make the 
first moult, are, for the most part, extremely small, and are best 
preserved as microscopic objects in cells tilled with glycerine. 
After each successive moult the larva increases rapidly in size. 
These various stages in the development of the caterpillar should 
all be noted and preserved, and it is customary to put up 
these collections in vials filled with alcohol or a solution 
of formaline (which latter, by the by, is preferable to alco- 
hol), or to inflate them. The method of inflation secures the 
best specimens. 

In inflating larvae the first step is carefully to remove the con- 
tents of the larval skin. This may be done by making an incision 
with a stout pin or a needle at the anal extremity, and then, be- 
tween the folds of a soft towel or cloth, pressing out the contents 
of the abdominal cavity. The pressure should be first applied near 
the point where the pellicle has been punctured, and should then 
be carried forward until the region of the head is reached. Care 
must be exercised to apply only enough pressure to expel the 
contents of the skin without disturbing the tissues which lie 
nearest to the epidermis, in which the pigments are located, and 
not to remove the hairs which are attached to the body. Pressure 
sufficient to bruise the skin should never be applied. A little 
practice soon imparts the required dexterity. The contents of 
the larval skin having been removed, the next step is to inflate 
and dry the empty skin. A compact statement of the method of 
performing this operation is contained in Hornaday's " Taxidermy 

44 



Explanation of Plate V 

Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S. H. Scudder, from " The Butterflies 
of New England," vol iii, Plate 84. 

Chrysalids in Color and in Outline — Nymphalid/e, Lyc/^nid/e, Pierin/l 

40. 



Argynins cybclc. Side view 

Aigynuis cybclc. Dorsal view. 

Ai-gyntiis cyhelc. Side view. 

Argyiiiiis idalia. Side view. 41. 

Argyuuis ciphrocUle. Side view. 

Argyiiiiis atlanlis. Side view. 42. 

McUtcca pbcii'loii. Side view. 

Enptoieia claudia. Side view. 

Eiiptoicta Claudia. Side view. 4^,. 

Brcnthis bclloiia 

Bicuihi>: bclloiia 

Biculhi^ luyriiia 

Brciifbis niyriiia 

Brcnthis inyriiia 

.Mtlila^i phaclon. Side view. 

McliUra pbaclon. Dorsal view 

Mclitcva ha nisi. 

Mclihra barrisi. 

Pbyciodcs iiyclcis 

Pbyciodcs tbaros. 

Pbyciodcs tbaros. 

Pbyciodcs Ibaros. 

Librfbca bacbiiiaiii. Side view. si. 

Libylbca bachmaiii. Side view. --. 

Tbccla calaiiiis. ■ Side view. s-. 

I'hccla inis. Side view, enlarszed. ^4- 

Tbccla calaniis. Side view. s=^. 

Tbccla liparops. Side view. =<o. 

Tbccla cd-u-ardsi. Side view. ^7. 

Tbccla daiiioii. Side view. 

Tbccla da moil. Side view, enlarged, ^n. 

Tl/ccia inis. Dorsal view. =;o. 

Tbccla iriis. Side view. 00. 

Tbccla I r lis. Side view. 01. 

. 77'tt-/.7 acadica'. Side view. 02. 

. I.vccviia psciidargiohts. Side view. <>',. 
. Tbecla tiliis. Side view. 64, 

. Tbccla iiiphoii. Side view. 
. Tbccla iiicliiiiis. Side view. Copied d- 
from Abbot's drawing in the British 00 
Museum. 07 



Side view. 
Side view. 
Side view. 
Side view. 
Dorsal view 



Side view. 
Dorsal view. 
Side view. 
Dorsal view. 
Side view. 
Side view. 



Tbccla niphou. Side view. Copied 
from Abbot's drawing in Dr. Bois- 
duval's library. 
Lyca^na scttdderi. Side view, en- 
larged. 
LyciViia comyiitas. Side view. Copied 
from Abbot's drawing in Dr. Bois- 
duval's library. 
Lycccna pseiidargiolus. Side view, 
enlarged. Copied from Abbot's 
drawing in Dr. Boisduval's library. 
Lycavia pseiidargiolus. Side view. 

Fcuiscca tarquiuius. Side view. 

Feuiscca tarquiuius. Side view. 
Copied from Abbot's drawing in 
the British Museum. 

Lycccna coniyntas. Side view, en- 
larged. 

Lyccena coniyiiias. Side view. 

Chrysopbauus bypopbhras. Sid'j 
view. 

Cbrysopbaiius ibo'c. Side vie-w. 

Tcrias iiicippc. Side view. 

Tcrias nicippc. Dorsal view. 

Colias curytbcinc. Side view. 

Col i as pbilodicc. Dorsal view. 

Colias pbilodicc. Side view. 

Tcrias lisa. Side view. 

Picns iiapi, var. olcracca. Side 
view. 

Picris rapcr. Side view. 

Hucbloi' gcnufia. Side view. 

Callidryas cubulc. Side view. 

Callidryas cubulc. Side view. 

Callidryas cubulc. Dorsal view. 

Picris iiapi. var. olcracca. Side view. 

Picris napi, var. olcracca. Dorsal 
view. 

Picris rapcr. Dorsal view. 

Picris protodice. Dorsal view. 

Picris protodice. Side view. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate V. 




The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

and Zoological Collecting," from the pen of the writer, and I here- 
with reproduce it: 

" The simplest method of inflating the skins of larvae after the 
contents have been withdrawn is to insert a stravv or grass stem 
of appropriate thickness into the opening through which the 
contents have been removed, and then by the breath to inflate the 
specimen, while holding over the chimney of an Argand lamp. 




Fig. 6 1. — Apparatus for inflating larvae: B, foot-bellows; K, rubber tube; 
C, flask; D, anhydrous sulphuric acid; E, overflow-flask; F, rubber tube 
from flask ; G, standard with cock to regulate flow of air ; H, glass tube 
with larva upon it; /, copper drying-plate; J, spirit-lamp. 



the flame of which must be regulated so as not to scorch or 
singe it. Care must be taken in the act of inflating not to unduly 
distend the larval skin, thus producing a distortion, and also to dry 
it thoroughly. Unless the latter precaution is observed a subse- 
quent shrinking and disfigurement will take place. The process 
of inflating in the manner just described is somewhat laborious, 
and while some of the finest specimens which the writer has ever 
seen were prepared in this primitive manner, various expedients 

•45 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

for lessening the labor involved have been devised, some of which 
are to be highly commended. 

" A comparatively inexpensive arrangement for inflating larvae 
is a modification of that described in the ' Entomologische Nach- 
richten ' (1879, vol. v, p. 7), devised by Mr. Fritz A. Wachtel 
(Fig. 61). It consists of a foot-bellows such as is used by 
chemists in the laboratory, or, better still, of a small cylinder 
such as is used for holding gas in operating the oxyhydrogen 

lamp of a sciopticon. In 
!l--^z_-Tr.ll ' i the latter case the com- 

pressed air should not 

Fig. 62.— Tip of inflating-tube, with armature for h,.,,p ^ nrpccnrp AvrPArl 
holding larval skin. ^'^^^ ^ piessure exceea- 

ingtwenty pounds to the 
square inch, and the cock regulating the flow from the cylinder 
should be capable of very fme adjustment. By means of a rubber 
tube the air is conveyed from the cylinder to a couple of flasks, one 
of which contains concentrated sulphuric acid, and the other is in- 
tended for the reception of any overflow of the hydrated sulphuric 
acid which may occur. The object of passing the air through 
sulphuric acid is to rob it, so far as possible, of its moisture. It 

is then conveyed into a flask, which is 

heated upon a sand-bath, and thence by a .^^^ T^ ^ ■'^^"'^ 
piece of flexible tubing to a tip mounted L=-' ^ .^| | 

on a joint allowing vertical and horizontal ^^- ■^^^ft.iMil 
motion and secured by a standard to the ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^ jl |^ 
working-table. The flow of air through /r^ ^^^^'^ M 
the tip is regulated by a cock. Upon the 1 ^ y ■p '" \ ^^ 

tip is fastened a small rubber tube, into the ^ /^ ^^ • 

^ . ' Fig. 63. — Drying-oven: 

free extremity of which is inserted a fme- ^, lamp; ^, pin to hold door 
pointed glass tube. This is provided T"' ^' '^°°' °P'"' ^' 

^ ^ r gi^gs cover. 

with an armature consisting of two steel 

springs fastened upon opposite sides, and their ends bent at right 
angles in such a way as to hold the larval skin firmly to the 
extremity of the tube. The skin having been adjusted upon 
the fine point of the tube, the bellows is put into operation, and 
the skin is inflated. A drying apparatus is provided in several 
ways. A copper plate mounted upon four legs, and heated by an 
alcohol-lamp placed below, has been advocated by some. A bet- 
ter arrangement, used by the writer, consists of a small oven heated 
by the flame of an alcohol-lamp or by jets of natural gas, and pro- 

46 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

vided with circular openings of various sizes, into which the larval 
skin is introduced (Fig. 6}). 

" A less commendable method of preserving larvse is to place 
them in alcohol. The larvae should be tied up in sacks of light 
gauze netting, and a label of tough paper, with the date and 
locality of capture, and the name, if known, written with a lead- 
pencil, should be attached to each such little sack. Do not use 
ink on labels to be immersed, but a hard lead-pencil. Alcoholic 
specimens are liable to become shriveled and discolored, and 
are not nearly as valuable as well-inflated and dried skins. 




Fig. 64.— Drying-oven: a^, sliding door; b, lid; 
c, body of oven with glass sides; d, opening for 
inserting inflating-tube ; e, copper bottom ; /, spirit- 
lamp ; g, base (Riley). 

"When the skins have been inflated they may be mounted 
readily by being placed upon wires wrapped with green silk, or 
upon annealed aluminium wire. The wires are bent and twisted 
together for a short distance and then made to diverge. The 
diverging ends are pressed together, a little shellac is placed upon 
their tips, and they are then inserted into the opening at the anal 

47 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

extremity of the larval skin. Upon the release of pressure they 
spread apart, and after the shellac has dried the skin is firmly 
held by them. They may then be attached to pins by simply 
twisting the free end of the wire about the pin, or they may be 
placed upon artificial imitations of the leaves and twigs of their 
appropriate food-plants." 



THE PRESERVATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF 
COLLECTIONS 



>^xV.vy/-^/y-.^v■'^ 



The secret o preserving collections of lepidoptera in beauti- 
ful condition is to exclude light, moisture, and insect pests. 
Light ultimately bleaches many species, moisture leads to mould 
and mildew, and insect pests devour the specimens. The main 
thing is therefore to have the receptacles in which the specimens 
are placed dark and as nearly as possible hermetically sealed and 
kept in a dry place. In order to accomplish this, various devices 
have been resorted to. 

Boxes. — Boxes for the preservation of specimens are made with 
a tongue on the edges of the bottom fitting into a groove upon the 

lid, or they may be made with inside 

pieces fastened around the inner edge 

of the bottom and projecting so as to 

catch the lid. 

The accompany- 
ing outlines show 

the method of 

joining different 

forms of boxes 

(Figs. 65-67). 

The bottom of 

the box should 

be lined with 

some 

which will enable 

the specimens to 




Fig. 65. — Detail drawing of 
front of box, made to resemble a 
book: 5, 5, sides, made of two 
pieces of wood glued together 
across the grain ; /, tongue ; g, 
groove ; c, cork ; p, paper cover- 
ing the cork. 




Fig. 66. — Detail drawing 

substance of front of box: t, top; b, 

bottom ; e, side ; /, strip, 

nailed around inside as at n ; 

c, cork ; p, paper lining. 

be pinned into it securely. For this purpose sheet-cork about a 
quarter of an inch thick is to be preferred to all other substances. 
Ground cork pressed into layers and covered with white paper 

48 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 




is manufactured for the purpose of lining boxes. Turf com- 
pressed into sheets about half an inch thick and covered with 
paper is used by many European collectors. Sheets of aloe-pith 
or of the wood of the yucca, half an inch thick, are used, and the 
pith of corn-stalks (Indian corn or maize) may 
also be employed, laid into the box and glued 
neatly to the bottom. The corn-pith should 
be cut into pieces about half an inch square 
and joined together neatly, covering it with 
thin white paper after the surface has been 
made quite even and true. Cork is, however, 
the best material, for, though more expensive 
than the other things named, it has greater 
power to hold the pins, and unless these are 
securely fixed and held in place ffreat damage . ^'^; 67-— Detail draw- 

, . , . . , ing of box, in which the 

is sure to result. A loose specnnen m a box tongue,^, is made of strips 
will work incalculable dam.age. Boxes should of zinc let into a groove 
be made of light, thoroughly seasoned wood, groove to catch tongue; 
and should be very tight. They are some- ^^ ^^ top and bottom; c, 
times made so that specimens may be 
pinned both upon the top and the bottom, but this is not to be 
commended. The depth of the box should be sufficient to admit 
of the use of the longest insect-pin in use, and a depth between 
top and bottom of two and a quarter inches is therefore sufficient. 
Boxes are sometimes made with backs in imitation of books, and 

a collection arranged in 
such boxes presents an 
attractive external ap- 
pearance. A very good 
box is made for the 
United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and 
for the Carnegie Muse- 
um in Pittsburgh (Fig. 
68). This box is thir- 
teen inches long, nine 
inches wide, and three inches thick (external measurement). The 
depth between the bottom and the lid on the inside is two and 
one eighth inches. The ends and sides are dovetailed; the top 
and bottom are each made of two pieces of light stuff, about one 

49 




Fig. 68.— Insect-box for preservation of collections 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

eighth of an inch thick, glued together in such a way that the 
grain of the two pieces crosses at right angles, and all crack- 
ing and warping are thus prevented. The lids are secured to 
the bottoms by brass hooks fitting into eyelets. Such boxes 
provided with cork do not cost more than fifty-five cents apiece 
when bought in quantities. Boxes may be made of stout paste- 
board about one eighth or three sixteenths of an inch thick, with 
a rabbet-tongue on the inside. Such boxes are much used in 
France and England, and when well and substantially made are 
most excellent. They may be obtained for about thirty-five cents 
apiece lined with compressed cork. 

Cabinets and Drawers. — L^rge collections which are intended 
to be frequently consulted are best preserved in cabinets fitted 
with glass-covered drawers. A great deal of variety exists in the 
plans which are adopted for the display of specimens in cabinets. 
Much depends upon the taste and the financial ability of the col- 
lector. Large sums of money may be expended upon cabinets, 
but the main thing is to secure the specimens from dust, mould, 
and insect pests. The point to be observed most carefully is so 
to arrange the drawers that they are, like the boxes, practically 
air-tight. The writer employs as the standard size for the draw- 
ers in his own collection and in the Carnegie Museum a drawer 
which is twenty-two inches long, sixteen inches wide, and two 
inches deep (inside measurement). The outside dimensions are: 
length, twenty-three inches exclusive of face; breadth, seventeen 
inches ; height, two and three eighths inches. The covers are glazed 
with double-strength glass. They are held upon the bottoms by a 
rabbet placed inside of the bottom and nearly reaching the lower 
surface of the glass on the cover when closed. The drawers are 
lined upon the bottom with cork five sixteenths of an inch thick, 
and are papered on the bottom and sides with good linen paper, 
which does not easily become discolored. Each drawer is faced 
with cherry and has a knob. These drawers are arranged in 
cabinets built in sections for convenience in handling. The two 
lower sections each contain thirty drawers, the upper section nine. 
The drawers are arranged in three perpendicular series and are 
made interchangeable, so that any drawer will fit into any place in 
any one of the cabinets. This is very necessary, as it admits of 
the easy rearrangement of collections. On the sides of each drawer 
a pocket is cut on the inner surface, which communicates through 

50 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



an opening in the rabbet with the interior. The paper lining the 
inside is perforated over this opening with a number of small 
holes. The pocket is kept filled with naphthaline crystals, the 
fumes of which pass into the interior and tend to keep away pests. 
The accompanying figure gives the details of construction (Fig. 
69). Such drawers can be made at a cost of about $3.50 apiece, 
and the cost of a cabinet finished and supplied with them is about 
$325, made of cherry, finished in imitation of mahogany. 




-^f SJ_ '_""*^Q_^' j p: ^", c ' ' ^ 'ji'J^b7 ^-~~ 



Fig. 69. — Detail drawing of drawer for cabinet: e, e, ends; b, 
bottom ; c, cork ; />, p, paper strips in corners of lid to exclude dust ; 
g, g, glass of cover, held in place by top strips, 5, 5; in, in, side 
pieces serving as rabbets on inside; po, pocket in ends and sides, 
sawn out of the wood; x, opening through the rabbet into this 
pocket; }\ holes through the paper lining, p' , allowing fumes of 
naphthaline to enter interior of drawer; /, front; k, knob; 0, 
lunette cut in edge of the top piece to enable the lid to be raised by 
inserting the fingers. 

Some persons prefer to have the bottoms as well as the tops of 
the drawers in their cabinets made of glass. In such cases the 
specimens are pinned upon narrow strips of wood covered with 
cork, securely fastened across the inside of the drawers. This 
arrangement enables the under side of specimens to be examined 
and compared with as much freedom as the upper side, and with- 
out removing them from the drawers; but the strips are liable at 
times to become loosened, and when this happens great havoc is 
wrought among the specimens if the drawer is moved carelessly. 
Besides, there is more danger of breakage. 

Another way of providing a cheap and very sightly lining for 
the bottom of an insect-box is illustrated in Fig. 70. A frame 
of wood like a slate-frame is provided, and on both sides paper is 
stretched. To stretch the paper it ought to be soaked in water 
before pasting to the frame; then when it dries it is as tight and 
smooth as a drum-head. 

51 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



The beginner who has not a long purse will do well to preserve 
his collections in boxes such as have been described. They can 

be obtained quite cheaply and 



are most excellent. Cabinets 
are more or less of a luxury for 
the amateur, and are only a ne- 
cessity in the case of great col- 
lections which are constantly 
being consulted. The boxes 
may be arranged upon shelves. 
Some of the largest and best 
collections in the world are pre- 
served in boxes, notably those 
of the United States National 
Museum. 

Labeling.— Each specimen 




Fig. 70. —y^, A^ side and bottom of box ; 
fi, frame fitting into box; C, space which 
must be left between frame and bottom of 
box ; P, P, paper stretched on frame. 




should have on the pin below the specimen a small label giving 
the date of capture, if known, and the locality. Below this should 
be a label of larger size, giving its sci- 
entific name, if ascertained, and the 
sex. Labels should be neat and uni- 
form in size. A good size for labels 
for large species is about one inch 
long and five eighths of an inch wide. 
The labels should be written in a fine 
but legible hand. Smaller labels may 
be used for smaller species. A crow- 
quill pen and India ink are to be pre- 
ferred in writing labels. 

Arrangement of Specimens. —S^Q- 
cimens are best arranged in rows. 
The males should be pinned in first 
in the series, after them the females. 
Varieties should follow the species. 
After these should be placed any 
aberrations or monstrosities which 
the collector may possess. The name 
of the genus should precede all the species contained in the col 
lection, and after each species the specific name should be placed 
Fig. 71 shows the manner of arrangement. 

52 



Fig. 



71. — Manner of arranging 
specimens in cabinet. 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

Insect Pests. — \n order to preserve collections, great care must 
be taken to exclude the various forms of insect pests, which are 
likely, unless destroyed and kept from attacking the specimens, 
to ruin them utterly in comparatively a short lime. The pests 
which are most to be feared are beetles belonging to the gen- 
era Dermestes and Aiithrenus. In addition to these beetles, 
which commit their ravages in the larval stage, moths and mites 
prey upon collections. Moths are very infrequently, however, 
found in collections of insects, and in a long experience the writer 
has known only one or two instances in which any damage was 
inflicted upon specimens by the larvae of moths. Mites are much 
more to be dreaded. 

In order to prevent the ravages of insects, all specimens, before 
putting them away into the boxes or drawers of the cabinet in 
which they are to be preserved, should be placed in a tight box in 
which chloroform, or. better, carbon bisulphide, in a small pan is 
put, and they should be left here for at least twenty-four hours, 
until it is certain that all life is extinct. Then they should be trans- 
ferred to the tight boxes or drawers in which they are to be kept. 
The presence of insect pests in a collection is generally first indi- 
cated by tine dust under the specimen, this dust being the excre- 
ment of the larva which is committing depredations upon the 
specimen. In case the presence of the larva is detected, a liberal 
dose of chloroform should at once be administered to the box or 
tray in which the specimen is contained. The specimen itself 
ought to be removed, and may be dipped into benzine. 
Naphthaline crystals or camphor is generally employed 
to keep out insect pests from boxes. They are very 
useful to deter the entrance of pests, but when they 
have once been introduced into a collection neither naph- 
thaline nor camphor will kill them. Naphthaline is 
prepared in the form of cones attached to a pin, and 
these cones may be placed in one corner of the box. 
They are made by Blake & Co. of Philadelphia, and are 
in vogue among entomologists. However, a good 
substitute for the cones may very easily be made by p,J ^. 
taking the ordinary moth-balls which are sold every- Naphthaline 
where. By heating a pin red-hot in the flame of an *^°"^' 
alcohol-lamp it may be thrust into the moth-ball ; as it enters it 
melts the naphthaline, which immediately afterward cools and 

53 




The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

holds the pin securely fixed in the moth-ball. - In attaching these 
pins to moth-balls, hold the pin securely in a forceps while heat- 
ing it in the flame of the lamp, and thrust the red-hot pin into the 
center of the ball. Naphthaline crystals and camphor maybe se- 
cured in the corner of the box by tying up a quantity of them in 
a small piece of netting and pinning the little bag thus made in the 
corner of the tray. By following these directions insect pests may 
be kept out of collections. It is proper to observe that while car- 
bon bisulphide is more useful even than chloroform in killing 
pests, and is also cheaper, it should be used with great care, be- 
cause when mixed with atmospheric air it is highly explosive, 
and its use should never take place where there are lamps burn- 
ing or where there is fire. Besides, its odor is extremely unpleas- 
ant, unless it has been washed in mercury. 

Greasy Specimens, —Specimens occasionally become greasy. 
When this happens they may be cleansed by pinning them down 
on a piece of cork secured to the bottom of a closed vessel, and 
gently filling it with benzine, refined gasoline, or ether. After 
leaving them long enough to remove all the grease they may be 
taken out of the bath and allowed to dry in a place where there 
is no dust. This operation should not take place near a lighted 
lamp or a fire. 

Mould.— When specimens have become mouldy or mildewed 
it is best to burn them up if they can be spared. If not, after 
they have been thoroughly dried remove the mould with a sable 
or camel's-hair pencil which has been rubbed in carbolic acid (crys- 
tals liquefied by heat). Mildew in a cabinet is hard to eradicate, 
and heat, even to burning, is about the only cure, except the 
mild use of carbolic acid in the way suggested. 

Repairing Specimens.— Tovn and ragged specimens are to be 
preferred to none at all. " The half of a loaf is better than no 
bread." Until the torn specimen can be replaced by a better, it 
is always well to retain it in a collection. But it is sometimes 
possible to repair torn specimens in such a way as to make them 
more presentable. If an antenna, for instance, has been broken 
off, it may be replaced neatly, so that only a microscopic exami- 
nation will disclose the fact that it was once away from the place 
where it belonged. If a wing has been slit, the rent may be 
mended so neatly that only a very careful observer can detect the 
fact. If a piece has been torn out of a wing, it may be replaced 

54 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 



by the corresponding portion of the wing of another specimen of 
the same sex of the same species in such a way as almost to defy 
detection. The prime requisites for this work are patience, a 
steady hand, a good eye, a great deal of "gumption," a few set- 
ting-needles, a jewelers forceps, and a little shellac dissolved in 
alcohol. The shellac used in replacing a missing antenna should 
be of a thickish consistency; in repairing wings it should be well 
thinned down with alcohol. In handling broken antennae it is 
best to use a fine sable pencil, which may be moistened very 
lightly by applying it to the tip of the tongue. With this it is 
possible to pick up a loose antenna and place it wherever it is de- 
sired. Apply the shellac to the torn edges of a broken wing with 
great delicacy of touch and in very small quantity. Avoid put- 
ting on the adhesive material in "gobs and slathers." Repairing 
is a fine art, which is only learned after some patient experimen- 
tation, and is only to be practised when absolutely necessary. 
The habit of some dealers of patching up broken specimens with 
parts taken from other species is highly to be reprobated. Such 
specimens are more or less caricatures of the real thing, and no 
truly scientific man will admit such scarecrows into his collection, 
except under dire compulsion. 

Packing and Forwarding Specimens.— \i often becomes neces- 
sary to forward specimens from one place to another. If it is in- 
tended to ship specimens which have been mounted upon pins 
they should be securely pinned in a box lined with cork. A great 
many expanded specimens may be pinned 
in a box by resorting to the method known 
as "shingling," which is illustrated in Fig. 73. 
By causing the wings of specimens to over- 
lap, as is shown in the figure, a great many 
can be accommodated in a small space. 
When the specimens have been packed the 
box should be securely closed, its edges shut 
with paper, after some drops of chloroform 
have been poured into the box, and then this 
box should be placed in an outer box con- 
taining excelsior, hay, cotton, or loose shav- 
ings in sufficient abundance to prevent the 
jarring of the inner box and consequent breakage. Where speci- 
mens are forwarded in envelopes, having been collected in the 

55 



^^iaifclsyr^! 



K^s^-JOflK^ytn^ 



^<^S?i 



^^tMs; 



Fig. 73.— Butterflies 
pinned into a box over- 
lapping one another, or 
" shingled." 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

field, and are not pinned, the precaution of surrounding them 
with packing such as has been described is not necessary, but the 
box in which they are shipped should always be strong enough 
to resist breakage. Things forwarded by mail or by express 
always receive rough treatment, and the writer has lost many fine 
specimens which have been forwarded to him because the 
shipper was careless in packing. 

Pins. — \nthe preceding pages frequent reference has been made 
to insect-pins. These are pins which are made longer and thinner 
than is the case with ordinary pins, and are therefore adaptable to 
the special use to which they are put. There are a number of 
makers whose pins have come into vogue. What are known as 
Karlsbader and Klager pins, made in Germany, are the most widely 
used. They are made of ordinary pin-metal in various sizes. The 
Karlsbader pins have very fine points, but, owing to the fineness 
of the points and the softness of the metal, they are very apt to 
buckle, or turn up at the points. The Klager pins are not exposed 
to the same objection, as the points are not quite so fine. The best 
pins, however, which are now made are those which have re- 
cently been introduced by Messrs. Kirby, Beard, & Co. of England. 
They are made of soft steel, lacquered, possessing very great 




Fig. 74. — Butterfly-forceps, half-size. 

Strength and considerable flexibility. The finest-sized pin of this 
make has as much strength as the largest pin of the other makes 
that have been mentioned, and the writer has never known them 
to buckle at the tip, even when pinned through the hardest insect 
tissues. While these pins are a little more expensive than others, 
the writer does not fail to give them an unqualified preference. 

The Forceps. — An instrument which is almost indispensable to 
the student of entomology is the forceps. There are many forms 
of forceps, and it is not necessary to speak at length in reference 
to the various shapes; but for the use of the student of but- 
terflies the forceps made by the firm of Blake & Co. of Phila- 

56 



The Capture, Preparation, and Preservation of Specimens 

delphia is to be preferred to all others. The head of this firm is 
himself a famous entomologist, and he has given us in the forceps 
which is illustrated in Fig. 74 an instrument which comes as 
near perfection as the art of the maker of instruments can pro- 
duce. The small forceps represented in Fig. 75 is very useful 
in pinning small specimens. In handling mounted specimens it 




Fig. 75. — Insect-forceps. 

is well always to take hold of the pin below the specimen with 
the forceps, and insert it into the cork by the pressure of the for- 
ceps. If the attempt is made to pin down a specimen with the 
naked fingers holding the pin by the head, the finger is apt to 
slip and the specimen to be ruined. 



IMMORTALITY 

A butterfly basked on a baby's grave, 

Where a lily had chanced to grow : 
' ' Why art thou here with thy gaudy dye, 
When she of the blue and sparkling eye 

Must sleep in the churchyard low ? " 

Then it lightly soared thro' the sunny air, 

And spoke from its shining track : 
" I was a worm till I won my wings, 
And she, whom thou mourn'st, like a seraph sings; 

Would'st thou call the blest one back ? " 

SiGOURNEY. 



57 



CHAPTER III 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF BUTTERFLIES 

" Winged flowers, or flying gems." 

Moore. 

At the base of all truly scientific knowledge lies the principle 
of order. There have been some who have gone so far as to say 
that science is merely the orderly arrangement of facts. While 
such a definition is defective, it is nevertheless true that no real 
knowledge of any branch of science is attained until its relation- 
ship to other branches of human knowledge is learned, and until 
a classification of the facts of which it treats has been made. 
When a science treats of things, it is necessary that these things 
should become the subject of investigation, until at last their re- 
lation to one another, and the whole class of things to which they 
belong, has been discovered. Men who devote themselves to 
the discovery of the relation of things and to their orderly clas- 
sification are known as systematists. 

The great leader in this work was the immortal Linnseus, the 
"Father of Natural History," as he has been called. Upon the 
foundation laid by him in his work entitled " Systema Nature," 
or " The System of Nature," all who have followed after him have 
labored, and the result has been the rise of the great modern sci- 
ences of botany and zoology, which treat respectively of the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms. 

The Place of Butterflies in the Animal Kingdom.— ^\\t animal 
kingdom, for purposes of classification, has been subdivided into 
various groups known as subkingdoms. One of these subking- 
doms contains those animals which, being without vertebrae, or 
an internal skeleton, have an external skeleton, composed of a 
series of horny rings, attached to which are various organs. This 

58 



"1 



Explanation of Folate VI • 

Reproduced with the kind permission of Dr. S. H. Scudder, from "The Butterflies 
of New England,-" vol. iii, Plate 8^. 

Chrysalids in Color and in Outline— Papilionin.+; and Hesperiid/k 



Dorsal view. 



Dorsal view 



Dorsal view 
Dorsal view 



Dorsal view 



^,8. 



1. PLipilio lun/iis 

2. Papilio til III us. 
'. Papilio tiinnis. ^2 
.4. Papilio I II runs. ■ ti 
-. Papilio troihis. Dorsal view. ?4 
V. Papilio I roil us. i=i 
7. Papilio I roil us. 

S. Papilio cri'spboiilcs. 

I). Papilio crcsphoiih 
10. Papilio cri'spboiih's. 
1 1 . Papilio ajax. 
\2. Papilio ajax. Dorsal view, 
i-,. Papilio asicrias. 
14. Papilio plnlcuor. 
i^. Papilio philenor. 
10. Papilio philenor. 
1 7. Papilio phih'uor. 
iS. Papilio aslcrias. 
10. Papilio aslcrias. 40. 

20. Papilio philenor. 41. 

21. Achalarus Ivciclas.' 42. 

22. Epa rgvrciis titvnis. 

2-,. Eiidaiiius proU'us. From the original 4-,. 

by Abbot in the British Museum. 44. 
24. Thorvbes bafhvlliis. From the original 4^. 

by Abbot in the British Museum. 
2^. Epargrreiis litvrus. 
20. Epargyrcus titvnis. 40, 

27. Tbanaos icclus. 

28. Thorvbcs pvladcs. 

20. Pholisora cat 11 1 1 us. From the origi- 47, 
nal by Abbot in the British Museum. 48 



Thaiiaos luciliiis. 

Thaiiaos luciliiis. Dorsal view. 

Thaiiaos lucilius. 

Th ana os j u-v en a I is . 

Thaiiaos persiiis. 

Hcsperia iiiontivaga. From the origi- 
nal by Abbot in the British Mu- 

• seum. 

Pholisora caiullus. 

Thaiiaos niartialis. From the origi- 
nal by Abbot in the British Mu- 
seum. 

Tbanaos bri:o. From the original 
by Abbot in Dr. BoisduvaFs li- 
brary. 

Hrlcpbila phyhrus. From the origi- 
nal by Abbot in Dr. Boisduval" • 
library. 

Anibhscirlcs via I is. 

Pholisora caiullus. 

Thvinelicus crtna. From the original 
by Abbot in Dr. Boisduval's library. 

Atalopedcs bur on. 

Liuiocborcs taunias. 

Ainblvsciries sainoscl. .Mter the ori- 
ginal by Abbot in the British Mu- 
seum. 

J.crenia acciiis. After the original by 
Abbot in Boston Society of Natural 
History. 

Alalopedes bur on. 

Calpodes elblius. 






The Butterfly Book. 



Plate VI. 




The Classification of Butteriies 

subKingdom is known by naturalists under the name of the Arthro- 
poda. The word Arthropoda is derived from the Greek language, 
and is compounded of two words, ap^pov (artbron), meaning a joint, 
and "Tfoug {pons), meaning a foot. The Arthropoda seem at first 
sight to be made up of jointed rings and feet; hence the name. 

The subkingdom of the Arthropoda is again subdivided into 
six classes. These are the following: 

Class I. The Crustacea (Shrimps, Crabs, Water-fleas, etc.). 

Class II. The Podostomata (King-crabs, Trilobites [fossil], etc.). 

Class III. The Malacopoda {Peripattts, a curious genus of 
worm-like creatures, found in the tropics, and allied to the Myria- 
pods in some important respects). 

Class IV. The Myriapoda (Centipedes, etc.). 

Class V. The Arachnida (Spiders, Mites, etc.). 

Class VI. The Insecta (Insects). 

That branch of zoology which treats of insects is known as 
entomology. 

The Insecta have been variously subdivided by different scien- 
tific writers, but the following subdivision has much in it to com- 
mend it, and will suffice as an outline for the guidance of the 
advanced student. 

Class VI. Insecta (Insects proper) 
Heterometabola 

For the most part undergoing only a partial metamorphosis in the development 
from the egg to the imago. 

ORDERS 

1. Thysanura. 

Suborders : 

Collembola (Podura, Springtails). 
Symphyla (Scolopendrella). 
Cin'ura (Bristletails, etc.). 

2. Dermatoptera (Earwigs). 

3. Psreudoneiiroptera. 

Suborders : 

Mallophaga (Bird-lice). 
Platyptera (Stone-flies, Termites, etc.). 
Odonata (Dragon-flies, etc.). 
Ephemerina (May-f.ies, etc.). 

4. Neuroptera (Corydalis, Ant-lion, Caddis-flies, etc.). 

5. Orthoptera (Cockroach, Mantis, Mole-cricket, Grasshopper, Katydid, etc.). 

59 



The Classification of Butterflies 

6. Hemiptera. 

Suborders : 

Parasita (Lice). 

Sternorhyncha (Aphids, Mealy Bugs, etc.). 

Homoptera (Cicada, Tree-hoppers, etc.). 

//^^^/'o^^^r(3;(Ranatra, Belostoma, Water-spiders, Squash-bugs, Bedbugs, etc.), 

7. Coleoptera. 

Suborders : 

Cryptotetramera (Lady-birds, etc.). 

Cryptopentamera (Leaf-beetles, Longhorns, Weevils, etc.). 
Heteromera (Blister-beetles, Meal-beetles, etc.). 

Pentamera (Fire-flies, Skipjacks, June-bugs, Dung-beetles, Stag-beetles, 
Rove-beetles, Tiger-beetles, etc.). 

Metabola 

Undergoing for the most part a complete metamorphosis from egg, through 
larva and pupa, to imago. 

ORDERS 

8. /tphaniptera (Fleas). 

9. Diptera. 

Suborders : 

Or//;of/;^j!) 7;^ (Hessian Flies, Buffalo-gnats, Mosquitos, Crane-flies, Horse-flies). 
Cyclorhapba (Syrphus, Bot-flies, Tsetse, House-flies, etc.). 

10. Lepidoptera. 

Suborders : 

- Rhopalocera (Butterflies). 
Heterocera (Moths). 

1 1 . Hymenoptera. 

Suborders : 

Terehrantia (Sav/-flies, Gall-wasps, Ichneumon-flies, etc.). 
AcuUata (Ants, Cuckoo-flies, Digger-wasps, True Wasps, Bees). 

It will be seen by glancing at the foregoing table that the 
butterflies and moths are included as suborders in the tenth 
group of the list, to which is applied the name Lepidoptera. 
This word, like most other scientific words, is derived from the 
Greek, and is compounded of the noun Xs'tti^ {lepis), which sig- 
nifies a scale, and the noun "rrepov (pteron), which signifies a 
wing. The butterflies and moths together constitute the order of 
scale-winged insects. The appropriateness of this name will no 
doubt be at once recognized by every reader, who, having perhaps 
unintentionally rubbed off some of the minute scales which clothe 
the wings of a butterfly, has taken the trouble to examine them 
under a microscope, or who has attentively read what has been 

60 



( 



The Classification of Butterflies 



said upon this subject in the first chapter of this book. By re- 
ferring again to the classification which has been given, it will be 
noted that the last four orders in the list agree in that the crea- 
tures included within them undergo for the most part what is 
known as a complete metamorphosis; that is to say, they pass 
through four successive stages of development, existing first as 
eggs, then as worm-like larvae, or caterpillars, then as pupae, and 
finally as perfect, fully developed insects, gifted for the most part 
with the power of flight, and capable of reproducing their kind. 
All of this has been to some extent already elucidated in the first 
chapter of the present volume, but it may be well to remind the 
reader of these facts at this point. 

A question which is frequently asked by those who are not 
familiar with the subject relates to the manner in which it is 
possible to distinguish between moths and butterflies. A partial 
answer can be made in the light of the habits of the two classes 
of lepidoptera. Butterflies are diurnal in their habits, flying be- 
tween sunrise and dusk, and very rarely taking the wing at night. 
This habit is so universal that these insects are frequently called 
by entomologists " the diurnal lepidoptera," or are simply spoken 
of as " diurnals." It is, however, true that many species of moths 
are also diurnal in their habits, though the great majority of them 
are nocturnal, or crepuscular, that is, flying at the dusk of the 
evening, or in the twilight of the early morning. Upon the basis 
of mere habit, then, we are able only to obtain a partial clue to the 
distinction between the two suborders. A more definite distinc- 
tion is based upon struc- 
ture, and specifically upon 
the structure of the an- 
tennae. Butterflies have 
long, thread-like antennae, 
provided with a swelling 
at the extremity, giving 
them a somewhat club- 
shaped appearance (Fig. 
76). This form of an- 
tennae is very unusual among the moths, and only occurs in a few 
rare genera, found in tropical countries, which seem to represent 
connecting-links between the butterflies and the moths. All the 
true moths which are found within the limits of the United 

61 




Fig. 76. — Antennae of butterflies. 



The Classification of Butterflies 




Fig. 77.— Antennae of moths. 



States and Canada have antennse which are not club-shaped, but 
are of various other forms. Some moths have thread-like antennae 
tapering to a fine point; others have feather-shaped antennae; 

others still have an- 
tennae which are 
prismatic in form, 
and provided with 
a little hook, or 
spur, at the end; 
and there are many 
modifications and 
variations of these 
forms. The club- 
shaped form of the antennae of butterflies has led naturalists to call 
them Rhopalocera, as has been already explained in speaking of 
this subject on page 17. Moths are called Heterocera. The word 
Heterocera is compounded of the Greek word eVspov (beteron), mean- 
ing other, and the Greek word x^'paj (keras), meaning a born. They 
are lepidoptera which have antennae which are other than club- 
shaped. Besides the distinctions which exist in the matter of the 
form of the antennae, there are distinctions in the veins of the wings, 
and in the manner of carrying them when at rest or in flight, which 
are quite characteristic of the two groups ; but all of these things 
the attentive student will quickly learn for himself by observation. 
Scientific Arrangement. — Having thus cast a passing glance at 
the differences which exist between moths and butterflies, we 
take up the question of the subdivision of the butterflies into 
natural groups. Various systems of arranging butterflies have 
been suggested from time to time by learned writers, and for a 
knowledge of these systems the student may consult works 
which treat of them at length. It is sufficient for beginners, for 
whom this book is principally written, to observe that in modern 
science, for purposes of convenience, as well as from regard for 
essential truth, all individuals are looked upon as belonging to a 
species. A species includes all those individuals, which have a 
common ancestry, and are so related in form and structure as to 
be manifestly separable from all other similarly constituted as- 
semblages of individuals. For instance, all the large cats having 
a tawny skin, and in the male a shaggy mane, constitute a spe- 
cies, which we call the lion ; the eagles in the eastern United States, 

62 



The Classification of Butterflies 

which in adult plumage have a snow-white head and neck and a 
white tail, constitute a species, which we know as the " white- 
headed " or " bald-headed " eagle. Species may then be grouped 
together, and those which are manifestly closely related to one an- 
other are regarded as forming a natural assemblage of species, to 
which we give the name of a genus. For example, all the large 
cats, such as the lion, the tiger, the puma, and the jaguar, are 
grouped together by naturalists, and form a genus to which is 
given the Latin name Felis, meaning cat. The name of the ge- 
nus always comes before that of the species. Thus the tiger is 
spoken of scientifically as Felis tigris. The genera which are 
closely related to one another may again be assembled as sub- 
families; and the subfamilies may be united to form families. 
For instance, all the various genera of cats form a family, which 
is known as the Felidce, or the Cat Family. A group of families 
constitutes a suborder or an order. The cats belong to the Car- 
nivora, or order of flesh-eating animals. 

In zoology family names are formed with the termination 
'idcB, and subfamily names with the termination -ince. 

Everything just said in regard to the classification of the higher 
animals applies likewise to butterflies. Let us take as an illus- 
tration the common milkweed butterfly. Linnaeus for a fanci- 
ful reason gave this insect the name Plexippus. This is its 
specific name, by which it is distinguished from all other butter- 
flies. It belongs to the genus Anosia. The genus Anosia is one 
of the genera which make up the subfamily of the Euploeince. 
The Euploeina^ belong to the great family of the Nymphalidce. 
The Nymphalidce are a part of the suborder of the Rhopalocera, 
or true butterflies, one of the two great subdivisions of the order 
Lepidoptera, belonging to the great class Insecta, the highest class 
in the subkingdom of the Arthropoda. The matter may be rep- 
resented in a tabular form, in the reverse order from that which 
has been given: 

Subkingdom, Arthropoda. 
Class, Insecta. 

Order, Lepidoptera. 

Suborder, Rhopalocera. 
Family, Nymphalidce. 

Subfamily, Euplceince. 
Genus, Anosia. 

Species, Plexippus (Milkweed Butterfly). 

63 



The Classification of Butterflies 

Varieties. — k still further subdivision is in some cases recog- 
nized as necessary. A species which has a wide range over an 
extensive territory may vary in different parts of the territory 
within which it is found. The butterflies of certain common 
European species are found also in Japan and Corea, but, as a 
rule, they are much larger in the latter countries than they are in 
Europe, and in some cases more brightly colored. Naturalists 
have therefore distinguished the Asiatic from the European form 
by giving the former what is known as a varietal name. Similar 
differences occur among butterflies on the continent of North 
America. The great yellow and black-barred swallowtail but- 
terfly known as Papilio turnus occurs from Florida to Alaska. 
But the specimens from Alaska are always much smaller than those 
from other regions, and have a very dwarfed appearance. This 
dwarfed form constitutes what is known as a local race, or variety, 
of the species. The members of a species which occur upon an 
island frequently differ in marked respects from specimens which 
occur upon the adjacent mainland. By insulation and the process 
of through-breeding the creature has come to acquire characteris- 
tics which separate it in a marked degree from the closely allied 
continental form, and yet not sufficiently to justify us in treating 
it as a distinct species. It represents what is known as an insu- 
lar race, or variety, and we give it therefore a varietal name. 
Naturalists also distinguish between seasonal, dimorphic, me- 
lanic, and albino forms. Names descriptive or designatory of 
these forms are frequently applied to them. All of this will be- 
come plainer in the course of the study of the succeeding pages, 
and in the effort to classify specimens which the student will 
make. 

Sex.— The designation of the sex is important in the case of 
all well-ordered collections of zoological specimens. As a mea- 
sure of convenience, the male is usually indicated by the sign of 
Mars, $ , while the female is indicated by the sign of Venus, ? . 
The inscription, '' Argynnis Diana, S ," therefore means that 
the specimen is a male of Argynnis Diana, and the inscription, 
''Argynnis Diana, ?," means that the specimen is a female of 
the same species. These signs are invariably employed by nat- 
uralists to mark the sexes. 

The Division of Butterflies into Fami/ies. — Without attempting 
to go deeply into questions of classification at the present point, 

64 



The Classification of Butterflies 

it will be well for us to note the subdivisions which have been 
made into the larger groups, known as families, and to show 
how butterflies belonging to one or the other of these may be 
distinguished from one another. There are five of these families 
represented within the territory of which this book takes notice. 
These five families are the following: 

1. The Nymphalid^, or " Brush-footed Butterflies." 

2. The Lemoniid^, or " Metal-marks." 

3. The Lyc^nid^, or " Blues," "Coppers," and "Hair-streaks." 

4. The Papilionid^, or the " Swallowtails " and their allies. 

5. The HESPERiiDy?^., or the "Skippers." 

The Nymphalid^, the "Brush-footed Butterflies." 

The butterflies of this family may be distinguished as a great 
class from all other butterflies by the fact that in both sexes the 
first, or prothoracic, pair of legs is greatly dwarfed, useless for 
walking, and therefore carried folded up against the breast. 
From this peculiarity they have also been called the " Four-footed 
Butterflies." This is the largest of all the families of the butter- 
flies, and has been subdivided into many subfamilies. Some of 
the genera arc composed of small species, but most of the genera 
are made up of medium-sized or large species. The family is 
geologically very ancient, and most of the fossil butterflies which 
have been discovered belong to it. The caterpillars are in most 
of the subfamilies provided with horny or fleshy projections. 
The chrysalids always hang suspended by the tail. 

The Lemoniid/^, the "Metal-marks." 

This family is distinguished from others by the fact that the 
males have four ambulatory or walking feet, while the females have 
six such feet. The antennce are relatively longer than in the Ly- 
cmiidce. The butterflies belonging to this great group are mostly 
confined to the tropics of the New World, and only a few genera 
and species are included in the region covered by this volume. 
They are usually quite small, but are colored in a bright and odd 
manner, spots and checkered markings being very common. Many 
are extremely brilliant in their colors. The caterpillars are small 
and contracted. Some are said to have chrysalids which are sus- 
pended; others have chrysalids girdled and attached at the anal 
extremity, like the Lyccenidce. The butterflies in many genera 
have the habit of alighting on the under side of leaves, with their 
wings expanded. 

65 



The Classification of Butterflies 

The LYC/Emo/E, the ''Gossamer-winged Butterflies." 

This great family comprises the butterflies which are familiarly 
known as the "hair-streaks," the "blues," and the "coppers." 
Tbe males have four and the females six walking feet. The cat- 
erpillars are small, short, and slug-shaped. The chrysalids are 
provided with a girdle, are attached at the end of the abdomen, and 
lie closely appressed to the surface upon which they have undergone 
transformation. Blue is a very common color in this family, 
which includes some of the gayest of the small forms which are 
found in the butterfly world. In alighting they always carry their 
wings folded together and upright. 

The Papilionid^, the " Swallowtails " and their allies. 

These butterflies have six walking feet in both sexes. Tbe cater- 
pillars are elongate, and in some genera provided with osmateria, 
or protrusive organs secreting a powerful and disagreeable odor. 
The chrysalids are elongate, attached at the anal extremity, and 
held in place by a girdle of silk, but not closely appressed to the 
surface upon which they have undergone transformation. 

The HESPERiiDy^, or the "Skippers." 

They are generally small in si^e, with stout bodies, very quick 
and powerful in flight. They have six walking feet in both sexes. 
The tibice of the hind feet, with few exceptions, have spurs. The 
caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, tapering forward and back- 
ward from the middle, and generally having large globular heads. 
For the most part they undergo transformation into chrysalids 
which have a girdle and an anal hook, or cremaster, in a loose co- 
coon, composed of a few threads of silk, and thus approximate the 
moths in their habits. The genus Megathymus has the curious 
habit of burrowing in its larval stage in the underground stems 
of the yucca. 

To one or the other of these five families all the butterflies, 
numbering about six hundred and fifty species, which are found 
from the Rio Grande of Texas to the arctic circle, can be referred. 

Scientific Names. — From what has been said it is plain to the 
reader that the student of this delightful branch of science is cer- 
tain to be called upon to use some rather long and, at first sight, 
uncouth words in the pursuit of the subject. But experience, 
that best of teachers, will soon enable him to master any little 
difficulties which may arise from this source, and he will come 
finally to recognize how useful these terms are in designating dis- 

66 



The Classification of Butterflies 

tinctions which exist, but which are often wholly overlooked by 
the uneducated and unobservant. It is not, however, necessary 
that the student should at the outset attempt to tax his memory 
with all of the long scientific names which he encounters in this 
and similar books. The late Dr. Horn of Philadelphia, who was 
justly regarded, during the latter years of his life, as the most 
eminent student of the Coleoptera, or beetles, of North America, 
once said to the writer that he made it a religious duty not to try 
to remember all the long scientific names belonging to the thou- 
sands of species in his collection, but was content to have them 
attached to the pins holding the specimens in his cabinets, where 
he could easily refer to them. The student who is engaged in 
collecting and studying butterflies will very soon come, almost with- 
out effort, to know their names, but it is not a sin to forget them.. 

In writing about butterflies it is quite customary to abbreviate 
the generic name by giving merely its initial. Thus in writing 
about the milkweed butterfly, Anosia plexippus, the naturalist 
will designate it as ''A. plexippus.'' To the specific name he 
will also attach the name of the man who gave this specific name 
to the insect. As Linnseus was the first to name this insect, it is 
proper to add his name, when writing of it, or to add an abbre- 
viation of his name, as follows: 'A. plexippus, Linnaeus," or 
"Linn." In speaking about butterflies it is quite common to 
omit the generic name altogether and to use only the specific 
name. Thus after returning in the evening from a collecting-trip, 
I might say, '' I was quite successful to-day. I took twenty 
Aphrodites, four Myrinas, and two specimens of Atlantis.'' In 
this case there could be no misunderstanding of my meaning. I 
took specimens of three species of the genus Argynnis—A. 
aphrodite, A. myrina, and A. atlantis; but it is quite enough 
to designate them by the specific names, without reference to 
their generic classification. 

Synonyms. — \\ is a law among scientific men that the name 
first given to an animal or plant shall be its name and shall have 
priority over all other names. Now, it has happened not infre- 
quently that an author, not knowing that a species has been de- 
scribed already, has redescribed it under another name. Such a 
name applied a second time to a species already described is 
called a synonym, and may be published after the true name. 
Sometimes species have had a dozen or more different names 

67 



The Classification of Butterflies 

applied to them by different writers, but all such names rank as 
synonyms according to the law of priority. 

Popular Names.— Common English names for butterflies are 
much in vogue in England and Scotland, and there is no reason 
why English names should not be given to butterflies, as well as 
to birds and to plants. In the following pages this has been done 
to a great extent. I have used the names coined by Dr. S. H. 
Scudder and by others, so far as possible, and have in other cases 
been forced myself to coin names which seemed to be appropri- 
ate, in the hope that they may come ultimately to be widely 
used. The trouble is that ordinary people do not take pains to 
observe and note the distinctions which exist among the lower 
animals. The vocabulary of the common farmer, or even of the 
ordinary professional man, is bare of terms to point out correctly 
the different things which come under the eye. All insects are 
" bugs " to the vulgar, and even the airy butterfly, creature of grace 
and light, is put into the same category with roaches and fleas. 
Apropos of the tendency to classify as " bugs " all things which 
creep and are small, it may be worth while to recall the story, 
which Frank Buckland tells in his " Log-book of a Fisherman and 
Naturalist," of an adventure which he had, when a school-boy, at 
the booking-office of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway 
Company in Dover. He had been for a short trip to Paris, and 
had bought a monkey and a tortoise. Upon his return from 
sunny France, as he was getting his ticket up to London, Jocko 
stuck his head out of the bag in which his owner was carrying 
him. The ticket-agent looked down and said, " You will pay 
half-fare for him." " How is that? " exclaimed young Buckland. 
*' Well, we charge half-fare for dogs." '' But this is not a dog," 
replied the indignant lad; "this is a monkey." ''Makes no dif- 
ference," was the answer; "you must pay half-fare for him." 
Reluctantly the silver was laid upon the counter. Then, thrust- 
ing his hands into the pocket of his greatcoat, Buckland drew 
forth the tortoise, and, laying it down, asked, " How much do 
you charge for this? " The ancient receiver of fares furbished 
his spectacles, adjusted them to his nose, took a long look, and 
replied, "We don't charge nothin' for them; them 's insects." 
It is to be hoped that the reader of this book will in the end have 
a clearer view of facts as to the classification of animals than was 
possessed by the ticket-agent at Dover. 

68 



CHAPTER IV 

BOOKS ABOUT NORTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES 

Early Writers.— 1\\q earliest descriptions of North American 
butterflies are found in writings which are now almost unknown, 
except to the close student of science. Linnaeus described and 
named a number of the commoner North American species, and 
some of them were figured by Charles Clerck, his pupil, whose 
work entitled " Icones " was published at Stockholm in the year 
1759. Clerck's work is exceedingly rare, and th-e writer believes 
that he has in his possession the only copy in North America. 
Johann Christian Fabricius, a pupil of Linnseus, who was for 
some time a professor in Kiel, and attached to the court of the 
King of Denmark, published between the year 1775 and the year 
1798 a number of works upon the general subject of entomology, 
in which he gave descriptions, very brief and unsatisfactory, of 
a number of North American species. His descriptions were 
written, as were those of Linnaeus, in the Latin language. About 
the same time that Fabricius was publishing his works, Peter 
Cramer, a Dutchman, was engaged in giving to the world the 
four large quartos in which he endeavored to figure and describe 
the butterflies and moths of Asia, Africa, and America. Cramer's 
work was entitled " Papillons Exotiques," and contained recog- 
nizable illustrations of quite a number of the North American 
forms. The book, however, is rare and expensive to-day, but 
few copies of it being accessible to American students. 

Jacob Habner, who was born at Augsburg in the year 1761, 
undertook the publication, in the early part of the present century, 
of an elaborate work upon the European butterflies and moths, 
parallel with which he undertook a publication upon the butterflies 
and moths of foreign lands. The title of his work is '' Samm- 

69 



Books about North American Butterflies 

lung Exotischer Schmetterlinge." To this work was added, as an 
appendix, partly by Hubner and partly by his successor and co- 
laborer, Karl Geyer, another, entitled " Zutrage zur Sammlung 
Exotischer Schmetterlinge." The two works together are illus- 
trated by six hundred and sixty-four colored plates. This great 
publication contains some scattered figures of North American 
species. A good copy sells for from three hundred and fifty to 
four hundred dollars, or even more. 

The first work which was devoted exclusively to an account 
of the lepidoptera of North America was published in England 
by Sir James Edward Smith, who was a botanist, and who gave 
to the world in two volumes some of the plates which had been 
drawn by John Abbot, an Englishman who lived for a number of 
years in Georgia. The work appeared in two folio volumes, 
bearing the date 1797. It is entitled '' The Natural History of the 
Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia." It contains one hun- 
dred and four plates, in which the insects are represented in their 
various stages upon their appropriate food-plants. Smith and 
Abbot's work contains original descriptions of only about half a 
dozen of the North American butterflies, and figures a number of 
species which had been already described by earlier authors. 
It is mainly devoted to the moths. This work is now rare and 
commands a very high price. 

The next important work upon the subject was published by 
Dr. J. A. Boisduval of Paris, a celebrated entomologist, who was 
assisted by Major John E. Leconte. The work appeared in the 
year 1833, and is entitled " Histoire Generale et Monographie des 
Lepidopteres et des Chenilles de I'Amerique Septentrionale." It 
contains seventy-eight colored plates, each representing butterflies 
of North America, in many cases giving figures of the larva and 
the chrysalis as well as of the perfect insect. The plates were 
based very largely upon drawings made by John Abbot, and 
represent ninety-three species, while in the text there are only 
eighty-five species mentioned, some of which are not figured. 
What has been said of all the preceding works is also true of this : 
it is very rarely offered for sale, can only be found upon occasion, 
and commands a high price. 

In the year 1841 Dr. Thaddeus William Harris published "A 
Report on the Insects of Massachusetts which are Injurious to 
Vegetation." This work, which was originally brought out in 

70 



Books about North American Butterflies 

pursuance of an order of the legislature of Massachusetts, by 
the Commissioners of the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the 
State, was republished in 1842, and was followed by a third edi- 
tion in 1852. The last edition, revised and improved by Charles 
L. Flint, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 
ture, appeared in 1862. This work contains a number of figures 
and descriptions of the butterflies of New England, and, while now 
somewhat obsolete, still contains a great deal of valuable informa- 
tion, and is well worth being rescued by the student from the 
shelves of the second-hand book-stalls in which it is now and 
then to be found. For the New England student of entomology 
it remains to a greater or less extent a classic. 

In i860 the Smithsonian Institution published a "Catalogue 
of the Described Lepidoptera of North America," a compilation 
prepared by the Rev. John G. Morris. This work, though very far 
from complete, contains in a compact form much valuable in- 
formation, largely extracted from the writings of previous authors. 
It is not illustrated. 

With the book prepared by Dr. Morris the first period in the 
development of a literature relating to our subject may be said to 
close, and the reader will observe that until the end of the sixth 
decade of this century very little had been attempted in the way 
of systematically naming, describing, and illustrating the riches 
of the insect fauna of this continent. Almost all the work, with 
the exception of that done by Harris, Leconte, and Morris, had 
been done by European authors. 

Later Writers.— At the close of the Civil War this country 
witnessed a great intellectual awakening, and every department 
of science began 10 find its zealous students. In the annals of en- 
tomology the year 1868 is memorable because of the issue of 
the first part of the great work by William H. Edwards, entitled 
" The Butterflies of North America." This work has been within 
the last year (1897) brought to completion with the publication of 
the third volume, and stands as a superb monument to the scien- 
tific attainments and the inextinguishable industry of its learned 
author. The three volumes are most superbly illustrated, and con- 
tain a wealth of original drawings, representing all the stages in 
the life-history of numerous species, which has never been sur- 
passed. Unfortunately, while including a large number of the 
species known to inhabit North America, the book is nevertheless 

71 



Books about North American Butterflies 

not what its title would seem to imply, and is far from com- 
plete, several hundreds of species not being represented in any 
way, either in the text or in the illustrations. In spite of this 
fact it will remain to the American student a classic, holding a 
place in the domain of entomology analogous to that which is 
held in the science of ornithology by the ''Birds of America," 
by Audubon. 

A work even more elaborate in its design and execution, con- 
tained in three volumes, is ''The Butterflies of New England," by 
Dr. Samuel Hubbard Scudder, published in the year 1886. No 
more superbly illustrated and exhaustive monograph on any sci- 
entific subject has ever been published than this, and it must re- 
main a lasting memorial of the colossal industry and vast learning 
of the author, one of the most eminent scientific men whom 
America has produced. 

While the two great works which have been mentioned have 
illustrated to the highest degree not only the learning of their 
authors, but the vast advances which have been made in the art 
of illustration within the last thirty years, they do not stand alone 
as representing the activity of students in this field. A number 
of smaller, but useful, works have appeared from time to time. 
Among these must be mentioned " The Butterflies of the Eastern 
United States," by Professor G. H. French. This book, which 
contains four hundred and two pages and ninety-three figures in 
the text, was published in Philadelphia in 1886. It is an admi- 
rable little work, with the help of which the student may learn 
much in relation to the subject; but it greatly lacks in illustration, 
without which all such publications are not attractive or thor- 
oughly useful to the student. In the same year appeared " The 
Butterflies of New England," by C. J. Maynard, a quarto con- 
taining seventy-two pages of text and eight colored plates, the 
latter very poor. In 1878 Herman Strecker of Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania, published a book entitled " Butterflies and Moths of North 
America," which is further entitled "A Complete Synonymical 
Catalogue." It gives only the synonymy of some four hundred 
and seventy species of butterflies, and has never been continued 
by the author, as was apparently his intention. It' makes 
no mention of the moths, except upon the title-page. For 
the scientific student it has much value, but is of no value to 
a beginner. The same author published in parts a work illus- 

72 



Books about North American Butterflies 

trated by fifteen colored plates, entitled '' Lepidoptera— Rhopalo- 
ceres and Heteroceres— Indigenous and Exotic," which came out 
from 1872 to 1879, and contains recognizable figures of many 
North American species. 

In 1 89 1 there appeared in Boston, from the pen of C. J. May- 
nard, a work entitled " A Manual of North American Butterflies." 
This is illustrated by ten very poorly executed plates and a num- 
ber of equally poorly executed cuts in the text. The work is 
unfortunately characterized by a number of serious defects which 
make its use difficult and unsatisfactory for the correct determina- 
tion of species and their classification. 

In 1893 Dr. Scudder published two books, both of them use- 
ful, though brief, one of them entitled " The Life of a Butterfly," 
the other, "A Brief Guide to the Commoner Butterflies of the 
Northern United States and Canada." Both of these books were 
published in New York by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co., and con- 
tain valuable information in relation to the subject, being to a 
certain extent an advance upon another work published in 1881 
by the same author and firm, entitled " Butterflies." 

Periodical Literature.— Tht reader must not suppose that the 
only literature relating to the subject that we are considering is to 
be found in the volumes that have been mentioned. The original 
descriptions and the life-histories of a large number of the species 
of the butterflies of North America have originally appeared in the 
pages of scientific periodicals and in the journals and proceedings 
of different learned societies. Among the more important pub- 
lications which are rich in information in regard to our theme 
may be mentioned the publications relating to entomology issued 
by the United States National Museum, the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and by the various American commonwealths, 
chief among the latter being Riley's "Missouri Reports." Ex- 
ceedingly valuable are many of the papers contained in the 
" Transactions of the American Entomological Society," " Psyche," 
the "Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society" (1872- 
85), "Papilio" (1881-84), " Entomologica Americana" (1885-90), 
the "Journal of the New York Entomological Society," the 
"Canadian Entomologist," and "Entomological News." All of 
these journals are mines of original information, and the student 
who proposes to master the subject thoroughly will do well to 
obtain, if possible, complete sets of these periodicals, as well as 

13 



Books about North American Butterflies 

of a number of others which might be mentioned, and to sub- 
scribe for such of them as are still being published. 

There are a number of works upon general entomology, con- 
taining chapters upon the diurnal lepidoptera, which may be con- 
sulted with profit. Among the best of these are the following: 
"A Guide to the Study of Insects," by A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D. 
(Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1883, pp. 715, 8vo) ; "A Text- 
book of Entomology," by Alpheus S. Packard, M. D., etc. (The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 1898, pp. 729, 8vo) ; '*A Man- 
ual for the Study of Insects, " by John Henry Comstock (Comstock 
Publishing Company, Ithaca, New York, 1895, pp. 701, 8vo). 



HUGO'S ^'FLOWER TO BUTTERFLY" 

'* Sweet, live with me, and let my love 
Be an enduring tether; 
Oh, wanton not from spot to spot, 
But let us dwell together, 

" You 've come each morn to sip the sweets 
With which you found me dripping, 
Yet never knew it was not dew. 
But tears, that you were sipping. 

" You gambol over honey meads 
Where siren bees are humming ; 
But mine the fate to watch and wait 
For my beloved's coming. 

" The sunshine that delights you now 
Shall fade to darkness gloomy; 
You should not fear if, biding here, 
You nestled closer to me. 

" So rest you, love, and be my love. 
That my enraptured blooming 
May fill your sight with tender light. 
Your wings with sweet perfuming. 

" Or, if you will not bide with me 
Upon this quiet heather, 
Oh, give me wing, thou beauteous thing, 
That we may soar together." 

Eugene Field. 



74 



V* 



THE BUTTERFLIES 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 



" Lo, the bright train their radiant wings unfold! 
With silver fringed, and freckled o'er with gold : 
On the gay bosom of some fragrant flower 
They, idly fluttering, live their little hour; 
Their life all pleasure, and their task all play, 
All spring their age, and sunshine all their day." 

Mrs. Barbauld. 



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA 
SUBORDER RHOPALOCERA (BUTTERFLIES) 

FAMILY I 
NYMPHALID^ (THE BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES) 

The family of the Nymphalidae is composed of butterflies 
which are of medium and large size, though a few of the genera 
are made up of species which are quite small. They may be 
distinguished from all other butterflies by the fact that the first 
pair of legs in both sexes is atrophied or greatly reduced in size, 
so that they cannot be used in walking, but are carried folded up 
upon the breast. The fore feet, except in the case of the female of 
the snout-butterflies (Libytheinae), are without tarsal claws, and 
hence the name " Brush-footed Butterflies " has been applied to 
them. As the anterior pair of legs is apparently useless, they 
have been called "The Four-footed Butterflies," which is scien- 
tifically a misnomer. 

Egg.— Th& eggs of the Nymphalidae, for the most part, are 
dome-shaped or globular, and are marked with raised longitudinal 
lines extending from the summit toward the base over the entire 
surface or over the upper portion of the egg. Between these 
elevations are often found finer and less elevated cross-lines. In 
a few genera the surface of the eggs is covered with reticulations 
arranged in geometrical patterns (see Fig. i). 

Caterpillar.— The caterpillars of the Nymphalida^., as they 
emerge from the egg, have heads the diameter of which is larger 
than that of the body, and covered with a number of wart-like 

77 



Nymphalidae (the Brush-footed Butterflies) 

elevations from which hairs arise. The body of the immature 
larva generally tapers from before backward (see Plate III, Figs. 7 
and 11). The mature larva is cylindrical in form, sometimes, as 
in the Satyrinae, thicker in the middle. Often one or more of the 
segments are greatly swollen in whole or in part. The larvae are 
generally ornamented with fleshy projections or branching spines. 

Cbrysalids.— The chrysalids are for the most part angular, and 
often have strongly marked projections. As a rule, they hang with 
the head downward, having the cremaster, or anal hook, attached 
to a button of silk woven to the under surface of a limb of a tree, 
a stone, or some other projecting surface. A few boreal species 
construct loose coverings of threads of silk at the roots of grasses, 
and here undergo their transformations. The chrysalids are fre- 
quently ornamented with golden or silvery spots. 

This is the largest of all the families of butterflies, and it is 
also the most widely distributed. It is represented by species 
which have their abode in the cold regions of the far North and 
upon the lofty summits of mountains, where summer reigns for 
but a few weeks during the year; and it is enormously developed 
in equatorial lands, including here some of the most gloriously 
colored species in the butterfly world. But although these in- 
sects appear to have attained their most superb development in 
the tropics, they are more numerous in the temperate regions 
than other butterflies, and a certain fearlessness, and fondness 
for the haunts of men, which seems to characterize some of them, 
has brought them more under the eyes of observers. The lit- 
erature of poetry and prose which takes account of the life of 
the butterfly has mainly dealt with forms belonging to this great 
assemblage of species. 

In the classification of the brush-footed butterflies various 
subdivisions have been suggested by learned authors, but the 
species found in the United States and the countries lying north- 
ward upon the continent may be all included in the following six 
groups, or subfamilies : 

1. The Euploeince, the Euploeids. 

2. The Ithorniince, the Ithomiids. 

3. The Heliconiince, the Heliconians. 

4. The Nymphalince, the Nymphs. 

5. The Satyrincc, the Satyrs. 

6. The Libytheince, the Snout-butterflies. 

78 



Nymphalidas (the Brush-footed Butterflies) 

The insects belonging to these different subfamilies may be 
distinguished by the help of the following analytical table, which 
is based upon that of Professor Comstock, given in his "Man- 
ual for the Study of Insects" (p. 396), which in turn is based 
upon that of Dr. Scudder, in " The Butterflies of New England " 
(vol. i, p. 115). 

KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES OF THE NYMPHALID/^ OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

I. With the veins of the fore wings not greatly swollen at the base. 

A. Antennae naked. 

{a) Fore wings less than twice as long as hrosid—Etcplceince. 

(b) Fore wings twice as long as broad and often translucent, the ab- 
domen extending far beyond the inner margin of the hind wings 
— Ithomiince. 

B. Antennae clothed with scales, at least above. 

(a) Fore wings at least twice as long as broad — Heliconiince. 

(b) Fore wings less than twice as long as broad. 

1. Palpi not as long as the thorax — Nymphalince. 

2. Palpi much longer than the thorzx—Libftheince. 

II. With some of the veins of the fore wings greatly swollen at the hRse—Satjyrince. 

We now proceed to present the various genera and species of 
this family which occur within the territorial limits of which this 
book treats. The reader will do well to accompany the study of 
the descriptions, which are at most mere sketches, by a careful 
examination of the figures in the plates. In this way a very clear 
idea of the different species can in most instances be obtained. 
But with the study of the book should always go, if possible, 
the study of the living things themselves. Knowledge of nature 
founded upon books is at best second-hand. To the fields and 
the woods, then, net in hand! Splendid as may be the sight of a 
great collection of butterflies from all parts of the world, their 
wings 

" Gleaming with puiple and gold," 

no vision is so exquisite and so inspiring as that which greets the 
true aurelian as in shady dell or upon sun-lit upland, with the blue 
sky above him and the flowers all around him, he pursues his 
pleasant, self-imposed tasks, drinking in health at every step. 



79 



SUBFAMILY EUPLGEIN/E (THE MILKWEED 
BUTTERFLIES) 

" Lazily flying 
Over the flower-decked prairies, West; 
Basking in sunshine till daylight is dying, 
And resting all night on Asclepias' breast; 

Joyously dancing, 

Merrily prancing, 
Chasing his lady-love high in the air, 

Fluttering gaily, 

Frolicking daily. 
Free fi'om anxiety, sorrow, and care! " 
C. V. Riley. 

B7///t'r//r. — Large butterflies; heaci large; the antennae inserted 
on the summit, stout, naked, that is to say, not covered with 
scales, the club long and not broad; palpi stout; the thorax some- 
what compressed, with the top arched. The abdomen is mod- 
erately stout, bearing on the eighth segment, on either side, in the 
case of the male, clasps which are quite conspicuous. The fore 
wings are greatly produced at the apex and more or less excavated 
about the middle of the outer border; the hind wings are rounded 
and generally much smaller than the fore wings; the outer mar- 
gin is regular, without tails, and the inner margin is sometimes 
channeled so as to enfold the abdomen. The fore legs are 
greatly atrophied in the male, less so in the female; these atro- 
phied legs are not provided with claws, but on the other legs the 
claws are well developed. 

Egg.— The eggs are ovate conical, broadly flattened at the base 
and slightly truncated at the top, with many longitudinal ribs 
and transverse cross-ridges (see Fig. 4). 

Caterpillar.— On emerging from the chrysalis the head is not 
larger than the body ; the bodv has a few scattered hairs on each 

' 80 



Fx?:,A' 



4. 5«>,;jf.-i^-« i.. 

:bij bulsfL Edwards, r 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate VIL 




COPYRIGHTED BY W, J. KOLUAND. 18 



Euploeinae (the Milkweed Butterflies) 

segment. On reaching maturity the head is small, the body large, 
cylindrical, without hair, and conspicuously banded with dark 
stripes upon a lighter ground, and on some of the segments there 
are generally erect fleshy processes of considerable length (see 
Fig. i6). The caterpillars feed upon different species of the milk- 
weed {Asclepias). 

Chrysalis. —The chrysalis is relatively short and thick, rounded, 
with very few projections, tapers very rapidly over the posterior 
part of the abdomen, and is suspended by a long cremaster from 
a button of silk (see Fig. 24). The chrysalis is frequently orna- 
mented with golden or silver spots. 

This subfamily reaches its largest development in the tropical 
regions of Asia. Only one genus is represented in our fauna, 
the genus Anosia. 



Genus ANOSIA, Hubner 

^////^r/ji^.— Large-sized butterflies; fore wings long, greatly 
produced at the apex, having a triangular outline, the outer mar- 
gin approximately as long as the inner 
margin; the costal border is regularly 
bowed; the outer border is slightly exca- 
vated, the outer angle rounded; the hind 
wings are well rounded, the costal border 
projecting just at the base, the inner mar- 
gin likewise projecting at the base and 
depressed so as to form a channel clasp- 
ing the abdomen. On the edge of the 
first median nervule of the male, about 
its middle, there is a scent-pouch covered 
with scales. 

■^^^•— The egg is ovate conical, ribbed 
perpendicularly with many raised cross- 
lines between the ridges. The eggs are 
pale green in color. 

Caterpillar.— T\\t caterpillar is cylin- 
drical, fleshy, transversely wrinkled, and has on the second tho- 
racic and eighth abdominal segment pairs of very long and slender 
fleshy filaments; the body is ornamented by dark bands upon a 
greenish-yellow ground-color; the filaments are black. 

81 




78.— Neuration of 
genus Anosia. 



the 



Genus Anosia 

Chrysalis.— ^he chrysalis is stout, cylindrical, rapidly taper- 
ing on the abdomen, and is suspended from a button of silk by 
a long cremaster. The color of the chrysalis, is pale green, orna- 
mented with golden spots. 

The larvae of the genus Anosia feed for the most part upon 
the varieties of milkweed {Asclepias), and they are therefore 
called ''milkweed butterflies." There are two species of the 
genus found in our fauna, one, Anosia plexippus, Linnaeus, which 
is distributed over the entire continent as far north as southern 
Canada, and the other, Anosia herenice, Cramer, which is con- 
fined to the extreme southwestern portions of the United States, 
being found in Texas and Arizona. 

(i) Anosia plexippus, Linnaeus, Plate VII, Fig. i, $> (The 
Monarch). 

Butterfly.— The upper surface of the wings of this butterfly is 
bright reddish, with the borders and veins broadly black, with 
two rows of white spots on the outer borders and two rows of 
pale spots of moderately large size across the apex of the fore 
wings. The males have the wings less broadly bordered with 
black than the females, and on the first median nervule of the 
hind wings there is a black scent-pouch. 

Egg.— The egg is ovate conical, and is well represented in 
Fig. 4 in the introductory chapter of this book. 

Caterpillar . —The caterpillar is bright yellow or greenish-yel- 
low, banded with shining black, and furnished with black fleshy 
thread-like appendages before and behind. It likewise is well 
delineated in Fig. i6, as well as in Plate III, Fig. 5. 

Chrysalis.— The chrysalis is about an inch in length, pale 
green, spotted with gold (see Fig. 24, and Plate IV, Figs. 1-3). 

The butterfly is believed to be polygoneutic, that is to say, 
many broods are produced annually; and it is believed by writers 
that with the advent of cold weather these butterflies migrate 
to the South, the chrysalids and caterpillars which may be un- 
developed at the time of the frosts are destroyed, and that 
when these insects reappear, as they do every summer, they 
represent a wave of migration coming northward from the 
warmer regions of the Gulf States. It is not believed that any 
of them hibernate in any stage of their existence. This insect 
sometimes appears in great swarms on the eastern and southern 
coasts of New Jersey in late autumn. The swarms pressing 

82 



Genus Anosia 

southward are arrested by the ocean. The writer has seen 
stunted trees on the New Jersey coast in the middle of October, 
when the foliage has already fallen, so completely covered with 
clinging masses of these butterflies as to present the appearance 
of trees in full leaf (Fig. 79). 





' >\% 




'^V 




'^^ '■ 


"\ ■■•I 


fk 


■^ -^ i^\ 


■■%i 


, I i.^^(^Sl 








m^kW-^ 




■^'a^if 




• ••" >' V ^'.'^ 





Fig. 79.— Swarms of milkweed butterflies resting 
on a tree. Photographed at night by Professor C. F. 
Nachtiieb. (From " Insect Life," vol. v, p. 206, by 
special permission of the United States Department of 
Agriculture.) 

This butterfly is a great migrant, and within quite recent years, 
with Yankee instinct, has crossed the Pacific, probably on mer- 
chant vessels, the chrysalids being possibly concealed in bales of 
hay, and has found lodgment in Australia, where it has greatly 
multiplied in the warmer parts of the Island Continent, and has 
thence spread northward and westward, until in its migrations it 
has reached Java and Sumatra, and long ago took possession of 

83 



Genus Anosia 

the Philippines. Moving eastward on the lines of travel, it 
has established a more or less precarious foothold for itself in 
southern England, as many as two or three dozen of these butter- 
Hies having been taken in a single year in the United Kingdom. It 
is well established at the Cape Verde Islands, and in a short time 
we may expect to hear of it as having taken possession of the 
continent of Africa, in which the family of plants upon which the 
caterpillars feed is well represented. 

(2) Anosia berenice, Cramer, Plate VII, Fig. 2, S (The 
Queen). 

This butterlly is smaller than the Monarch, and the ground- 
color of the wings is a livid brown. The markings are some- 
what similar to those in A. plcxippiis, but the black borders of 
the hind wings are relatively wider, and the light spots on the 
apex of the fore wings are whiter and differently located, as 
may be learned from the figures given in Plate VII. 

There is a variety of this species, which has been called Anosia 
strigosa by H. W. Bates (Plate VII, Fig. 3, ^5 ), which differs only 
in that ow the upper surface of the hind wings the veins as far as 
the black outer margin are narrowly edged with grayish-white, 
giving them a streaked appearance. This insect is found in 
Texas, Arizona, and southern New Mexico. 

All of the Euplocinoe are '' protected " insects, being by nature 
provided with secretions which are distasteful to birds and pre- 
daceous insects. These acrid secretions are probably due to the 
character of the plants upon which the caterpillars feed, for many 
of them eat plants which are more or less rank, and some of them 
even poisonous to the higher orders of animals. Enjoying on 
this account immunity from attack, they have all, in the process 
of time, been mimicked by species in other genera which have 
not the same immunity. This protective resemblance is well il- 
lustrated in Plate VII. The three upper figures in the plate repre- 
sent, as we have seen, species of the genus Anosia; the two 
lower figures represent two species of the genus Basilarcbia. 
Fig. 4 is the male of B. if/s/ppi/s, a very common species in the 
northern United States, which mimicks the Monarch. Fig. ^ 
represents the same sex of B. hulstii, a species which is found 
in Arizona, and there flies in company with the Queen, and its 
variety, A. strigosa, which latter it more nearly resembles. 

84 



SUBFAMILY ITHOMIIN^ (THE LONG-WINGS) 

" There be Infects with little homes proaking out before their eyes, but weak and 
tender they be, and good for nothing ; as the Butterflies."— Pliny, Philemon Holland's 
Translation. 

Butterfly.— This subfamily is composed for the most part of 
species of moderate size, though a few are quite large. The fore 
wings are invariably greatly lengthened and are generally at least 
twice as long as broad. The hind wings are relatively small, 
rounded, and without tails. The wings in many of the genera 
are transparent. The extremity of the abdomen in both sexes 
extends far beyond the margin of the hind wings, but in the fe- 
male not so much as in the male. The antennae are not clothed 
with scales, and are very long and slender, with the club also long 
and slender, gradually thickening to the tip, which is often droop- 
ing. The fore legs are greatly atrophied in the males, the tibia 
and tarsi in this sex being reduced to a minute knob-like ap- 
pendage, but being more strongly developed in the females. 

The life-history of none of the species reputed to be found in our 
fauna has been carefully worked out. The larvae are smooth, cov- 
ered in most genera with longitudinal rows of conical prominences. 

The chrysalids are said to show a likeness to those of the 
Euploeinae, being short, thick, and marked with golden spots. 
Some authors are inclined to view this subfamily as merely con- 
stituting a section of the Euploeinae. The insects are, however, 
so widely unlike the true Euploeinae that it seems well to keep 
them separate in our system of classification. In appearance they 
approach the Heliconians more nearly than the Euploeids. Itho- 
miid butterflies swarm in the tropics of the New World, and sev- 
eral hundreds of species are known to inhabit the hot lands of 
Central and South America. But one genus is found in the Old 
World, Hamadryas, confined to the Australian region. They are 

85 



Ithomiinae (the Long-wings) 

protected like the Euploeids and the Heliconians. In flight they 
are said to somewhat resemble the dragon-flies of the genus 
Agrion, their narrow wings, greatly elongated bodies, and slow, 
flitting motion recalling these insects, which are known by school- 
boys as "darning-needles." 

Three genera are said to be represented in the extreme south- 
western portion of the United States. 1 myself have never re- 
ceived specimens of any of them which indisputably came from 
localities within our limits, and no such specimens are found in 
the great collection of Mr. W. H. Edwards, which is now in my 
possession. A paratype of Reakirt's species, Mechanitis califor- 
nica, is contained in the collection of Theodore L. Mead, which I 
also possess. Mr. Mead obtained it from Herman Strecker of 
Reading, Pennsylvania. Reakirt gives Los Angeles as the locality 
from which his type came ; but whether he was right in this is open 
to question, inasmuch, so far as is known, the species has not been 
found in that neighborhood since described by Reakirt. 

Genus MECHANITIS, Fabricius 



Butterfly. — ButtevHies of moderate size, with the fore wings 
greatly produced, the inner margin bowed out just beyond the 

base, and deeply excavated between this 
projection and the inner angle. The lower 
discocellular vein in the hind wings is 
apparently continuous with the median 
vein, and the lower radial vein being 
parallel with the median nervules, the 
median vein has in consequence the ap- 
pearance of being four-branched. The 
submedian vein of the fore wings is 
forked at the base. The costal margin 
of the hind wings is clothed with tufted 
erect hairs in the male sex. The fore 
legs of the male are greatly atrophied. 

Fig. 8o. — Neuration of the ^^ . • j .1 ^-i • i ■ r j j 

genus Mechanitis. The letters the tarsi and the tibia being fused and 
refer to the names of the veins, reduced to a Small knob-like appendage. 
( ee ig. 40.) j^^ ^^^^ j^^^ ^^ ^^^ female are also 

greatly reduced, but the tarsi and tibia are still recognizable as 
slender, thread-like organs. 

86 




Genus Mechanitis 

The caterpillars are smooth, cylindrical, ornamented with rows 
of short fleshy projections. 

The chrysalids are short and stout, suspended, and marked with 
golden spots. 

There are numerous species belonging to this genus, all natives 
of tropical America. The only species said to be found within 
the limits of the United States occurs, if at all, in southern Cali- 
fornia. It is, however, probably only found in the lower penin- 
sula of California, which is Mexican territory. No examples from 
Upper California are known to the writer. 

(i) Mechanitis californica, Reakirt, Plate VIII, Fig. 2, $ 
(The Calif ornian Long-wing). 

The original description given by Reakirt in the " Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia," vol. v, p. 223, is as 
follows: 

" Expanse, 2.45-2. 56 inches. Fore wing above, brownish-black ; 
a basal streak over the median nervure, and two rounded spots 
near the inner angle, orange-tawny; of these the outer is the 
largest, sometimes the inner is yellow, and sometimes both are 
nearly obsolete; a spot across the cell near its termination, much 
narrower than in M. isthmia, and in one example reduced to a 
mere dot on the median nervure; a more or less interrupted belt 
across the wing from the costa to near the middle of the outer 
margin, and an oblong subapical spot, yellow; in the specimen 
just mentioned there is an additional yellow spot below the 
medio-central veinlet. 

" Beneath the same, suffused with orange-tawny at the base 
and the inner angle, with a row of eight or nine submarginal 
white spots along the outer margin. 

" Hind wing above, orange-tawny, with a broad mesial band, 
entire, and a narrow outer border, from the middle of the costa to 
the anal angle, brownish-black. 

*' Beneath the same, a yellow spot on the root of the wing; a 
band runs along the subcostal nervure from the base to the mar- 
gin, where it is somewhat dilated ; immediately below its termina- 
tion, a mark in the form of an irregular figure 2, usually with the 
upper part inordinately enlarged; between this and the base, on 
the central line of the band above, three small subtriangular spots ; 
all these markings blackish-brown ; a submarginal row of seven 
white spots on the outer margin. 

87 



Genus Ceratinia 

"Body brownish; wing-lappets and thorax spotted with 
tawny-orange; antenn.T yellowish, with the base dusky. 

" HjI\ — Los Angeles, California."' 

The species is probably only a local race of the insect known 
to naturalists as M. poIyuDiia, Linn.xus. as Reakirt himself admits. 
The tlgure in the plate is from one of Reakirfs paratypes. 

Genus CERATINIA, Fabricius 

5////t7;//r. — Buttertlies oi medium size, very closely related in 
structure to the buttertlies of the genus Mccbaiiitis. The pecu- 
liarity of this genus, by which it mav 
^ be distinguished from others belong- 
uf? ing to this subfamily, is the fact that 
the loz.\i- discocellular vein in the hind 
wing of the male sex is strongly in- 
angled, while in the genus McdhDii- 
tis it is the middle discocellular vein 
of the hind wing which is bent in- 
wardly. 

Early SAz^t'^. — Unknown for the 
most part. 

There are at least tlfty species be- 
longing to this genus found in the 
tropical regions of America: only one 
FiG.Si.-Neuration of the genus is said to occur occasionally within the 
Ccratitiia. (For explanation ot limits of the reoion covered by this 

lettering, see Fig. 40.) , 

(i) Ceratinia lycaste, Fabricius. Plate\'IIl. Fig. ;. 5 (Lycaste). 

Biitltrjfw — The butterfly is rather small, wings semi-transpar- 
ent, especially at the apex of the fore wings. The ground-color 
is pale reddish-orange, with the border black. There are a few^ 
irregular black spots on the discal area of the fore wings, and 
a row of minute white spots on the outer border. There is a black 
band on the middle of the hind wings, curved to correspond some- 
what with the outline of the outer border. The markings on the 
under side are paler. The variety iiegreta, which is represented 
in the plate, has a small black spot at the end of the cell of the 
hind wings, replacing the black band in the form common upon 
the Isthmus of Panama. 




HXPI.ANATION OF l^l.ATH VIJI 
s, ■ 

D,rccnu.i klugi, Hubner, J'. .. HcJiconius cl.Kinlouius, Liniueus, J' 

Af<v/v;///;.wv7///o/7//(V. Reakirt, .'. „. CoAr;//. y////\^ Fabricius, f . 

Ccrjiiuui hctslc, Fabricius. ci\ ',. Diouc -cainll.v, LiniKeus! S' 

CoLruis dr!,lj, Fabriaus, ,f. s. EupioicLi iM^iivsia, Craniei-. ,f . 

o. F.iiploi.'Li claiuiij. Cramor, ^\ 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate VII 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOUL 



Genus Dircenna 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Reakirt says that this butterfly occurs about Los Angeles, in 
California, and the statement has been repeated by numerous 
authors, who have apparently based their assertions upon Reakirt's 
report. I have no personal knowledge of the occurrence of the 
species within our borders. It is very abundant, however, in the 
warmer parts of Mexico and Central America, and it may possibly 
occur as a straggler within the United States. 



Genus DIRCENNA, Doubleday 

Butterfly.— }Atd\\im-s>\ZQd butterflies, for the most part with 
quite transparent wings. The most characteristic features of this 

genus, separating it from its near allies, 
are the thread-like front feet of the fe- 
males, furnished with four-jointed tarsi 
(Fig.83), the very hairy palpi, 
and the wide cell of the hind 
wing, abruptly terminat- 
ing about the middle of the 
wing. Furthermore, in the 
male sex the hind wing is 
strongly bowed out about fig. 83.— 
the middle of the costal Fore leg of 
margm, and the costal vem uiugH, 9, 
tends to coalesce with the greatly mag- 
subcostal about the middle. 

Early Stages.— Vevy little is as yet 
known about the early stages of these 
insects, and what has been said of the 
characteristics of the caterpillars and 
chrysalids of the subfamily of the Ithomiinse must suffice us here. 
This genus numbers a large array of species which are found in 
the hottest parts of the tropics of the New World. They fairly 
swarm in wooded paths amid the jungle of the Amazonian region, 
and no collection, however small, is ever received from those 
parts without containing specimens belonging to the group. 

(i) Dircenna klugii, Hubner, Plate VIII, Fig. i, S (King's 
Dircenna). 

Butterfly. — Fore wings transparent gray, broken by clear, trans- 

89 




Fig. 82. 



•Neuration of the genus 
Dircenna. 



Genus Dircenna 

parent, colorless spots at the apex, on the outer borders, and on 
the middle of the wing. The inner margin of the fore wing 
is black. The hind wings are transparent yellowish, with a narrow 
black outer border marked with small whitish spots. The body 
is black, with the thorax spotted with white. Expanse, 2.75 
inches. 

The specimen figured in the plate is from Mexico. Whether 
the insect has ever been taken within the limits of the United 
States is uncertain. It is another of the species attributed to our 
fauna by Reakirt, but which since his day has not been caught 
in the nets of any of the numerous butterfly-hunters who have 
searched the region in which he said it occurs. It may, however, 
be found upon the borders of Mexico, in the hotter parts of 
which country it is not at all uncommon. The ''gentle reader" 
will kindly look for it when visiting Brownsville, Texas, and 
southern California, and, when finding it, herald the fact to the 
entomoloofical world. 



SUPERSTITIONS 

" If a butterfly alights upon your head, it foretells good news from a distance. 
This superstition obtains in Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

" The first butterfly seen in the summer brings good luck to him who catches it. 
This notion prevails in New York. 

" In western Pennsylvania it is believed that if the chrysalids of butterflies be found 
suspended mostly on the under sides of rails, limbs, etc., as it were to protect them 
from rain, there will soon be much rain, or, as it is termed, a 'rainy spell ' ; but, on the 
contrary, if they are found on twigs and slender branches, that the weather will be 
dry and clear."— Frank Cowan, Curious History of Insects, p. 229. 



90 



SUBFAMILY HELICONIIN^ (THE HELICONIANS) 

" Men, like butterflies, 
Show not their mealy wings but to the summer." 

Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, act iii, sc. iii. 



Medium or large-sized butterflies, with the fore wings twice 
as long as they are broad; the hind wings relatively small and 
rounded upon the outer margin; without tails. The palpi are 
produced. The antennae, which are nearly as long as the body, 
are provided at the tip with a gradually tapering club, thicker 
and stouter than in the Ithomiinae, and are clothed with scales 
on the upper surface. The fore legs are 
very feebly developed in both sexes. The 
eggs are cylindrical, twice as high as wide, 
tapering rather abruptly toward the apex, 
which is truncated ; they are ribbed longi- 
tudinally, with strongly developed cross- 
ridges, giving the Qgg a somewhat pitted 
appearance. The caterpillar, when emerg- 
ing from the egg, has the head somewhat 
larger than the body; each segment is 
clothed with hairs, which upon the first 
moult are replaced by branching spines. 
The caterpillar, when it reaches maturity, 
is provided with six branching spines on 
each segment. The chrysalis is very pecu- 
liar in shape, and is strongly angulated and covered with curious 
projections, which cause it to somewhat resemble a shriveled leaf. 

These butterflies are extremely numerous in the tropics of the 
New World, and are there represented by a number of genera which 
are rich in species. Most of them are very gaily colored, the preva- 
lent tints being black banded with yellow or crimson, sometimes 
marked with a brilliant blue luster. They are evidently very 
strongly protected. Belt, in his "Naturalist in Nicaragua," tells 

91 




Fig. 84. — Neuration of the 
genus Heliconius. 



Heliconiinse (the Heliconians) 

US that birds and other animals observed by him invariably re- 
fused to eat these butterflies, although they swarm in the forests ; 
and he vainly endeavored to induce a monkey which was very 
fond of insects to eat them, the creature revealing by his grimaces 
that they were extremely distasteful to him. Mr. Wallace believes 
their immunity from attack is owing to a " strong, pungent, semi- 
aromatic, or medicinal odor, which seems to pervade all the juices 
of their system." 

Genus HELICONIUS, Latreille 

The description of the subfamily applies to the genus sufficiently 
well to obviate the necessity of a more particular description, as 
there is but a single species in our fauna. 

(i) Heliconius charitonius, Linnseus, Plate VllI, Fig. 5, $ 
(The Yellow-barred Heliconian; The Zebra). 

This insect is a deep black, the fore wings crossed by three 
bands of yellow: one near the apex; another running from the 
middle of the costa to the middle of the outer margin; a third 
running along the lower edge of the cell, and bending at an 
obtuse angle from the point where the first median nervule 
branches toward the outer angle, at its outer extremity followed 
by a small yellow dot. The hind wings are crossed by a some- 
what broad band of yellow running from the inner margin near 
the base toward the outer angle, which it does not reach, and by 
a submarginal curved band of paler yellow spots, gradually 
diminishing in size from the inner margin toward the outer angle. 
There are also a number of small twinned whitish spots on the 
margin of the hind wing near the anal angle. The body is black, 
marked with yellow spots and lines; on the under side both 
wings are touched with crimson at their base, and the hind wings 
have some pale pinkish markings near the outer angle. 

The caterpillar feeds upon the passion-flower. The chrysalis, 
which is dark brown, has the power when disturbed of emitting 
a creaking sound as it wriggles about, a property which is re- 
ported to be characteristic of all the insects in the genus. This 
butterfly is found in the hotter portions of the Gulf States, and is 
rather abundant in Florida, in the region of the Indian River and 
on the head waters of the St. Johns. It ranges southward all 
over the lowlands of Mexico, Central America, and the Antilles. 

92 



1 



SUBFAMILY NYMPHALINv^ (THE NYMPHS) 

" Entomology extends the limits of being in new directions, so that I walk in 
nature with a sense of greater space and freedom. It suggests, besides, that the 
universe is not rough-hewn, but perfect in its details. Nature will bear the closest 
inspection; she invites us to lay our eye level with the smallest leaf and take an 
insect view of its plane." — Thoreau. 

" My butterfly-net and pocket magnifying-glass are rare companions for a walk 
in the country." — William Hamilton Gibson, Sharp Eyes, p. 117. 

Butterfly. — The butterflies of this subfamily are mainly of 
moderate or large size, though some of the genera contain quite 
small species. The antennae are always more or less heavily 
clothed with scales, and are usually as long as the abdomen, and 
in a few cases even longer. The club is always well developed; 
it is usually long, but in some genera is short and stout. The 
palpi are short and stout, densely clothed with scales and hairs. 
The thorax is relatively stout, in some genera exceedingly so. 
The fore wings are relatively broad, the length being to the breadth 
in most cases in the ratio of '5 to 3, or 3 to 2, though in a few 
mimetic forms these wings are greatly produced, and narrow, 
patterning after the outline of the Heliconians and Ithomiids, which 
they mimic. The fore wings are in most genera produced at the 
apex, and more or less strongly excavated on the outer margin 
below the apex. The discoidal cell is usually less than half the 
length of the wing from base to tip. It is occasionally open, but 
is more generally closed at its outer extremity by discocellular 
veins diminishing in thickness from the upper to the lower outer 
angle of the cell. The costal nervure usually terminates midway 
between the end of the cell and the tip. The two inner subcostal 
nervules usually arise before the end of the cell; the outer sub- 
costal nervules invariably arise beyond the end of the cell. 

The hind wings are rounded or angulated, with the outer 

93 



Nymphalinae (the Nymphs) 

border scalloped or tailed; the inner border always affords a 
channel for the reception of the abdomen. The costal nervule 
invariably terminates at the external angle of this wing. The 
discoidal cell is frequently open, or simply closed by a slender 
veinlet, which it is not always easy to detect; the anal vein is 
never lacking. 

The fore legs are greatly reduced in the male, less so in the 
female. 

E^g. — The tgg is either somewhat globular, or else barrel- 
shaped, with the sides marked with net-like elevations, or verti- 
cally ribbed (see Figs, i, 8, lo). 

Caterpillar. — When first emerging from the egg the caterpillar is 
generally furnished with long hairs rising singly from wart-like ele- 
vations which are arranged either in longitudinal rows or in geo- 
metric patterns (Fig. 85). 
As the caterpillars pass 
their successive moults 
the hairs are transformed 
into branching spines or 
tubercles (see Plate III, 
Figs. 28-38). 

Chrysalis. — The chrys- 
alis invariably hangs sus- 
pended from a button of silk, and is frequently furnished, 
especially on the dorsal or upper surface, with a number of 
prominences; the head is usually bifurcate, or cleft (see Plate IV, 
Figs. 21, 39, etc.). 

This is the largest of all the subfamilies of the butterflies, and 
is widely distributed, including many of the most beautifully 
colored and most vigorous species which are known. There are 
twenty-six genera represented in our fauna, containing about one 
hundred and seventy species. 




Fig. 85. 
hatched. 



- Caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa, just 
(Greatly magnified.) (After Scudder.) 



Genus COLiENIS, Doubleday 

Butterfly. — Butterflies of moderately large size, the fore 
wings greatly produced and relatively narrow; the hind wings 
evenly rounded and relatively small, of bright reddish-brown 
color, with darker markings. The species are mimics, and in the 
elongation of their wings reveal the influence of the Heliconians, 

94 



Genus Colaenis 




Fig. 86. — Neura- 
tion of the genus Co- 
Icenis, slightly less 
than natural size. 



protected species, which abound in the regions in which the genus 
attains its greatest development. The median vein in the upper 
wing is characterized by the presence at the base of a minute, 
thorn-like, external projection ; the second subcostal nervule is 
emitted beyond the cell; the cell of the hind 
wing is open. 

The life-history of the two species found 
within our fauna has not as yet been carefully 
worked out, and aside from a knowledge of 
the fact that the caterpillars closely resemble 
in many respects the caterpillars of the two 
succeeding genera, being provided with branch- 
ing spines on their bodies, we do not know as 
yet enough to give any complete account of 
the early stages of these insects. 

(i) Colaenis julia, Fabricius, Plate VllI, 
Fig. 6, 6 (Julia). 

The upper side is dark reddish-orange, the 
borders are black, a black band extends from 
the costa at the end of the cell to the outer margin on the line of 
the third median nervule; the costal area on the hind wings is 
silver-gray; the wings on the under side are pale rusty-red, mot- 
tled with a few darker spots, principally on the costa, at the 
end of the cell, and at the apex of the primaries. There are a few 
crimson marks at the base of the hind wings, and two light-colored 
lunules near the inner angle of the hind wings. Expanse of wing, 
3.50 inches. 

This butterfly, which mimics the genus Heliconius in the out- 
line of the wings, is very common in the tropics of America, and 
only appears as an occasional visitant in southern Texas. 

(2) Colaenis delila, Fabricius, Plate VllI, Fig. 4, 6 (Delila). 

The Delila Butterfly very closely resembles Julia, and princi- 
pally differs in being paler in color and without the black band 
extending from the costa to the outer margin of the primaries. 
This species has nearly the same form and the same size as the 
preceding, and, like it, is occasionally found in southern Texas. 
It is very common in Central America and the West Indies. One 
of the earliest memories of my childhood relates to a collection of 
Jamaican butterflies in which were a number of specimens of this 
butterfly, which 1 have always much admired. 

95 



Genus Dione 

Genus DIONE, Hubner 
(Agraulis, Boisd.-Lec.) 

Butterfly. — \\t2id. large, the antennse moderately long, with 
the club flattened; the tip of the abdomen does not extend 
beyond the inner margin of the hind wings; the cell of the hind 
wings is open ; the primaries are elongated, nearly twice as long as 
broad, with the exterior margin excavated; the secondaries at the 
outer margin denticulate. The prevalent color of the upper side of 
the wings is fulvous, adorned with black 
spots and lines, the under side of the wings 
paler brown, in some of the species laved 
with pink and brilliantly adorned with large 
silvery spots, as in the genus Argynnis. 

Egg, — Conoidal, truncated on top, with 
fourteen ribs running from the apex to the 
base, between which are rows of elevated 
striae, causing the surface to appear to be 
covered with quadrangular pits. 

Larva. — The caterpillar is cylindrical in 
its mature stage, tapering a little from the 
middle toward the head, which is some- 
what smaller than the body. The head and 
Fig. 87.— Neuration of the each segment of the body are adorned with 

genus Dione. . , r . 

branchmg spines. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is suspended, and has on the dorsal 
surface of the abdomen a number of small projections. At the 
point where the abdominal and thoracic segments unite on the 
dorsal side there is a deep depression, succeeded on the middle 
of the thorax by a rounded elevation composed of the wing-cases. 
At the vertex of the chrysalis there is a conical projection; on the 
ventral side the chrysalis is bowed outwardly. 

This genus is confined to the New World, and contains five 
species. It is closely related to the genus Colcenis on the one 
hand and to the genus Argynnis on the other. It is distinguished 
from Colcenis by the more robust structure of the palpi, which 
closely approximate in form the palpi of the genus Argynnis. It 
is distinguished from the species of the genus Argynnis by the 
form of the wings and by the open cell of the secondaries. The 
larva feeds upon the different species of the genus Passiflora. 

96 




Genus Dione 

I cannot at all agree with those who have recently classed this 
butterfly with the Heliconians. In spite of certain resemblances 
in the early stages between the insect we are considering and 
the early stages of some of the Heliconians, and in spite of the 
shape of the wings, which are remarkably elongated, there are 
structural peculiarities enough to compel us to keep this insect 
ifi the ranks of the Nymphalinae, where it has been placed for 
sixty years by very competent and critical observers. In a popu- 
lar work like this it manifestly is out of place to enter into a 
lengthy discussion of a question of this character, but it seems 
proper to call attention to the fact that in the judgment of the 
writer the location of this genus in the preceding subfamily does 
violence to obvious anatomical facts. 

(i) Dione vanillae, Linnseus, Plate Vlll, Fig. 7, $> (The Gulf 
Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The upper side is bright fulvous; the veins on the 
fore wings are black, very heavy near the tip; there are four 
black spots on the outer border, and three discal spots of the 
same color; there are three irregular black spots toward the end 
of the cell, pupiled with white; the hind wings have a black 
border inclosing rounded spots of the ground-color; between the 
base and the outer margin there are three or four black spots ; the 
under side of the fore wings is light orange, the markings of 
the upper side showing through upon the under side; the apex 
of the front wing is brown, inclosing light silvery spots; the sec- 
ondaries are brown, with numerous elongated bright silver spots 
and patches. The female does not differ from the male, except 
that she is darker and the markings are heavier. Expanse, 2.50 
-3.25 inches. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, with the head 
somewhat smaller than the body, pale yellowish-brown in color, 
marked with longitudinal dark-brown bands, of which the two 
upon the side are deeper in color than the one upon the back, 
which latter is sometimes almost entirely effaced; the base is 
slaty-black. There are orange spots about the spiracles. There 
are six rows of black branching spines upon the body, and two 
similar spines upon the head, these latter somewhat recurved. 
The feet and legs are black. The caterpillar feeds upon the 
various species of passion-flower which are found in the South- 
ern States. 

97 



Genus Euptoieta 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is dark brown, marked with a few 
small pale spots. 

This species ranges from the latitude of southern Virginia 
southward to Arizona and California. It is abundant also in the 
Antilles and Mexico. 



Genus EUPTOIETA, Doubleday 

Butterfly. — Butterflies of medium size, having wings of a 
yellowish-brown color, marked with black, the under side of 
the wings devoid of silvery spots such as are found in the gen- 
era Dione and Argynnis. The palpi have 
the second joint strongly developed, increas- 
ing in thickness from behind forward, and 
thickly covered with long hair; the third joint 
is very small and pointed; the antennae are ter- 
minated by a conspicuous pear-shaped club. The 
cell of the fore wing is closed by a very feeble 
lower discocellular vein, which unites with the 
median vein at the origin of the second median 
nervule; the cell of the hind wing is open, 
Fig. 88.— Neura- though occasionally there are traces of a feebly 
^E^t'^^t^^ ^^""^ developed lower discocellular vein on this wing. 
The outer margin of the fore wing is slightly ex- 
cavated below the apex ; the outer margin of the hind wing is some- 
what strongly produced at the end of the third median nervule. 

Egg. — Short, subconical, with from thirty to forty vertical 
ribs, pale green in color. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, with short branch- 
ing spines arranged in longitudinal rows upon the body, the 
spines on the first segment being bent forward over the head. 
The head is somewhat smaller in the mature stage than the body. 
Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is suspended, marked upon its 
dorsal side with a number of small angular eminences, with the 
head and the ventral side evenly rounded. 

The larva of these insects feeds upon the various species of 
passion-flower. It is also said to feed upon violets. The butter- 
flies frequent open fields, and are sometimes exceedingly abun- 
dant in worn-out lands in the Southern States. 

There are two species of this genus, both of which are found 




Nymphalinae (the Nymphs) 

within the United States, and range southwardly over the greater 
portion of Central and South America. 

(i) Euptoieta claudia, Cramer, Plate VIII, Fig. 9, $ (The 
Variegated Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of both wings is dull ferruginous, 
darker toward the base, crossed by an irregular black median 
line, which is darker, broader, and more zigzag on the fore wing 
than on the hind wing. This line is followed outwardly on both 
wings by a pair of more or less wavy limbal lines, inclosing 
between them a series of round blackish spots. The outer mar- 
gin is black, with the fringes pale fulvous, checkered with black 
at the end of each nervule. At the end of the cell in the fore 
wing there are two black lines inclosing paler fulvous spots, and 
both wings near the base have some curved black lines. On the 
under side the fore wings are marked somewhat as on the upper 
side, but paler in color, with a large apical patch of brownish- 
gray broken by a transverse band of darker brown. The hind 
wings are dark brown, with the markings of the upper side 
obscurely repeated ; they are mottled with gray and crossed by a 
broad central band of pale buff. 

The species varies very much, according to locality, both in size 
and in the depth of the markings. Expanse, 1.75-2.75 inches. 

£^^.— The Qgg is conoidal, relatively taller than the eggs of 
the genus Argynnis, which closely resemble it. There is a 
depression at the apex, surrounded by a serrated rim, formed by 
the ends of the vertical ribs, of which there are about twenty, 
some longer and some shorter, about half of them reaching from 
the apex to the base. Between these vertical ribs there are a 
multitude of smaller cross-ridges. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, reddish-yellow in 
color, marked with two brown lateral bands and a series of white 
spots upon the back. There are six rows of short branching 
spines upon the body, which are black in color; the two upper- 
most of these spines on the first segment are much elongated 
and are directed forward. The head is smaller than the body in 
the mature caterpillar, and is black. On the under side the cater- 
pillar is pale or whitish ; the legs are blackish-brown. It feeds 
upon the passion-flower. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pearly- white, marked with black 
spots and longitudinal streaks. 

99 



Genus Euptoieta 

This species has been taken as far north as Long Island and 
Connecticut, though it is a very rare visitant in New England; it 
is quite common in Virginia and thence southward, and occurs 
not infrequently in southern Illinois and Indiana, ranging west- 
ward and southward over the entire continent to the Isthmus of 
Panama, and thence extending over the South American conti- 
nent, wherever favorable conditions occur. 

(2) Euptoieta hegesia, Cramer, Plate VIII, Fig. 8, $ (The 
Mexican Fritillary). 

The upper side is marked very much as in the preceding 
species, but all the lines are finer and somewhat more regular,, 
and the basal and discal areas of the hind wings are without dark 
spots in most specimens. The under side is less mottled and 
more uniformly dark rusty-brown than in E. claudia. Expanse, 
about 2 inches. 

The life-history of this species has not as yet been thoroughly 
worked out, but there is every reason to believe that the insect 
in its early stages very closely approaches the Variegated Frit- 
illary. It is a Southern form, and only occasionally is taken in 
Arizona and southern California. It is common in Central and 
South America. 

LUTHER'S SADDEST EXPERIENCE 

• ' Luther, he was persecuted, Of a diet of worms 

Excommunicated, hooted, He was forced to partake— 

Disappointed, egged, and booted; Of a diet of worms 

Yelled at by minutest boys, For the Protestants' sake; 

Waked up by nocturnal noise, Munching crawling caterpillars, 

Scratched and torn by fiendish cats, Beetles mixed with moths and millers ; 

Highwayed by voracious rats. Instead of butter, on his bread, 

A sauce of butterflies was spread. 

" Oft upon his locks so hoary Was not this a horrid feast 

Water fell from upper story ; For a Christian and a priest? 
Oft a turnip or potato 

Struck upon his back or pate, Oh! " Now, if you do not credit me, 

And wherever he betook him, Consult D'Aubigne's history, 

A papal bull was sure to hook him. You '11 find what I have told you 

Most fearfully and sternly true," 

" But the saddest of all Yale Literary Maga:(ine, 18^2. 
I am forced to relate : 



100 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate IX. 




:pyRIGHTED by W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



'J- .,ll*i'*S--^'--t^ii£¥£^' 



1 



Genus Argynnis 



Genus ARGYNNIS, Fabricius 

(The Fritillaries, the Silver-spots) 

""July is the gala-time of butterflies. Most of them have just left the chrysalis, 
and their wings are perfect and very fresh in color. All the sunny places are bright 
with them, yellow and red and white and brown, and great gorgeous fellows in 
rich velvet-like dresses of blue-black, orange, green, and maroon. Some of them 
have their wings scalloped, some fringed, and some plain; and they are ornamented 
with brilliant borders and fawn-colored spots and rows of silver crescents. . . , 
They circle about the flowers, fly across from field to field, and rise swiftly in the 
air; little ones and big ones, common ones and rare ones, but all bright and airy 
and joyous- — a midsummer carnival of butterflies." — Frank H. Sweet. 

Butterfly. — Butterflies of medium or large size, generally 
with the upper surface of the wings reddish-fulvous, with well- 
defined black markings consisting of waved transverse lines, 
and rounded discal and sagittate black mark- 
ings near the outer borders. On the under 
side of the wings the design of the fore wings 
is generally somewhat indistinctly repeated, 
and the hind wings are marked more or less 
profusely with large silvery spots. In a few 
cases there is wide dissimilarity in color be- 
tween the male and the female sex; gener- 
ally the male sex is marked by the brighter 
red of the upper surface, and the female by 
the broader black markings, the paler ground- 
color, and the sometimes almost white lunules, 
which are arranged outwardly at the base of 
the sagittate spots along the border. 

The eyes are naked; the palpi strongly 
developed, heavily clothed with hair rising 
above the front, with the last joint very small and pointed. The 
antennae are moderately long, with a well-defined, flattened club. 
The abdomen is shorter than the hind wings; the wings are 
more or less denticulate. The subcostal vein is provided with 
five nervules, of which the two innermost are invariably given 
forth before the end of the cell; the third subcostal nervule 
always is nearer the fourth than the second. The cell of the 
fore wing is closed by a fine lower discocellular vein, which 
invariably joins the median vein beyond the origin of the second 

lOI 




Fig. 89. — Neuration of 
the genus Argynnis. 



I 



Genus Argynnis 



nervule. The hind wing has a well-define.d precostal nervule; 
the cell in this wing is closed by a moderately thick lower disco- 
cellular vein, which joins the median exactly at the origin of the 
second median nervule. The fore feet of the males are slender, 
long, and finely clothed with hair. The fore feet of the females 
are of the same size as those of the males, but thin, covered with 
scales, and only on the inner side of the tibiae clothed with mod- 
erately long hair. 

Egg. — The eggs are conoidal, truncated, and inwardly de- 
pressed at the apex, rounded at the base, and ornamented on the 
sides by parallel raised ridges, not all of which reach the apex. 
Between these ridges there are a number of small raised cross- 
ridges. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, covered with spines, 
the first segment always bearing a pair of spines somewhat 
longer than the others. All of the species in North America, so 
far as their habits are known, feed upon violets at night. During 
the daytime the caterpillars lie concealed. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is angular, adorned with more or 
less prominent projections. The head is bifid. 

The genus Argynnis is one of the largest genera of the brush- 
footed butterflies. It is well represented in Europe and in the 
temperate regions of Asia, some magnificent species being found 
in the Himalayas and in China and Japan. It even extends to 
Australia, and recently two species have been discovered in the 
vicinity of the great volcanic peak, Kilima-Njaro, in Africa. But 
it has found its greatest development upon the continent of North 
America. The species composing this genus are among our most 
beautiful butterflies. Owing to the fact that there is a great ten- 
dency in many of the forms closely to approximate one another, the 
accurate distinction of many of the species has troubled natural- 
ists, and it is quite probable that some of the so-called species will 
ultimately be discovered to be merely local races or varietal forms. 
The species that are found in the eastern part of the United States 
have been studied very carefully, and their life-history has been 
worked out so thoroughly that little difficulty is found in accu- 
rately determining them. The greatest perplexity occurs in con- 
nection with those species which are found in the region of the 
Rocky Mountains. While silvery spots are characteristic of the 
under side of most of the fritillaries, in some species the silvery 

1 02 



i 



Genus Argynnis 

Spots are not found ; in others they are more or less evanescent, 
occurring in the case of some individuals, and being absent in the 
case of others. 

(i) Argynnis idalia, Drury, Plate X, Fig. 3, ? ; Plate V, 
Fig. 4, chrysalis (The Regal Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the fore wings of the male is 
bright fulvous, marked very much as in other species of the genus. 
The upper side of the hind wings is black, glossed with blue, 
having a marginal row of fulvous and a submarginal row of 
cream-colored spots. On the under side the fore wings are ful- 
vous, with a marginal row of silver crescents, and some silvery 
spots on and near the costa. The hind wings are dark olive-brown, 
marked with three rows of large irregular spots of a dull greenish- 
silvery color. The female is at once distinguished from the male 
by having the marginal row of spots on the hind wings cream- 
colored, like the submarginal row, and by the presence of a 
similar row of light spots on the fore wings. . Expanse, 2.75- 
4.00 inches. 

Egg. — The tgg in form is like those of other species of 
Argynnis, 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar moults five times before attaining 
to maturity. When fully developed it is 1.75 inches long, black, 
banded and striped with ochreous and orange-red, and adorned 
with six rows of fleshy spines surmounted by several black 
bristles. The spines composing the two dorsal rows are white, 
tipped with black; those on the sides black, tinted with orange 
at the point where they join the body. The caterpillar feeds on 
violets, and is nocturnal in its habits. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is brown, mottled with yellow and 
tinted on the wing-cases with pinkish. It is about an inch long, 
and in outline does not depart from the other species of the genus. 

This exceedingly beautiful insect ranges from Maine to Ne- 
braska. It is found in northern New Jersey, the mountainous 
parts of New York and northern Pennsylvania, and is reported 
from Arkansas and Nebraska. It is rather local, and frequents 
open spots on the borders of woodlands. At times it is appa- 
rently common, and then for a succession of seasons is scarce. It 
flies from the end of June to the beginning of September. 

(2) Argynnis diana, Cramer, Plate IX, Fig. i, .5 ; Fig. 2, ? 
(Diana). 

103 



Genus Argynnis 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side has both wings deep 
rich brown, bordered with fulvous, this border being more or 
less interrupted by rays of brown along the nervules and two 
rows of circular brown spots, larger on the fore wings than on 
the hind wings. The wings on the under side are pale buff, 
deeply marked with black on the base and middle of the fore 
wings, and clouded with grayish-fulvous on the inner two thirds 
of the hind wings. A blue spot is located near the end of the 
cell in the fore, wings, and the hind wings are adorned by a mar- 
ginal and submarginal row of narrow silvery crescents and a few 
silvery spots toward the base. The female on the upper side is 
a rich bluish-black, with the outer border of the fore wings marked 
by three rows of bluish-white quadrate spots, the outer row 
being the palest, and often quite white. The hind wings are 
adorned by three more or less complete rows of bright-blue 
spots, the inner row composed of large subquadrate spots, each 
having a circular spot of black at its inner extremity. On the 
under side the female has the ground-color slaty-brown, paler on 
the hind wings than on the fore wings, which latter are richly 
marked with blue and black spots. The silvery crescents found 
on the under side of the hind wings of the male reappear on the 
under side of the female, and are most conspicuous on the outer 
margins. Expanse, 3.25-4.00 inches. 

Egg.— The egg is pale greenish-white, and conformed in out- 
line to type. 

Caterpillar. — The larva is velvety-black, adorned with six 
rows of fleshy spines armed with bristles. The spines are 
orange-red at the base. The head is dull brown. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is dusky-brown, with lighter-col- 
ored short projections on the dorsal side. 

This splendid butterfly, which is the most magnificent species 
of the genus, is confined to the southern portion of the Appala- 
chian region, occurring in the two Virginias and Carolinas, norths 
ern Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and being occasionally 
found in the southern portion of Ohio and Indiana, and in Mis- 
souri and Arkansas. 

(3) Argynnis nokomis, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. i, ^ ; Fig. 
2, $ (Nokomis). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is bright fulvous, with 
the characteristic black markings of the genus. On the under 

104 



Explanation of Plate X 

/ ;. PHvvir.k ^ 6 Arffynnis alcesUs, Edwards, r^' 

Jroymiis uohonus, hawaius, cj • ^- ^'*-^ 

^;..;/;;;.;io/.o;;m. Edwards, ?. tmder side. 

1 ■ r../n-,<i< Fdwards r^ H Arffynnis electa, Edwards, J'. 

*^ , . , o Anrvnins atlaiilis, Edwaid^, i . 

under Side. ^'- '^'*- 

5. Arg villi is nioiitivagci, Behr, c^, /n/rf<'r .si^<'. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate X. 




GHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND 



I 



f 



Genus Argynnis 

side the wings are pale greenish-yellow, with the fore wings 
laved with bright pink at the base and on the inner margin. 
The spots of the upper side reappear on the under side as spots 
of silver bordered narrowly with black. The female has the 
ground-color of the upper side yellow, shaded outwardly with 
fulvous. All the dark markings of the male sex reappear in this 
sex, but are much broader, and tend to fuse and run into one 
another, so as to leave the yellow ground-color as small subquad- 
rate or circular spots, and wholly to obliterate them at the base 
of the wings. On the under side this sex is marked like the male, 
but with all the markings broader. Expanse, 3.40-3.60 inches. 

This species, the male of which resembles the male of A, leto, 
and the female the same sex of A. diana, is as yet quite rare in 
collections. It has been taken in Arizona and southern Utah. 
We have no knowledge of the life-history of the species. 

(4) Argynnis nitocris, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 4, ^ , under 
side (Nitocris). 

Butterfly. — The male is bright reddish-fulvous, marked like A. 
nokomis. The under side of the fore wings is cinnamon-red, 
ochre-yellow at the tip. The hind wings are deep rusty-red, 
with a broad yellowish-red submarginal belt. The silver spots 
are as in A. nokomis. The female on the upper side is blackish- 
brown, darker than A. nokomis. The extradiscal spots in the 
transverse rows are pale yellow, and the submarginal spots 
whitish. The under side of the fore wings is bright red, with 
the tip yellow. The hind wings on this side are dark brown, with 
a submarginal yellow belt. Expanse, 3.25-3.75 inches. 

This species, like the preceding, is from Arizona, and nothing 
is known of its e^g, caterpillar, or chrysalis. 

(5) Argynnis leto, Edwards, Plate IX, Fig. 5, S ; Fig. 6, $ 
(Leto). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is marked much as A. 
nokomis, but the ground-color is duller red, and the basal area is 
much darker. The under side of the fore wings is pale fulvous, 
upon which the markings of the upper side reappear; but there are 
no marginal silver crescents. Both wings on the under side are 
shaded with brown toward the base; the hind wings are trav- 
ersed by a submarginal band of light straw-yellow. The female 
is marked as the male, but the ground-color is pale straw-yellow, 
and all the darker markings are deep blackish-brown, those 

105 



Genus Argynnis 

at the base of both wings being broad and running into one an- 
other, so that the inner half of the wings appears to be broadly 
brownish-black. On the under side this sex is marked as the 
male, but with the dark portions blacker and the lighter portions 
pale yellow. Expanse, 2.50-3.23 inches. 

The life-history of this insect remains to be worked out. It is 
one of our most beautiful species, and occurs in California and 
Oregon. 

(6) Argynnis cybele, Fabricius, Plate IX, Fig. 3, 5 ; Fig. 4, 
$ ; Plate XIll, Fig. i, ?, vtnder side; Plate V, Figs. 1-3, chrys- 
alis (The Great Spangled Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The male is much like the male oi A. leto, but the 
dark markings of the upper surface are heavier, and the under 
sides of the hind wings are more heavily silvered. The yellow- 
ish-buff submarginal band on the under side of the hind wings is 
never obliterated by being invaded by the darker ferruginous of 
the marginal and discal tracts of the wing. The female has the 
ground-color of the wings paler than the male, and both wings 
from the base to the angled median band on the upper side are 
dark chocolate-brown. All the markings of the upper side in 
this sex are heavier than in the male. On the under side the fe- 
male is like the male. Expanse, 3.00-4.00 inches. 

Egg. — Short, conoidal, ribbed like those of other species, and 
honey-yellow. 

Caterpillar. — The larva in the mature state is black. The head 
is blackish, shaded with chestnut behind. The body is orna- 
mented with six rows of shining black branching spines, gen- 
erally marked with orange-red at their base. The caterpillar, 
which is nocturnal, feeds on violets, hibernating immediately 
after being hatched from the tgg, and feeding to maturity in the 
following spring. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is dark brown, mottled with reddish- 
brown or slaty-gray. 

This species, which ranges over the Atlantic States and the 
valley of the Mississippi as far as the plains of Nebraska, appears 
to be single-brooded in the North and double-brooded in Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, and the Western States having the same 
geographical latitude. A small variety of this species, called A. 
carpenteri by Mr. W. H. Edwards, is found in New Mexico 
upon the top of Taos Peak, and is believed to be isolated here in 

106 



Genus Argynnis 

a colony, as CEneis semidea is isolated upon the summit of Mount 
Washington. Specimens of cybele much like those of this New 
Mexican variety are found in eastern Maine and Nova Scotia, and 
on the high mountains of North Carolina. 

(7) Argynnis aphrodite, Fabricius, Plate XWI , Fig. 11, ?, 
under side; Plate V, Fig. 5, chrysalis (Aphrodite). 

Butterfly. — This species closely resembles cybele, but is gen- 
erally smaller, and the yellow submarginal band on the hind 
wings is narrower than in cybele, and often wholly wanting, the 
hind wings being broadly brown, particularly in the female sex. 
The under side of the fore wings at the base and on the inner 
margin is also brighter red. 

The caterpillar, chrysalis, and tgg of this species closely re- 
semble those of cybele. The caterpillar has, however, a velvety- 
black spot at the base of each spine, the chrysalis has the 
tubercles on the back shorter than in cybele, and the basal seg- 
ments are party-colored, and not uniformly colored as in cybele. 

(8) Argynnis cipris, Edwards, Plate Xll, Fig. 3, $, ; Fig. 4, 
$ (The New Mexican Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — This species, which belongs to the Aphrodite- 
group, may be distinguished by the fact that the fore wings are 
relatively longer and narrower than in aphrodite. The black 
markings on the upper side of the wings in both sexes are nar- 
rower, the dusky clouding at the base of the wings is less pro- 
nounced, and the ground-color is brighter reddish-fulvous than 
in aphrodite. On the under side the fore wings lack in the 
male the pinkish shade at the base and on the inner margin 
which appears in aphrodite, and both the male and the female 
have the inner two thirds of the hind wings deep cinnamon-red, 
with only a very narrow buff submarginal band, deeply invaded 
on the side of the base by rays of the deeper brown color of the 
inner portion of the wing. Expanse, 2.75-3.15 inches. The 
insect flies from late June to the end of August. 

Caterpillar, etc. — We know nothing of the larval stages of 
this insect. The specimens contained in the Edwards collection 
came from Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, and these localities 
approximately represent the range of the species. 

(9) Argynnis alcestis, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 6, $> , under 
side (The Ruddy Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — Very much like aphrodite, from which it may be 

107 



Genus Argynnis 

most easily distinguished by the fact that the hind wings are 
uniformly dark cinnamon-brown, without any band of buff on 
the outer margin. Expanse, 2.50-3.00 inches. The insect flies 
from late June to the end of August. 

Egg. — Greenish, conoidal, with about eighteen vertical ribs. 

Caterpillar. — Head black, yellowish behind. The body vel- 
vety-black, ornamented with black spines which are yellowish at 
their basal ends. The caterpillar feeds on violets. 

Chrysalis. — Reddish-brown or gray, irregularly mottled and 
striped with black, the abdominal segments slaty-gray, marked 
with black on the edges where the short angular projections are 
located. 

This butterfly is found in the Western States, extending from 
the prairie lands of northwestern Ohio to Montana. It largely 
replaces apbroJife in these regions. 

(10) Argynnis nausicaa, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 9, $ (The 
Arizona Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — The species is related to the foregoing, but is 
rather smaller in size. The upper side of the wings is dusky 
feddish-brown, with the characteristic markings of the genus. 
On the under side the fore wings are pink, laved with buff at the 
tip. The hind wings on this side are deep cinnamon-brown, 
mottled with buff on the inner two thirds ; a narrow but clearly 
defined submarginal band of bright yellowish-buff surrounds 
them. The silvery spots are clearly marked. The female has the 
black markings broader and more conspicuous than the male. 
Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches. 

This insect is quite common in the mountain valleys of Ari- 
zona, at an elevation of from six to seven thousand feet above 
the level of the sea, and flies in July and August. We have no 
knowledge of the early stages, but it probably does not differ 
greatly in its larval state from the allied species of the genus. 

(11) Argynnis atlantis, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 9, $ ; Plate 
V, Fig. 6, chrysalis (The Mountain Silver-spot). 

Butterjly. — This insect, which resembles aphrodite, is distin- 
guished from that species by its smaller size, its somewhat nar- 
rower wings, the deeper brown color of the base of the wings on 
the upper side, and their darker color on the under side. The 
submarginal band is pale yellow, narrow, but distinct and always 
present. Expanse, 2.50 inches. 

108 



Explanation ok Platk XI 

1. Aigriinis callippc, Boisduval, (^'. t). Argyinns. rhodopc, Hdwards, ^ 

2. Argyunis callippe, Bobduval, 9- underside. 

3. /frgV)inis callippe, Boisduval. -f\ 7- ^I'gvnnis hiachofji, Edwards, (J". 

under side. X. Argyunis Cornelia, Edwards, 1^. 

4. Argynnis edwcirdsi. Reakirt, (^. u. Argynnis nansicaa, Edwards, ^f . 

5. Argynnis edzeardsi, Kenk'nX, 9- 'O- /^'XJ''""n coro;//*;, Behr, rj*. 

11. Argynnis^eoronis, Behr, 9- 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XI. 




<^f0^- 







COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 18 



Genus Argynnis 

Egg.— Conoidal, with twelve to fourteen ribs, honey-yellow. 
The caterpillars are hatched in the fall, and hibernate without feed- 
ing until the following spring. 

Caterpillar. — The head is dark blackish-brown. The body 
is velvety-purple above, a little paler on the under side. The 
usual spines occur on the body, and are black, grayish at the 
base. The larva feeds on violets. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is light brown, speckled, except on 
the abdominal segments, with black. 

This species ranges from Maine to the mountains of western 
Pennsylvania, and thence southward along the central ridges of 
the Alleghanies into West Virginia. It is also found in Canada, 
and extends westward into the region of the Rocky Mountains. 
It is especially common in the White Mountains of New Hamp- 
shire and the Adirondacks. 

(12) Argynnis lais, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 12, S ; Fig. 
13, ? (The Northwestern Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — The male is bright reddish-fulvous on the upper 
side, slightly obscured by fuscous at the base. The discal band 
of spots common to both wings is broken and irregular, and the 
spots on the hind wings are quite small. The fore wings on the 
under side are buff at the tips and pale red at the base and on 
the inner margin, lighter at the inner angle. The under side of 
the hind wings as far as the outer margin of the discal row of 
silvery spots is dark brown, mottling a yellowish ground. The 
submarginal band of the hind wings is pale yellow and moder- 
ately broad. The female is marked much as the male, but the 
discal band of spots on the upper side of the fore wings is con- 
fluent and broader, the fringes whitish, and the spots included 
between the sagittate marginal spots and the marginal lines paler 
than in the male sex. Expanse, 2.00-2.20 inches. 

Caterpillar, etc. — The early stages are unknown. 

This species is found in the territories of Alberta and Assini- 
boia, and in British Columbia among the foot-hills and the lower 
slopes of the mountain-ranges, 

(13) Argynnis oweni, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 5, 3 ; Fig. 
6, , under side (Owen's Silver-spot). 

Butterfly, $ . — The wings on the upper side are dull reddish- 
fulvous, not much obscured with brown on the base, the black 
markings moderately heavy, the two marginal lines tending to 

109 



Genus Argynnis 

How together. The fore wings on the under side are yellowish- 
buff from the base to the outer row of spots, or in some specimens 
with the buff lightly laved with reddish; the nerves reddish- 
brown. The subapical patch is dark brown, with a small sil- 
vered spot; the five submarginal spots are small and obscurely 
silvered. The hind wings are dark brown on the discal area 
and outer margin, with a rather narrow grayish-buff submarginal 
band, strongly invaded by projections of the dark brown of the 
discal area. The spots of the outer discal row are generally well 
silvered; the inner spots less so in most cases. 

?. — The female has the wings more or less mottled with 
yellowish outside of the mesial band. The black markings are 
very heavy in this sex. On the under side the spots are well 
silvered. 

The dark markings on the upper side of the wings of the male 
are much heavier than in A. hehrensi. On the under side of the 
wings in both sexes it may be distinguished from behrensi by 
the fact that the ground-color toward the base is mottled with 
yellow, and not solid brown as in behrensi. Expanse, 2.25-2.40 
inches. 

This species abounds on Mount Shasta, in California, at an 
elevation of seven to eight thousand feet above sea-level. 

(14) Argynnis Cornelia, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 8, $> 
(Miss Owen's Fritillary). 

Biillcr/ly, f> . — The upper side of both wings is dark-brown 
froMJ the base to the mesial band of spots, with the exception of 
the outer end of the cell. The space beyond the band is reddish- 
fulvous; the dark markings are not very heavy; the two mar- 
ginal lines are fine, and confluent at the ends of the ncrvules. 
The under side of the fore wings is reddish-brown from the base 
to the outer margin on the inner half of the wing; the outer 
spaces toward the apex are yellowish; the subapical patch is 
reddish-brown, inclosing a small silvery spot; the outer margin 
is reddish-brown, adorned with five small silvery spots toward 
the apex. The hind wings on the under side are almost solid 
reddish-brown to the clear yellow submarginal belt, only slightly 
mottled on the discal area with buff. The spots are small and 
well silvered. 

9 . — The female on the upper side is duller red, with the dark 
markings heavier; the marginal spots on the fore wings are pale 

1 10 



Genus Argynnis 

yellowish, and the marginal lines are confluent on the upper half 
of these wings. The wings on the under side in this sex are as 
in the male, but the ground-color on the inner half of the wings 
is darker, and the spots are more brilliantly silvered. Expanse, 
2.30-2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This pretty species is found with A. electa and A. hesperis in 
Colorado. It was originally described from specimens taken at 
Manitou and Ouray, and named by Edwards in honor of a de- 
ceased daughter of Professor Owen of the University of Wis- 
consin. 

(15) Argynnis electa, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 8, -^ (Electa). 
Butterfly. — The male is dull reddish-fulvous on the upper 

side. The black markings are narrow. The base of both wings 
is slightly obscured. On the under side the fore wings are pale 
cinnamon-red, with the tip dark cinnamon-red. The hind wings are 
broadly dark cinnamon-red, mottled on the disk with a little buff. 
The submarginal band is buff, quite narrow, and often invaded 
by the ground-color of the inner area. The silvery spots are 
usually very well marked and distinct, though in a few instances 
the silvery color is somewhat obscured. The female has the 
black markings a little heavier than in the male; otherwise there 
is but little difference between the sexes. Expanse, 2syj-2,2^ 
inches. 

Caterpillar, etc. — The early stages are unknown. 

This species has been confounded with A. atlantis, from 
which it is wholly distinct, being much smaller in size, the fore 
wings relatively broader, and the markings not so dark on the 
upper surface. It is found in Colorado and Montana, among the 
mountains. 

(16) Argynnis Columbia, Henry Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 3, 
^ (The Columbian Silver-spot}. 

Butterfly. — The male has the upper side of the fore wings pale 
reddish-fulvous. In the median band of both wings the spots do 
not flow together, but are separate and moderately heavy. The 
underside of the fore wings is pale fulvous, buff at the tip; spots 
silvered. The hind wings on the under side are light rusty-red, 
but little mottled with buff on the disk; the submarginal band is 
narrow, buff, and sometimes almost wholly obscured by the darker 
ground-color. The spots, which are small, are well silvered. 

1 1 1 



Genus Argynnis 

The female is much lighter than the male, and, as usual, the dark 
lines are heavier than in that sex. The spots of the median band 
are bent and partly lanceolate, and the light spots of the outer 
border are whitish. Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches. 

Caterpillar, etc. — The early stages have not as yet been 
worked out. 

This species, which is related to electa, may easily be distin- 
guished from it by the pale marginal series of light spots, in the 
male, between the sagittate spots and the dark outer marginal 
lines, which latter are confluent, forming a solid dark outer bor- 
der to the wing, while in electa they are separated by a narrow 
band of light-brown spots. The female is also much lighter and 
larger than in electa, as has been pointed out. The types which 
came from the Caribou mining region of British Columbia are in 
my possession, as are those of most of the other North American 
species of the genus. 

(17) Argynnis hesperis, Edwards, Plate Xll, Fig. i, 3 ; 
Fig. 2, $ (Hesperis). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side of the wings is ful- 
vous, shaded with dark fuscous for a short distance from the 
base. The black spots of the median band are rather broad, and 
seem to coalesce through dark markings along the nervules. 
The under side of the fore wings is pale ferruginous, tinged with 
a little buff at the tips, which, together with the outer margin, are 
somewhat heavily clouded with dark ferruginous. The under 
side of the hind wings is dark ferruginous, with a narrow buff 
submarginal band, which in some specimens is almost lost. 
The female is paler than the male in the ground-color of the 
upper side, the black markings are heavier, the marginal lines fuse, 
as do also the sagittate marginal markings, leaving the marginal 
spots between them, which are quite light in color, deeply bor- 
dered on all sides by black. The under side is like that of the 
male, but darker and richer in color. In neither sex are the light 
spots marked with silver; they are opaque, yellowish-white. 
Expanse, 2.25-2.40 inches. 

Caterpillar, etc. — The life-history remains to be learned. 

This insect is not uncommon among the mountains of Colo- 
rado. 

(18) Argynnis hippolyta, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 10, ^ 
(Hippolyta). 

112 



Explanation of Plate XII 

,. Argyums crpns, Edwards, c^. . - - ^ ^^^^^.^^^ ^ 

^.^^„.. -'-': !^"!l' 5- „.. „. ..;.,..,.. /..r.. Edwards, 9 



4- 

6. ^,-,«7«"'-< .™v»,.F,dw.nds,cf. >-^ ^^..^^^^^_.^ _^^.^_^^^^.^^ p^^^^,.^^^^ ^, 



^r^r//;/Kv- ,,nT//o;;,v, Edwnnis. ri". ""'■^'''- ■^■'■^' 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XII. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



Genus Argynnis 

Butterfly. — The male is fulvous upon the upper side, all the 
dark markings being heavy and black, and the basal areas of the 
wings clouded with fuscous, this dark clouding on the hind 
wings reaching down and nearly covering the inner angle. The 
fore wings on the under side are buff, laved with pale red at the 
base, marked with ferruginous on the outer margin and about 
the subapical spots. The submarginal and subapical spots are 
silvered, especially the latter. The hind wings are deep ferrugi- 
nous, mottled with buff. The submarginal band is buff, narrow, 
and dusted with more or less ferruginous. All the spots are well 
silvered. The female has the basal area of the fore wings bright 
pinkish-fulvous, and the belt of the secondaries almost lost in the 
deep ground-color. 

(19) Argynnis bremneri, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 7, $ 
(Bremner's Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is bright fulvous. The 
black markings, especially those about the middle of the wing, 
are heavy. Both wings at the base are clouded with fuscous, 
the under side of the primaries red toward the base, buff on the 
apical area; the subapical and the upper marginal spots well 
silvered; the hind wings with the inner two thirds more or less 
deeply ferruginous, a little mottled with buff, very rarely en- 
croached upon by the dark color of the inner area, except occa- 
sionally near the anal angle. Expanse, ^ , 2.40 inches; ?, 2.70 
inches. 

Early Stages. — The early stages have not as yet been de- 
scribed. 

This species is found in Oregon, Washington, Montana, and 
in the southern portions of British Columbia and Vancouver's 
Island. 

(20) Argynnis zerene, Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 9, 6, 
under side (Zerene). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is reddish-fulvous, 
with rather heavy black markings, the mesial band of spots being 
confluent. The under side of the fore wings is reddish, inclining 
to pink, with the apex laved with buff. The hind wings have 
the ground-color purplish-gray, mottled on the inner two thirds 
with ferruginous. The spots are not silvered, but are a delicate 
gray color. The female is colored like the male, but the red at 
the base of the fore wings in this sex is much deeper, and the 



G enus Argynnis 

yellow at the apex of the primaries contrasts much more strongly. 
The spots on the under side in the female sex are frequently well 
silvered, though in many specimens they are colored exactly as 
in the male sex. Expanse of wing, $, 2.17 inches; $, 2.50 
inches. 

Early Stages. — The early stages of this species have not as 
yet been ascertained. 

This beautiful butterfly, which is somewhat inclined to varia- 
tion, is found in northern California, being quite common about 
Mount Shasta. It is also found in Oregon and Nevada. One 
of the varietal forms was named Argynnis purpurescens by the 
late Henry Edwards, because of the decided purplish tint which 
prevails on the under side of the secondaries, extending over the 
entire surface of the hind wings and covering likewise the apex 
of the fore wings. This purplish-brown is very marked in speci- 
mens collected about the town of Soda Springs, in northern 
California. 

(21) Argynnis monticola, Behr, Plate XIII, Fig. 7, 6, under 
side; Fig. 8, 6 ; Plate XIV, Fig. 17, ? (Behr's Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — This species is very closely allied to the preced- 
ing in some respects; the upper surface, however, of the wings 
in both sexes is brighter than in ^(^erene, and the dark markings 
stand forth more clearly upon the lighter ground-color. The 
wings are not shaded with fuscous toward the base as much as 
in A. :{erene. While the markings on the upper side are almost 
identical with those of Dr. Boisduval's species, they are much 
brighter and clearer, giving the insects quite a different aspect. 
On the under side the wings are colored as in ^erene, the prima- 
ries in the male being ferruginous, laved with a little red toward 
the base, marked with purplish-gray toward the apex, the light 
spots near the end of the cell on this wing being pale buff. The 
hind wings are very uniformly purplish-gray, mottled with dark 
brown, the spots very little, if at all, silvered in the male. In the 
female the fore wings are bright red at the base, and the hind 
wings are colored as in the male; but all the spots in both the 
fore wings and hind wings are broadly and brightly silvered. 

Early Stages. — The early stages have not been ascertained, 
and there remains something here for young entomologists to 
accomplish. 

This species is quite common in the same localities as the last, 

114 



Genus Argynnis 

and some authors are inclined to regard it as being a mere vari- 
ety, which is a belief that can only be verified by careful breed- 
ing from the egg. 

{22) Argynnis rhodope, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 6, ? , under 
side (Rhodope). 

Butterfly. — In the male sex the upper side is bright fulvous, 
with both wings on the inner half heavily clouded with dark fus- 
cous. Theblackmarkingsare very heavy and confluent. The outer 
border is solid black, very slightly, if at all, interrupted by a nar- 
row marginal brown line, in this respect resembling A. atlantis. 
On the under side the fore wings are dark ferruginous, on the 
outer margin rich dark brown. Between the spots at the end 
of the cell and the nervules below the apex are some clear, bright 
straw-yellow spots. The upper spots of the marginal series are 
silvered. The hind wings are dark reddish-brown, very slightly 
paler on the line of the marginal band. The spots are pale straw - 
yellow, except those of the marginal series, which are distinctly 
silvered. The female on the upper side is of a lighter and 
brighter red, with the markings dark and heavy as in the male 
sex. On the under side the markings in the female do not differ 
from those in the male, except that the primaries on the inner 
half and at the base are bright pinkish-red. Expanse, $> , 2.20 
inches; $, 2.40 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This striking species has been heretofore only found in British 
Columbia. 

(23) Argynnis behrensi, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 10, 6 , 
under side (Behrens' Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is dull fulvous, 
clouded with fuscous at the base, the black markings much nar- 
rower and lighter than in the preceding species. The primaries 
on the under side are pale fulvous, clouded with dark brown at 
the apex. The subapical spots and the upper spots of the mar- 
ginal series on this wing are well silvered. The hind wings on 
the under side are deep reddish-brown, with the marginal band 
only faintly indicated. All the spots are distinctly well silvered. 
The female does not differ materially from the male, except in the 
larger size and the somewhat paler ground-color of the upper side 
of the wings. On the under side the wings are exactly as in the 
male, with the marginal band even less distinct than in that sex. 

115 



Genus Argynnis 

Early Stages. — Not yet ascertained. 

The type specimens upon which the foregoing description is 
founded came from Mendocino, in California. 

(24) Argynnis halcyone, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 5, $ ; 
Fig. 6, $ , under side (Halcyone). 

Butterfly, $. — The primaries are produced and relatively 
narrower than in the preceding species, fulvous on the upper 
side, with the black markings distinct, the mesial band of the 
secondaries confluent. The fore wings on the under side are 
pale fulvous, reddish at the base, pale buff at the end of the cell 
and on the costal margin before the apex. The subapical spots 
and the pale spots of the marginal series are very little silvered. 
The hind wings have the inner two thirds deep reddish-brown, 
slightly mottled with buff. The marginal band is buff, and all 
the spots are well silvered. 

?. — The female, which is considerably larger than the male, 
is marked much as in that sex; but all the black markings are 
heavier, and on the under side of the primaries the base and inner 
margin are laved with red. The marginal band on the hind 
wings is not as distinct in this sex as in the male, in many speci- 
mens being somewhat obscured by olive-brown. Expanse, S-, 
2.50 inches; ?, 2.90-3. 10 inches. 

Early Stages. — Not known. 

This species, which is still rare in collections, is found in 
southern Colorado and the adjacent parts of Utah and Arizona. 

(25) Argynnis chitone, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 16, ? 
(Chitone). 

Butterfly, $ . — The wings on the upper side are dull fulvous, 
greatly obscured by brown at the base of the wings. The dark 
spots and markings are not heavy. The fore wings on the under 
side are yellowish-fulvous at the base and on the inner half of 
the wing; the apical patch and the nervules on the apical area 
are heavy ferruginous; the marginal spots are buff, with no 
silver. The hind wings on the under side are light ferruginous, 
mottled with buff; the belt is broad, clear buff; the outer margin 
is brown. All the spots are small and imperfectly silvered. 

? . — The female is nearly the same shade as the male, with 
the marginal spots on the under side always silvered, the re- 
mainder without silver, or only now and then with a few silvery 
scales. Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches. 

116 



HXPLANATION OF PlATH XllI 

1. Argviniis cybclc. Fabricius, 9, ""- ^^- Argyuiii.^ iiioiiticoUi , Behr, ,^\ 

dcr sich . o. Argvjinis iimcariLi , Edwards, rf . 

2. Ai'ii' vi/iiis si'iiii)\Tiiiis, Edwards, (^'. lo. Argvmiis inonuiUi, Edwards, 5^, 
1. Argynnis scinirainis, Edwards. ^ . under sidi. 

4. Argyi/iiis iiilocrls.¥.dv\':\Yd^, (J\ nil- ii. Aroymiis liliaim, Henry Edwards, 

dcr side. ,f?'*. 

=.. Argyiniis Ihilcyoiic. Edwards, (j'\ 12. Argyiiiris iitossii. Edwards, (^. 

t>. Argyiiiiis lurlcyoiu-, Edwards, ^ , 1 '. Argyiuiis cglcis. Roisduval, (^. 

under :^idc. 14. Argynnis egh'is, Roisduval, r^, nn- 

7. Argynnis inolrficola, Behr, r(\ dcr side. 

under side. m. Argynnis eglcis, ?>o\s(\\\v^[, Q. 



The Butterfly B 



Plate XII 




COPYRIGHTED BY W 



Genus Argynnis 

Early Stages. — Not ascertained. 

This species occurs in southern Utah and Arizona. 

{26) Argynnis platina, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 7, $> 
(Skinner's Fritillary). 

Butterfly, S . — The original description of this species, con- 
tained in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxix, p. 154, is as 
follows : 

''$>. — Expands two and a half inches. Upper side: Rather 
light tawny or even light buff. Black markings dense and wide, 
with outer halves of wings looking rather clear or open, with 
rows of round spots not very large; marginal border light; 
bases of wings not much obscured. Under side: Superiors have 
the two subapical silver spots and silver spots on margin well 
defined; color of inner half of wing rosy. The silver spots on 
the inferiors are large and well defined, and placed on a very 
light greenish-gray ground. The intermediate buff band is well 
defined, comparatively wide, and very light in color. ? . — The 
ground-color on the inferiors below is reddish-brown in the 
female." 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species occurs in Utah and Idaho, and is possibly a vari- 
etal form of A. coronis, specimens agreeing very nearly with the 
type figured in the plate being contained in the Edwards col- 
lection under the name of ^. coronis. 

(27) Argynnis coronis, Behr, Plate XI, Fig. 10, 5 ; Fig. 11, 
$ (Coronis). 

Butterfly, $ . — The wings on the upper side are yellowish- 
brown, with but little brown obscuring the base. The dark 
markings are not heavy, but distinct. The fore wings on the 
under side are buff, with the basal area orange-fulvous. The 
subapical and submarginal spots are more or less imperfectly 
silvered. The hind wings are brown, mottled with reddish. 
The discal area is buff, and the belt is pale yellowish-buff. All 
the spots are large and well silvered on these wings. 

? . — The female is paler than the male, with the markings on 
the upper side a little heavier. The wings on the under side are 
much as in the male sex. Expanse, 5 , 2. 10-2.50 inches; $,2.50- 
3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — The early stages remain to be ascertained. 

This species ranges from southern California northward to the 

117 



Genus Argynnis 

southern part of British Columbia, and is found as far east as 
Utah. 

(28) Argynnis snyderi, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 6, $ 
(Snyder's Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $ . — The wings on the upper side are light tawny, 
but little obscured by fuscous at the base. The black markings 
are moderately heavy and very sharply defined against the 
lighter ground-color. The outer margin is distinctly but not 
heavily marked. On the under side of the fore wings there are 
two subapical and five marginal silver spots. The ground-color 
of the under side of the hind wings is grayish-green, with a narrow 
pale-buff marginal belt. The spots are large and well silvered. 

? . — The female is much like the male, but on the hind wings 
the ground-color from the base to the outer belt is brownish. 
Expanse, $ , 3.00 inches; ? , 3.30 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species, which is very closely allied to A. coronis, is 
found in Utah. 

(29) Argynnis callippe, Boisduval, Plate XI, Fig. i, $ \ 
Fig. 2, ? ; Fig. 3, ? , under side (Callippe). 

Butterfly. — This species may easily be recognized by the 
general obscuration of the basal area of the wings, the light- 
buff quadrate spots on the discal area of the fore wings, and the 
clear oval spots of the same color on the hind wings, as well as 
by the light triangular marginal spots, all standing out distinctly 
on the darker ground. The wings on the under side are quite 
pale buff, with the spots large and well silvered. Expanse, 2.30- 
3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Callippe is abundant in California. 

(30) Argynnis nevadensis, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 4, $ , 
under side (The Nevada Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $> . — The ground-color is pale fulvous, but little ob- 
scured with fuscous at the base. The outer margins are heavily 
bordered with black. The dark markings of the discal area are 
not heavy. The fore wings on the under side are pale buff, the 
spots well silvered ; the hind wings are greenish ; the belt is narrow 
and clear, and the spots are large and well silvered. 

?. — The female is much like the male, but larger and paler. 
The outer margin of the fore wings in this sex is more heavily 

118 



Genus Argynnis 

marked with black, and the marginal spots are light buff in color. 
Expanse, 5 , 2.50-3.00 inches; ?, 3.00-3.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — These remain to be discovered. 

This species is found in the Rocky Mountains of Utah, Nevada, 
Montana, and British America. 

(31) Argynnis meadi, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 1,6; Fig. 2, 
5 , tinder side (Mead's Silver-spot). 

Butterfly. — This species is very closely allied to the preceding, 
of which it may be an extreme variation, characterized by the 
darker color of the fore wings on the upper side, the nervules 
being heavily bordered with blackish, and the deeper, more solid 
green of the under side of the wings. All the specimens 1 have 
seen are considerably smaller in size than A. nevadensis. 

Early Stages. — Wholly unknown. 

This species or variety is found from Utah northward to the 
province of Alberta, in British America. 

{^2) Argynnis edwardsi, Reakirt, Plate XI, Fig. 4, 6 ; Fig. 5, 
9 (Edwards' Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — This beautiful insect is closely related to the Nevada 
Fritillary, from which it may be distinguished by the brighter 
color of the upper side, the heavier black borders, especially in 
the female sex, and the olive-brown color of the under side of the 
hind wings. The olivaceous of these wings greatly encroaches 
upon the marginal belt. Expanse, 3.00-3.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been carefully and minutely de- 
scribed by Edwards in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xx, 
p. 3. They are not unlike those of A. atlantis in many respects. 

This species is not uncommon in Colorado and Montana. 

(33) Argynnis liliana, Henry Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 11, 6 
(Liliana). 

Butterfly, 6 . — The wings on the upper side are reddish-ful- 
vous. The black markings and the spots are slight. The fore 
wings on the under side are yellowish-buff; the base and the 
hind margin to below the cell, brown, with buff on the median 
interspaces. The outer end of the cell is yellowish-buff. The 
subapical patch is brown, adorned by two or three well-silvered 
spots. The five upper marginal spots are well silvered. The 
hind wings are brown, but little mottled with buff. The spots 
are well silvered. The marginal belt is narrow, ochreous-brown. 

? o — The female is much paler than the male, and the marginal 

119 



Genus Argynnis 

spots on both wings are much lighter. On .the under side the 
wings are as in the male sex, with the basal area and the nervules 
of the fore wings red. Expanse, 6, 2.20 inches; ?, 2.}^ inches. 

Egg. — W. H. Edwards gives the following description: **Co- 
noidal, truncated, depressed at summit, marked vertically by 
twenty-two or twenty-three ribs, which are as in other species 
of the genus; the outline of this egg is much as in eurynome, 
the base being broad, the top narrow, and the height not much 
more than the breadth; color yellow." 

Caterpillar. — The same author has given us a description of 
the caterpillar immediately after hatching; but as the young larvae 
were lost after being sent to Maine to be kept over winter, we do 
not yet know the full life-history. 

The range of this species is northern California and Utah, so far 
as is known at present. 

(34) Argynnis rupestris, Behr, Plate Xll, Fig. 8, 5 ; Fig. 9, 
6 , under side (The Cliff-dwelling Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side of the fore wings is deep reddish- 
fulvous, with the black markings very heavy. The fore wings on 
the under side are buff, shaded with red at the base and on the 
inner margin. The spots are buff, without any silver. The hind 
wings are buff, mottled with cinnamon-red, sometimes dark, 
sometimes lighter. The marginal belt is narrow, buff, en- 
croached upon by the darker color of the median area at the ends 
of the oval spots. None of the spots is silvered, except very 
light'y in exceptional cases. 

$. — The female is much like the male on the upper side, with 
the dark markings much heavier, the ground-color somewhat 
paler, and the marginal row of spots quite light. The wings on 
the under side are more brightly tinted than in the male, and the 
marginal spots are more or less silvered. Expanse, $ , 2.00 inches ; 
$ , 2.20 inches. 

Early Stages. — Nothing is as yet known about the egg and 
larva. 

This species is quite abundant at a considerable elevation upon 
Mount Shasta, Mount Bradley, and in the Weber Mountains in- 
Utah. 

(35) Argynnis laura, Edwards, Plate Xll, Fig. -ii, $ ; Fig. 12, 
? (Laura). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side is deep reddish-fulvous, with 

120 



Genus Argynnis 

both wings somewhat obscured at the base by fuscous. The 
black markings on the upper side of the wings are heavy; the 
outer margin is also heavily banded with dark brown, the mar- 
ginal lines being fulvous. The four spots on the hind wings are 
lighter in color than the ground. The fore wings on the under 
side are reddish-orange, with the apex and the hind margin 
yellowish-buff. The apical and upper marginal spots are more 
or less well silvered. The hind wings are pale yellow, the mar- 
ginal belt very broad and clear yellow. All the spots are large 
and well silvered. 

$ . — The female is much paler than the male, but otherwise 
closely resembles that sex. Expanse, 6 , 2.20 inches; $,2.35 
inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is found in northern California, Oregon, Washing- 
ton, and Nevada. 

{}6) Argynnis macaria, Edwards, Plate XHl, Fig. 9, 6 (Ma- 
caria). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side of the wings is yellowish-ful- 
vous, the black markings very light. The fore wings on the under 
side are orange-red, at the apex yellowish-buff. The subapical 
upper marginal, spots are lightly silvered. The hind wings are 
yellowish-buff on the outer third, mottled with brown on the 
basal and median areas. The marginal belt is clear buff. The 
spots are large and well silvered. 

? . — The female is paler than the male. On the upper side of 
the hind wings the second row of silver spots is indicated by 
spots much paler than the ground. The black markings are 
lighter than in the male. Expanse, $ , 2.00 inches ; $ , 2.20 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species, which is somewhat like A. coronis, but smaller, 
and brighter fulvous, is found in California, but is still quite rare 
in collections. 

(37) Argynnis semiramis, Edwards, Plate XllI, Fig. 2, 6 , 
under side; Fig. 3, ? (Semiramis). 

Butterfly, 6 . — The wings are bright fulvous on the upper side, 
with the black markings much as in A. adiante, slight on the fore 
wings and even slighter on the hind wings. The under side of 
the fore wings is cinnamon-red at the base and on the inner half 
of the wing, beyond this buff. The apical patch and the outer 



Genus Argynnis 

margin are brown. The upper marginal spots and two spots on 
the subapical patch are well silvered. The hind wings are rusty- 
brown from the base to the second row of spots, mottled with 
lighter brown. The marginal belt is clear brownish-buff. All 
the spots are well silvered. 

? . — The female on the upper side is colored like the male, with 
the dark markings somewhat heavier. On the under side the 
fore wings are laved over almost their entire surface with red, the 
upper angle of the cell alone being buff. The hind wings are in 
many specimens fawn-colored throughout, except that the mar- 
ginal band is paler. In a few specimens the ground is darker and 
the band more distinct. All the spots are well silvered. Expanse, 
$ , 2.60 inches; ? , 2.75-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — The life-history of this butterfly has not been 
ascertained. 

The species appears to be very common at San Bernardino, 
California, and vicinity, and resembles A. adiante on the upper 
side and A. coronis upon the lower side. 

(38) Argynnis inornata, Edwards, Plate Xlll, Fig. 10, $, un- 
der side (The Plain Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $ . — This species resembles A. nipestris m its mark- 
ings, but is somewhat paler, the black margins are heavy and 
the black markings on the disk comparatively light; the base of 
the wings is obscured with fuscous. On the under side the fore 
wings are cinnamon-brown, with the apical area buff. The hind 
wings are reddish-brown, with the marginal band clear buff. AH 
the spots are buff, and completely devoid of silvery scales. 

$ . — Paler than the male on the upper side. The fore wings 
on the under side are orange-fulvous; the hind wings are pale 
greenish-brown, mottled with buff. In some specimens a few 
silver scales are found on the submarginal spots. Expanse, 6 , 
2.50 inches; $, 2.70 inches. 

Ea rly Stages. — Unknown. 

This butterfly, which is as yet not very common in collections, 
is found in California and Nevada. 

(39) Argynnis atossa, Edwards, Plate Xlll, Fig. 12, 6 
(Atossa). 

Butterfly, $ .—The upper side is bright yellowish-fulvous, with 
the wings at the base slightly dusted with brown. The margins 
of both wings are bordered by a single line, there being no trace 

122 



1 



Explanation of Plath XiV 



1. Ayi(j'iuiis ntcadi, Edwards, q' . 

2. Argyiniis iiii\nii, Edwards, (^\ un- 

der side. 
>. Ai'i^yiniis coliinibia. Henry Ed- 
wards, (^\ 

4. Argyll 11 is adiaiitc, Boisduval, 5 . 
^. Argyll II is clio, Edwards, (j''. 

b. Argyiiiiis clio, Edwards, 9- 
7. Argyiiiiis clio. Edwards, cf , under 
side. 

5. Argyiiiiis opis. Hdwaids, -f, under 

side. 



•4 



Argyiiiiis ^ereiie, Boisduval, .;J^, 

under side. 
A rgyniiis bebreiisi , Edwards, 1^. 
Argyiiiiis apbrodile, Fabricius, 9? 

under side. 
Argyiiiiis lais, Edwards, (^\ 
Argyiiiiis /(.r/.s/ Edwards, 9- 
Argyiiiiis eiirynonie, Edwards, 9- 
Argyiiiiis eiiryiioine, Edwards, rj^, 

under side. 
Argyiiiiis chi lone, Edwards, 9- 
Argyiiiiis inonticola, Behr, 9- 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XIV. 







~'»^'*!^.*5#: 



■s^m 



IGHTED BY V/. J. HOl 



/" 



Genus Argynnis 

of the outer line usually found in other species of the genus. The 
dark markings of the outer margin are almost entirely absent, and 
those of the discal and basal areas very greatly reduced. On the 
under side both wings are very pale, the spots entirely without 
silver, in some specimens even their location being but faintly in- 
dicated. The fore wings at the base and on the inner margin are 
laved with bright red. 

$ . — The female resembles the male, except that the red on the 
under side of the fore wings is in many specimens very bright and 
fiery. Expanse, ^ , 2.50 inches; ?, 2.75-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Entirely unknown. 

This butterfly, which is still rare in collections, has been taken 
in southern California. It may be an extreme variation of the next 
species, A. adiante, Boisduval. 

(40) Argynnis adiante, Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 4, $ (Adi- 
ante). 

Butterfly, S . — The wings on the upper side are bright fulvous ; 
the black markings are slight. The fore wings on the under side 
are pale buff, much lighter at the apex, laved with orange-red at 
the base. The hind wings are pale buff, clouded with fawn-color on 
the basal and discal areas. All the spots which are generally silvered 
in other species are in this species wholly devoid of silvery scales. 

2 . — The female is like the male, but the black markings on 
the upper side are heavier, and the basal area and inner half of 
the primaries are laved with brighter and deeper red. Expanse, 
S, 2.30-2.40 inches; ?, 2.30-2.60 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is found in southern California, and is somewhat 
local in its habits, hitherto having been taken only in the Santa 
Cruz Mountains. 

(41) Argynnis artonis, Edwards,- Plate XII, Fig. 13, $, under 
side (Artonis). 

Butterfly, S . — Closely resembling A. eurynome, Edwards, 
from which species it may be at once distinguished by the en- 
tire absence of silvery scales upon the under side of the wings, 
and also by the fact that the silver spots on the under side of 
the hind wings are not compressed and elongated as much as 
in eurynome, and by the further fact that all the dark marginal 
markings of the under side are obliterated. 

? • — The female does not differ materially from the male, except 

123 



Genus Argynnis 

that the dark markings on the upper side are all much heavier, 
standing out very distinctly upon the paler ground, and the mar- 
ginal spots within the lunules are very light in color and relatively 
large. On the under side the fore wings are laved with red, very 
much as in the female of A. adiante. Expanse, ^, 1.75-2.00 
inches ; ?, 2.00-2. 15 inches. 

Early Stages. — These still remain to be ascertained. 

This interesting butterfly, which seems to indicate a transition 
between the butterflies of the Adiante-group and those of the 
Eurynome-group, has been found in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and 
Arizona. 

(42) Argynnis clio, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 5, $, ; Fig. 6, $ ; 
Fig. 7, $> , tmder side (Clio). 

Butterfly. — Closely resembling A. eurynome and A. artonis. 
Like artonis, the spots on the under side of the wing are without 
silver. The female very closely resembles the female of artonis, 
and in fact I am unable to distinguish the types of the females of 
the two species by any marks which seem to be satisfactory. 
Expanse, 6, 1.75 inch; ?, i. 75-1. 90 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species, which is as yet comparatively rare in collections, 
is found in Montana and the province of Alberta, in British Amer- 
ica, at a considerable elevation. 

(43) Argynnis opis, Plate XIV, Fig. 8, S, under side (Opis). 
Butterfly. — This species, which apparently belongs to the 

Eurynome-group, appears by the location of its markings to be 
closely related to eurynome, but on the upper side the wings of 
both the male and female are more heavily obscured with fuscous 
at the base; the dark markings are heavier than in eurynome, and 
in both sexes it is smaller in size, being the smallest of all the 
species of the genus thus far found in North America. The spots 
on the under side of the wings are none of them silvered. Ex- 
panse, $> , 1.50 inch; ?, 1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Nothing is known of these. 

The types came from Bald Mountain, in the Caribou mining 
district of British Columbia. 

(44) Argynnis bischoffi, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 7, $> 
(Bischoff's Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $ . — The fore wings on the upper side are bright red- 
dish-fulvous, the base of the primaries and the inner half of the 

124 



*l 



Genus Argynnis 

secondaries being heavily obscured by blackish, so as to conceal 
the markings. Both wings have moderately heavy black mar- 
ginal borders. The other markings are as in A. eiirynome. On 
the under side the fore wings are buff, laved w'th reddish at the 
base. The hind wings are pale buff, with the basal and discal 
areas mottled with green. The marginal belt is clear buff. In 
some specimens the spots on the under side are not silvered; in 
others they are well silvered. 

$ . — The female on the upper side is very pale buff, slightly 
laved with fulvous on the outer margin of both wings. All the 
markings are heavy; the margins of both wings are solid black, 
the spots within the lunules being pale and almost white. The 
fore wings at the base and the inner half of the hind wings are 
almost solid black. On the under side the wings are very much 
as in the male, and the same variation as to the silvering of the 
spots is found. Expanse, 5, 1.80 inch; ?, 1.90 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The types of this genus came from Sitka, in Alaska. It may 
be an extreme boreal variation of ^. eiirynome. 

(45) Argynnis eurynome, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 7, 6 ; 
Plate XIV, Fig. 14, ? ; Fig. 15, $. under side (Eurynome). 

Butterfly, $ . — The wings on the upper side are bright 
yellowish-fulvous, but little obscured at the base. The outer 
margins are edged by two fine lines which are occasionally con- 
fluent. The under side of the fore wings is pale buff, laved with 
cinnamon-brown at the base and along the nervules; the spots 
on the margin and in the apical area are well silvered. The 
hind wings on the under side are buff, with the basal and discal 
areas mottled with pale brown or pale olive-green. The marginal 
belt is broad and clear buff; all the spots are well silvered. 

$. — The female is like the male, but paler, with the dark 
markings, especially those of the margin, heavier. The marginal 
spots inclosed by the lunules are much paler than the ground- 
color, and in many specimens almost white. On the under side 
the wings in this sex are like those of the male, but the fore 
wings are more heavily laved with cinnamon-brown at the base. 
Expanse, $, 1.70-2.00 inches; $, 2.00 inches. 

Early Stages.— Mr. Edwards, in "The Butterflies of North 
America," vol. ii, has given us a beautiful figure of the egg of 
this species. Of the other stages we have no knowledge. 

125 



Genus Argynnis 

A. cmyiioiue is a very common butterfly in Colorado, Mon- 
tana, and British America, and is the representative of a con- 
siderable group, to which the four preceding species belong, 
if, indeed, they are not local races or climatic varieties of ciiiy- 
nome, a fact which can be demonstrated onlv by the careful 
breeding of specimens from various localities. There is a fme field 
here for study and experiment. 

(4b) Argynnis montivaga, Behr, Plate X, Fig. s, 5 , under 
side (Montivaga). 

Bufferffy. — This species in both sexes very closely approxi- 
mates the foregoing. The main points of distinction consist in 
the somewhat darker red of the upper side of the wings, the 
slightly heavier dark markings, and the absence on the under 
side, especially of the hind wings, of the olive-green shade 
which is characteristic of typical specimens of A. euryuome. 
The mottling of the basal and median areas on this side is red- 
dish-brown. The spots are more or less silvered on the under 
side. Expanse, 5, 1.75 inch; ?, 1.90 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is found in the Sierras of California and among 
the mountains of Nevada. 

(47) Argynnis egleis, Boisduval, Plate Xlll, Fig. 13, 6 ; Fig. 
14, $, underside; Fig. is, ? (Egleis). 

Butterfly, $. — The ground-color of the wings on the upper 
side is deep fulvous, with rather heavy black markings. The 
wings on the under side are pale fulvous, mottled with buflf on 
the subapical interspaces of the fore wings. The basal and discal 
areas of the hind wings are mottled with brown, which in many 
specimens is of a distinctly purplish shade. In some specimens 
the inner half of the primaries is rather heavily laved with red. 
The spots on the under side are either silvered or without silver, 
in the latter case being pale butT. 

?. — The female is much like the male, but paler. The red 
on the under side of the primaries is deeper, and the purplish- 
brown on the inner surface of the secondaries is also darker. 
Expanse, $, 2.2^ inches; $, 2. so inches. 

Early Stages. — These remain to be ascertained. 

This is a common species in California and Nevada. For 
many years it has been placed in all catalogues at the end of the 
list of the species of this genus, where I also leave it, though to 

126 



A Race after a Butterfly 

my way of thinking its proper location is near A. rupestris. It 
certainly reveals but small affinity to the species of the Eurynome- 
group. 

Besides the species of Argvnnis enumerated in the foregoing 
pages and delineated upon the plates, there are several others of 
more or less doubtful validity credited to our fauna, and a num- 
ber of varieties which have received names. With all of these 
the more advanced student will become familiar as he prosecutes 
his researches, but it is not necessary to speak of them here. 



A RACE AFTER A BUTTERFLY 

There is much that is pleasing about "first things." I shall 
never forget the first dollar 1 earned; the first trout I took with 
my fly; the first muskalonge I gaffed beside my canoe on a still 
Canadian lake; the first voyage I made across the Atlantic. So 1 
shall never forget my first capture of a female specimen of Ar- 
gvnnis diana. 

My home in my boyhood was in North Carolina, in the village 
of Salem, famous as one of the most successful of the settlements 
made by the Moravian Brethren under the lead of the good Count 
Zinzendorf, and well known throughout the Southern States as 
the seat of an excellent seminary for young ladies. The Civil War 
broke out, and the hopes cherished of sending me North to be 
educated were disappointed. I was left to pursue my studies 
under a tutor, and to roam the neighborhood in quest of insects, 
of which I gathered a large collection. 

One day I spied upon a bed of verbenas a magnificent butterfly 
with broad expanse of wing and large blue spots upon the secon- 
daries. In breathless haste 1 rushed into the house and got my 
net. To the joy of my heart, when I returned to the spot, the 
beauty was still hovering over the crimson blossoms. But, as I 
drew near with fell intent, it rose and sailed away. Across the 
garden, over the fence, across the churchyard, out into the 
street, with leisurely flight the coveted prize sped its way, while 
1 quickly followed, net in hand. Once upon the dusty street, its 
flight was accelerated; my rapid walking was converted into a 
run. Down past the church and — horribile dictu! — past the 
boarding-school that pesky butterfly flew. I would rather have 

127 



A Race after a Butterfly 

faced a cannonade in those days than a bevy, of boarding-school 
misses, but there was no alternative. There were the dreaded 
females at the windows (for it was Saturday, and vacation hour), 
and there was my butterfly. Sweating, blushing, inwardly 
anathematizing my luck, I rushed past the school, only to be 
overwhelmed with mortification by the rascally porter of the 
institution, who was sweeping the pavement, and who bawled 
out after me: " Oh, it 's no use; you can't catch it! It 's fright- 
ened; you 're so ugly!" And now it began to rise in its flight. 
It was plainly my last chance, for it would in a moment be lost 
over the housetops. I made an upward leap, and by a fortunate 
sweep of the net succeeded in capturing my prize. 

Many years later, after a long interval in which ornithology 
and botany had engrossed my mind to the exclusion of ento- 
mology, my boyish love for the butterflies was renewed, and I 
found out the name of the choice thing I had captured on that hot 
July day on the streets of Salem, and returned to North Carolina 
for the special purpose of collecting a quantity of these superb in- 
sects. My quest was entirely successful, though my specimens 
were not taken at Salem, but under the shadow of Mount 
Mitchell, in the flower-spangled valleys which lie at its feet. 



Genus BRENTHIS, Hubner 

" The garden is fragrant everywhere; 
In its lily-bugles the gold bee sups, 
And butterflies flutter on winglets fair 
Round the tremulous meadow buttercups." 

MUNKITTRICK. 

Butterfly. — Small or medium-sized butterflies, very closely ap- 
proximating in form and color the species of the genus Argynms, 
in which they are included by many writers. The principal 
structural difference between the two genera is found in the fact 
that in the genus Brenthis only one of the subcostal nervules 
arises before or at the end of the cell of the primaries, while in 
Argynnis the two innermost subcostal nervules thus arise. In 
Brenthis the palpi are not as stout as in Argynnis, and the short 
basal spur or branch of the median vein of the front wings, 

128 




Genus Brenthis 

which is characteristic of the latter genus, is altogether lacking 
in Brenthis. 

Egg. — The eggs are subconical, almost twice 
as high as wide, truncated at the top, and 
marked with thirteen or fourteen raised longi- 
tudinal ridges connected by a multitude of 
smaller cross-ridges. 

Larva. — The caterpillars are not noticeably 
different in their general appearance from those 
of the genus Argynnis, except that they are 
smaller and generally not as dark in color as 
the larvae of the latter genus. They feed, like 
the caterpillars of Argynnis, upon violets. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pendant, about 
six tenths of an inch long, and armed with Fig. 90.— Neuration 

-:• , • 1 X u 1 xu of the genus Brenthis, 

two rows of sharp conical tubercles on the enlarged. 
back. 

(i) Brenthis myrina, Cramer, Plate XV, Fig. i, 5 ; Fig. 2, 
6, under side; Plate V, Figs. 12-14, chrysalis (The Silver- 
bordered Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings is fulvous; the black 
markings are light, the borders heavy. The fore wings on the 
under side are yellowish-fulvous, ferruginous at the tip, with the 
marginal spots lightly silvered. The hind wings are ferruginous, 
mottled with buff. The spots, which are small, are well sil- 
vered. Expanse, 6, 1.40 inch; ?, 1.70 inch. 

Egg. — The tgg is conoidal, about one third higher than wide, 
marked by sixteen or seventeen vertical ribs, between which are 
a number of delicate cross-lines. It is pale greenish-yellow in 
color. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar has been carefully studied, and 
its various stages are fully described in *'The Butterflies of New 
England," by Dr. Scudder. In its final stage it is about seven 
eighths of an inch long, dark olive-brown, marked with green, 
the segments being adorned with fleshy tubercles armed with 
needle-shaped projections, the tubercles on the side of the first 
thoracic segment being four times as long as the others, cylin- 
drical in form, and blunt at the upper end, the spines projecting 
upward at an angle of forty-five degrees to the axis of the tubercle. 

129 



Genus Brenthis 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is yellowish-brown, spotted with 
darker brown spots, those of the thoracic and first and second 
abdominal segments having the lustre of mother-of-pearl. 

This very pretty little species has a wide range, extending 
from New England to Montana, from Nova Scotia to Alaska, and 
southward along the ridges of the AUeghanies into Virginia and 
the mountains of North Carolina. 

(2) Brenthis triclaris, Hubner, Plate XV, Fig. 3, S (Hub- 
ner's Fritillary). 

Butterfly, S . — The male above is bright fulvous, with the 
base of the fore wings and the inner margin of the hind wings 
heavily obscured with blackish scales. The usual dark markings 
are finer than in the preceding species; the black marginal borders 
are not so heavy. The submarginal spots are relatively large and 
distinct in most specimens, and uniform in size. The light spots 
of the under side of the median band of the hind wings show 
through from below on the upper side lighter than the ground- 
color of the wings. On the under side the fore wings are fulvous, 
tipped with ferruginous. The hind wings are broadly ferrugin- 
ous, with a couple of bright-yellow spots near the base and a 
curved band of yellow spots crossing the median area. The 
outer margin about the middle is marked with pale fulvous. 
The spots on the under side are none of them silvered. 

? . — The female is much paler than the male in most cases, 
and the marginal spots within the lunules are very pale, almost 
white. The submarginal row of round black spots is relatively 
large and distinct, quite uniform in size. On the under side the 
wings are much more conspicuously marked on the secondaries 
than in the male sex, being crossed by three conspicuous bands 
of irregularly shaped yellow spots, one at the base and one on 
either side of the discal area. The submarginal round spots of 
the upper side reappear on the under side as small, slightly 
silvered, yellow spots. The marginal spots are bright yellow, 
slightly glossed with silver. Expanse, ^ , i . 50 inch ; $ , i .60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This extremely beautiful little species is found throughout 
arctic America, is not uncommon in Labrador, and also occurs 
upon the loftier summits of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado 
and elsewhere. It is, as most species of the genus, essentially 
arctic in its habits. 

130 



Explanation of Plath XV 



Brciilbis }iij'n'i/i7, (j'anier, fj'. 
Bri'ittlns inyrina, Cramer, 9; 'hk^Ici' 

side. 
Brei/tbis Iric/jn's. Hlibiier, rj'. 
Breiiibis cbarichui . Schneider, r<\ 
Breiilbis boisclit-cali, Duponchel. r^'. 
Breiitbishoiscliivcili , Duponchel, '^ . 

under side. 
Breiilbis inoi/ln/us. Scudder, r-?'. 
Breiilbis iihuiHiius, Scuddcr, ^ , 

under side. 
Q. Breu/bis frei/ii, Thunberg, r?'. 



Brej/lbis frei/tr, Thunberg, 9, ""- 
der .^ide. 

BreiiU.ns polans. Boisduval, (^. 

Breulbis polaris. Boisduval, (^, un- 
der side. 

Brent bis frigOii, Thunberg, r^. 

Brenlbis fri({oef. Thunberg, 9i ""- 
der .side. 

Breiilbis alter Li . Hdwards, (^. 

Brenlbis bellona. Fabricius, c^ . 

Brcnibis epiibore. Boisduval, (J'. 

Brjntbis epiibore. Boisduval, r^', 
under side. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XV. 









l^J^' 



V 




10 






COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



^M 



Genus Brenthis 

(3) Brenthis helena, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 16, 6, 
underside: Fig. 17, S (Helena). 

Butterfly, S . — The wings on the upper side are fulvous, 
greatly obscured by brown at the base of the fore wings and 
along the inner margin of the hind wings. The usual black 
markings are light, and the marginal border is also not so heavily 
marked as in B. myrina. The fore wings on the under side are 
pale fulvous, laved with ferruginous at the tip. The hind wings 
are brightly ferruginous, with small yellow marginal spots, and 
paler spots inclining to buff on the costal border and at the end 
of the cell, about the region of the median nervules. 

$ . — The female is very much like the male on the upper 
side, but the "ground-color is paler. On the under side the 
wings are somewhat paler, and all the spots and light markings, 
especially on the secondaries, are far more conspicuous, being 
bright yellow, and standing out very prominently upon the dark 
ferruginous ground. Expanse, 1.40 inch. 

Early Stages. — The early stages of this insect are not as yet 
known. 

Helena appears to be a common species in Colorado, Mon- 
tana, and New Mexico. It is subject to considerable variation, 
both in the intensity of the coloring of the under side of the 
wings, and in the distinctness of the maculation. 

(4) Brenthis montinus, Scudder, Plate XV, Fig. 7, $, ; Fig. 
8, ?, under side (The White Mountain Fritillary). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side is fulvous, closely resembling B. 
chariclea, but the ground-color is darker. The under side of the 
hind wings is deep ferruginous, mottled with white, the most 
conspicuous of the white spots being a white bar occurring at the 
end of the cell, and a small round white spot at the base of the 
wing. The hind wings have also a marginal row of slightly sil- 
vered white spots. 

$ . — The female is very much like the male, but the ground- 
color of the upper side is paler. Expanse, 6 , i . 50 inch ; $,1.75 inch. 

This interesting butterfly is found on the barren summits of 
Mount Washington, New Hampshire. It represents the survival 
of the arctic fauna on these desolate peaks, and, like the arctic 
flora of the spot where it is found, is a souvenir of the ice-age, 
which once shrouded the northeastern regions of the United 
States with glaciers. 

131 



Genus Brenthis 

(5) Brenthis chariclea, Schneider, Plate XV, Fig. 4, $ 
(Chariclea). 

Butterfly, $. — Fulvous on the upper side, with heavy black 
markings, both wings greatly obscured at the base by fuscous. 
On the under side the fore wings are pale yellowish-fulvous, 
mottled with ferruginous at the tip and on the outer margin. 
The hind wings on the under side are dark purplish-ferruginous, 
mottled with yellow, crossed by a central row of conspicuous 
yellow spots. The row of marginal spots and two or three small 
spots at the base are white, slightly silvered. 

? . — The female differs from the male in having the markings 
of the upper side darker and heavier, and the outer margins more 
heavily marked with black, and having all the spots on the under 
side more distinctly defined against the dark ground. Expanse, 
^ , 1.50 inch; ? , 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Undescribed. 

This species, like B. freija, is circumpolar, being found in Lap- 
land, Greenland, and throughout arctic America. It also occurs 
within the limits of the United States, in the Yellowstone Park at 
considerable elevations, and is not uncommon on the high moun- 
tains in British Columbia, numerous specimens having been cap- 
tured in recent years about Banff and Laggan, in Alberta. 

(6) Brenthis boisduvali, Duponchel, Plate XV, Fig. 5, ^ ; 
Fig. 6, $, under side (Boisduval's Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — Somewhat closely resembling B. chariclea, but 
with the markings much heavier on the outer margin, and the 
base of the wings generally more deeply obscured with dark 
brown. The wings on the under side in color and marking 
closely approximate those of B. chariclea, and I have been unable 
to distinguish the specimens marked as boisduvali, and contained 
in the Edwards collection, from the specimens designated as B. 
chariclea in the same collection, so far as the color and macula- 
tion of the under sides of these specimens are concerned. Ex- 
panse, ^ , 1.50 inch; $, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species, originally described from Labrador, is found 
throughout boreal America and British Columbia. 

(7) Brenthis freija, Thunberg, Plate XV, Fig. 9,. 5 ; Fig. 10, 
$ , under side (The Lapland Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — The wings are pale fulvous, the fore wings at the 

132 



Genus Brenthis 

base and the hind wings on the inner half being deeply obscured 
with fuscous. The markings are quite heavy. The fore wings 
on the under side are very pale fulvous, yellowish at the tip, 
mottled with ferruginous. The hind wings are ferruginous on 
the under side, mottled with yellow. The spots are quite large, 
consisting of lines and dashes, and a marginal row of small lunu- 
late spots, pale yellow or white, slightly silvered. Expanse, 
1.50 inch. 

This butterfly is circumpolar, being found in Norway, Lap- 
land, northern Russia, and Siberia, through Alaska, British 
America, and Labrador, occurring also upon the highest peaks 
of the Rocky Mountains as far south as Colorado. 

(8) Brenthis polaris, Boisduval, Plate XV, Fig. 11, $; 
Fig. 12, $, under side (The Pohr FritiWury). 

Butterfly. — The upper side dull fulvous; the markings on the 
inner half of the wings are confluent, and lost in the brownish 
vestiture which obscures this portion of the wing. The outer 
median area is defined by irregular zigzag spots which flow to- 
gether. Beyond these the submarginal row of small black spots 
stands out distinctly upon the lighter ground-color of the wings. 
The outer margin is marked by black spots at the end of the 
nervules, on the fore wings somewhat widely separated, on the 
hind wings narrowly separated by the lighter ground-color. On 
the under side the wings are fulvous, with a marginal row of 
white checkerings on both wings. The hind wing is deeply 
mottled with ferruginous, on which the lighter white markings 
stand forth very conspicuously. Expanse, 6, 1.50 inch; ?, 
1.50-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This butterfly has been found in Labrador, Greenland, and 
other portions of arctic America, as far north as latitude 81° 52'. 

(9) Brenthis frigga,Thunberg, Plate XV, Fig. 13, $, ; Fig. 14, 
? , lower side (Frigga). 

Butterfly, $. — On the upper side this butterfly somewhat 
closely resembles polaris, but the markings are not so compact — 
more diffuse. The fore wings at the base and the hind wings 
on the inner two thirds are heavily obscured with brown. The 
outer margins are more heavily shaded with blackish-brown than 
in B. polaris. On the under side the wings are quite differently 
marked. The fore wings are fulvous, shaded with brown at the 

133 



Genus Brenthis 

tips, and marked with light yellow on the interspaces beyond 
the end of the cell. The hind wings are dark ferruginous, shad- 
ing into purplish-gray on the outer margin, with a whitish quad- 
rate spot on the costa near the base, marked with two dark 
spots, and a bar of pale, somewhat obscured spots, forming an 
irregular band across the middle of the hind wings. 

? . — The female does not differ greatly from the male, except 
that the spots on the under side of the hind wings stand forth 
more conspicuously, being lighter in color and better defined. 
Expanse, -1.65-2.00 inches. 

This pretty little butterfly occurs in Labrador, across the con- 
tinent as far west as northern Alaska, and is also occasionally 
taken upon the alpine summits of the Rocky Mountains as far 
south as Colorado. 

(10) Brenthis bellona, Fabricius, Plate XV, Fig. 16, ^ ; Plate 
V, Fig. 10, chrysalis, side view; Fig. 11, chrysalis, side view 
(Meadow Fritillary). 

Butterfly. — Pale fulvous on the upper side, with the dark 
markings on the inner half of the wing narrow, but more or less 
confluent. The dark markings on the outer part of the wing are 
slighter. The fore wings are a little angled on the outer margin 
below the apex. On the under side the fore wings are pale ful- 
vous, mottled with purple at the tip and on the outer margin. 
The hind wings on this side are ferruginous, mottled with 
purple. Expanse, i. 65-1. 80 inch. 

Egg. — The Qgg of this species is similar in form, size, color, 
and markings to the tgg of B. myrina. 

Caterpillar.— T\\Q caterpillar also in its early stages closely re- 
sembles myrina, but in its mature form it differs in not having the 
spines on the second segment of the body lengthened as in that 
species. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis, which is represented in Plate V, is 
bluish-gray in color, marked with dark spots. The life-history 
has been given us by several authors. 

This butterfly is very common in the whole of the northern 
United States, as far south as the mountain-ranges of Virginia, 
and occurs throughout Quebec, Ontario, and British America, as 
far west as the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. It flies commonly 
with B. myrina, the only other species of the genus found in the 
densely populated portions of our territory, from which it may be 

U4 



Genus Brenthis 

at once distinguished by the entire absence of the silvered mark- 
ings which make B. myrina so bright and attractive. 

(ii) Brenthis epithore, Boisduval, Plate XV, Fig. 17, <5 ; 
Fig. 18, S, under side (Epithore). 

Butterfly. — This species on the upper side is pale fulvous, with 
the markings slighter than in B. bellona, and the inner half of the 
hind wings much more heavily clouded with fuscous. On the 
under side the wings are somewhat like those of B. bellona, but 
less purple and mottled more distinctly with yellow. Expanse, 
6 , 1.50 inch; ? , 1.85 inch. 

Early Stages. — Undescribed. 

This species appears to replace B. bellona, its close ally, in 
California, Oregon, and the States eastward as far as parts of 
Colorado. 

(12) Brenthis alberta, Edwards, Plate XV, Fig. 15,5 (Al- 
berta). 

Butterfly. — This, the least attractive in appearance of the 
species composing the genus, has pale wings with a "washed- 
out" appearance on the upper side, almost all the dark markings 
being greatly reduced or obliterated. On the under side the wings 
are even more obscurely marked than on the upper side. The fe- 
male is darker than the male, and specimens have a greasy look. 
Expanse, ^,1.55 inch; ?,i.65-i.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown, except the tgg and the young 
caterpillar, which have been most beautifully figured by Edwards 
in vol. iii of ''The Butterflies of North America." The only 
locality from which specimens have as yet been received by col- 
lectors is Laggan, in Alberta, where the species apparently is not 
uncommon at lofty elevations above sea-level. 

(13) Brenthis astarte, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XVllI, 
Fig. 14, 5 ; Fig. 15, ?, under side (Astarte). 

Butterfly. — This rare insect, the largest of the genus, may at 
once be distinguished from all others by the very beautiful mark- 
ings of the under side of the hind wings, crossed by a band of 
irregular, bright-yellow spots, which are narrowly edged with 
black, and beyond the black bordered by red. Expanse, $ , 2.00 
inches; $ , 2. 15 inches. 

Early S/a^^s.— Unknown. 

The first description and figure of this insect were given by 
Doubleday and Hewitson in their large and now very valuable 

135 



Suspicious Conduct 

work on ''The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera/' They correctly 
attributed it to the Rocky Mountains, but Kirby afterward 
gave Jamaica as its habitat, and this led to its subsequent rede- 
scription by Edwards under the name Victoria. It is a rare species 
still, having been received only from Laggan, Alberta, where it 
was rediscovered by that most indefatigable collector and ob- 
server, Mr. T. E. Bean. it frequents the highest summits 
of the lofty mountains about this desolate locality. Mr. Bean 
says: " Astarte seems always on the lookout for an entomolo- 
gist, whose advent is carefully noted, and at any approach of 
such a monster nearer than about fifteen feet, its wings rise to 
half-mast, vibrate there a doubtful instant, and away goes the 
butterfly." 

In addition to the thirteen species figured in our plates there 
are two other species of the genus, B. butleri, Edwards, from 
Grinnell Land, and B. improba, Butler, from near the arctic circle. 
It is not likely that many of the readers of this book will encounter 
these insects in their rambles, and if they should, they will be able 
to ascertain their names quickly, by conferring with the author. 

SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT 

The entomologist must not expect to be always thoroughly 
understood. The ways of scientific men sometimes appear 
strange, mysterious, bordering even upon the insane, to those 
who are uninitiated. A celebrated American naturalist relates 
that on one occasion, when chasing butterflies through a meadow 
belonging to a farmer, the latter came out and viewed him with 
manifest anxiety. But when the nature of the efforts of the man 
of science had been finally explained, the farmer heaved a sigh 
of relief, remarking, in Pennsylvania Dutch, that "he had surely 
thought, when he first saw him, that he had just escaped from a 
lunatic asylum." The writer, a number of years ago, after having 
despatched a very comfortable lunch, sallied forth one afternoon, 
in quest of insects, and in the course of his wanderings came 
upon a refuse-heap by the roadside, opposite a substantial house, 
and on this heap discovered an ancient ham, which was sur- 
rounded by a multitude of beetles of various species known to 
be partial to decomposed, or semi-decomposed, animal matter. 
He proceeded immediately to bottle a number of the specimens. 

136 



Genus Melitaea 

While engaged in so doing, the window of the house across the 
way was thrown up, and an elderly female thrust her head out, 
and in strident voice exclaimed: "Hey, there! What are you 
doin' with that ham ? I say, don't you know that that ham is 
spiled?" As he paid no attention to her, she presently appeared 
at the door, came across the street, and remarked: "See here, 
mister; that ham 's spiled; Lucy and me throwed it out, knowin' 
it was no good. If you want a good meal of wittles, come into 
the house, and we will feed you, but for mercy's sake leave that 
spiled ham alone." It took considerable effort to assure her that 
no designs upon the ham were cherished, and she went away, 
evidently completely mystified at the wild conduct of the well- 
dressed man who was grubbing in the rubbish-pile. 



Genus MELITiEA, Fabricius 
(The Checker-spots) 

" The fresh young Flie, . . . 

. . . joy'd to range abroad in fresh attire, 
Through the wide compass of the ayrie coast; 

And, with unwearied wings, each part t' inquire 
Of the wide rule of his renowned sire." 

Spenser. 

Butterfly. — Small. The tibiae and the tarsi of the mesothoracic 
and metathoracic legs are more lightly armed with spines than in 
the genera Argynnis and Brenthis. The palpi are not swollen. 
They are clothed with long hairs and have the third joint finely 
pointed. The antennae are about half as long as the costa of the 
fore wings, and are provided with a short, heavy, excavated, or 
spoon-shaped club. The subcostal of the fore wings is five- 
branched, the first nervule always arising before the end of the 
cell, the second at the end or just beyond it. The cell of the pri- 
maries is closed, of the secondaries open. The markings upon the 
wings are altogether different from those in the two preceding 
genera, and the spots on the under side of the wings are not 
silvered, as in the genus Brenthis. 

^S§' — The tgg is rounded at the base, subconical, truncated, 
and depressed at the upper end and fluted by light raised ridges 
(see p. 4, Fig. 8). 

U7 




Genus Melitaea 

Caterpillar. — The larvae are cylindrical, armed in the mature 
form on each segment with comparatively short spines thickly 
covered with diverging hairs, or needle-shaped 
spines. They are known in some species to 
be gregarious in their early stages, and then 
to separate before maturity. They feed upon 
the ScrophulariacecB, upon Castileja, Diplo- 
pappus, and other plants. 

Chrysalis.— The chrysalis is pendant, 
rounded at the head, provided with more or 
less sharply pointed tubercles on the dorsal 
surface, and generally white or some shade 
onhe|e'n;;;M"wt" of "ght gray, blotched with brown or black, 
and marked with reddish or orange spots 
on the dorsal side. 

This genus is very large and is distributed widely over all the 
colder portions of the north temperate zone. There are many 
species found in Europe, in Siberia, in China, and in the northern 
islands of Japan. On the upper slopes of the Himalayas it is also 
represented by a few species. In North America the genus is 
well represented, the most of the species being found upon the 
mountain-slopes and in the valleys of the Pacific coast region. 
Only two species occur in the Eastern States. 

(i) Melitaea phaeton, Drury, Plate XVI, Fig. i, ^ ; Plate V, 
Figs. 15, 16, chrysalis (The Baltimore). 

Butterfly, S . — The upper side is black, with a marginal row 
of red spots, followed by three rows of pale-yellow spots on the 
fore wings and two on the hind wings. Besides these there are 
some large red spots on the cells of both wings, a large red spot 
about the middle of the costa of the hind wing, and a few scat- 
tering yellow spots, forming an incomplete fourth row on the 
fore wing and an incomplete third row on the hind wing. On 
the under side all the spots of the upper side reappear, but heavier 
and more distinct, and on the hind wings there are two additional 
rows of yellow spots, and a number of irregular patches of red 
and yellow at the base of both wings. 

$. — The female is much like the male. Expanse, $, 1.75- 
2.00 inches; ?, 2.00-2.60 inches. 

Egg. — The egg which is outlined upon p. 4, Fig. 8, is 
brownish-yellow when first laid, then changes to crimson, and 

138 



HXPI.ANATION OF Pl.ATH XVI 



MilitiVj p/.hii'loii, Drury, rf'. ii. 

ML'lita'i.1 cl.hilccdoii, Doublediiy aiul 12. 

Hewitson, J'. 

MclitiVJ iimcgLishai/i , Rivers, r'. 1 '• 

Mcliiit\i i7 II i^itslj, F.dwaids, ri\ 14. 
McliliVi.1 colon. Edwards, (^. 

Mi'liliVii iiiihigciiii . Behr, ri'. 1=;. 

Mi'liliva ha roil i. Henry Edwards, r^'. 10. 

Melitcva cdiihci, Boisduval, ^\ 17. 

Mclita\i iiiihioi'iuj. var. iclwcU'ri, iS. 

Henry Hdwards, r^'. ic). 

Mi'liliva nihiciDuLi. Henr\' Hd- 20. 

wards, -{•. 21. 



Mt-liliva crcasliis, Hdwards, y. 

MclHiVii LiCiisliis. Hdwards, rj^, iiii- 
chT suic. 

Mc'liLra pallj, Boisduval, J'. 

Mi'llla\j pa J la, Boisduval. rf', un- 
der side. 

Mclila-a oabbi, Behr, J'- 

Mi'Iittva /avion', Edwards, o"^- 

Mi'liUra fiilvia , Edwards, rf. 

Mclita-a dviiias, Edwards, -j". 

McUtiva pc'rsc, Edwards, rf. 

Mt'lihva Icanira. Boisduval. '-^. 

Mi'liUra uvinpba, Edwards, -f . 



Mi'lita-a arachiic, Hilwarils, 9 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XVI. 





"OPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898 



I 



Genus Melitaea 

becomes black just before hatching. The eggs are laid by the 
female in large clusters on the under side of the leaf of the food- 
plant. 

Caterpillar. — The life-history in all the stages will be found 
minutely described by Edwards in "The Butterflies of North 
America," vol. ii, and by Scudder in "The Butterflies of New 
England," vol. i. The mature larva is black, banded with 
orange-red, and beset with short, bristly, black spines. Before 
and during hibernation, which takes place after the third moult, 
the caterpillars are gregarious, and construct for themselves a 
web in which they pass the winter. After the rigors of winter 
are past, and the food-plant, which is commonly Chelone glabra, 
begins to send up fresh shoots, they recover animation, scatter, 
and fall to feeding again, and after the fifth moult reach maturity. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pendant, formed generally at a 
considerable distance from the spot where the caterpillar feeds, 
for the larvae wander off widely just before pupation. It is pearly- 
gray, blotched with dark brown in stripes and spots, with some 
orange markings. 

This very beautiful butterfly is quite local, found in colonies in 
swampy places where the food-plant grows, but in these spots 
sometimes appearing in swarms. It occurs in the northern por- 
tions of the United States and in Canada, extending as far north 
as the Lake of the Woods, and as far south as West Virginia. It 
does not occur west of the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Melitaea chalcedon, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate 
XVI, Fig. 2, 6 (Chalcedon). 

Butterfly. — The male and female are much alike. The wings 
are black, spotted with red and ochreous-yellow. On the under 
side they are brick-red, with the spots of the upper side repeated, 
and in addition at the base a number of large and distinct yellow 
spots. Expanse, 5, 1.75-2.00 inches; ?, 2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — For a knowledge of these the reader may con- 
sult Edwards, "The Butterflies of North America," vol. i, and 
"Papilio," vol. iv, p. 63; Wright, "Papilio," vol. iii, p. 123, and 
other authorities. The Qgg is pale yellowish when first laid, 
pitted at the base, and ribbed vertically above. The caterpillar is 
black, with the bristling processes on the segments longer than 
in the preceding species. The chrysalis is pale gray, blotched 
with brown. The food-plants are Mimulus and Castileja. 

139 



Genus Mclitsea 

This very pretty species is apparently quite common in north- 
ern California about Mount Shasta. It is subject to variation, and I 
possess a dozen remarkable aberrations, in one of which the fore 
wings are solid black without spots, and the hind wings marked 
by only one central band of large yellow spots; another repre- 
senting the opposite color extreme, in which yellow has almost 
wholly replaced the black and red. The majority of these aberrant 
forms are females. They are very striking. 

(3) Melitsea macglashani, Rivers, Plate XVI, Fig. 3, ^ 
(Macglashan's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — Larger than the preceding species, with the red 
spots on the outer margin bigger, the yellow spots generally larger 
and paler. Expanse, $> , 1.85-2.00 inches; ?, 2.25-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This insect is represented in the Edwards collection by a con- 
siderable series. They come from Truckee, California. 

(4) Melitsea colon, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 5, S (Colon). 
Butterfly. — Of the same size and general appearance as M. 

chalcedon, with which I believe it to be identical, the only pos- 
sible satisfactory mark of distinction which I am able to discover 
on comparing the types with a long series of chalcedon being 
the reduced size of the marginal row of yellow spots on the 
upper side of the primaries, which in one of the types figured in 
the plate are almost obsolete. They appear, however, in other 
specimens labeled ''Type." The learned author of the species 
lays stress, in his original description, upon the shape of the spots 
composing the band of spots second from the margin on the 
under side of the hind wings; but I find that the same points he 
dwells upon as diacritic of this species are apparent in many 
specimens of what undoubtedly are chalcedon. Expanse, 1.75- 
2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have not been recorded. 

The types came from the region of the Columbia River, in 
Washington and Oregon. 

(5) Melitsea anicia, Doubleday and Hewitson, var. beani. 
Skinner, Plate XVlll, Fig. 13, 5 (Bean's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — M. anicia is a well-known Californian species, 
smaller than M. chalcedon, and with a great deal of red on the 
basal and discal areas of both wings upon the upper side. An 
extremely small and dark form of this species, found on the bleak, 

140 



Genus Melitaea 

inhospitable mountain-tops about Laggan, in Alberta, has been 
named by Dr. Skinner in honor of Mr. Bean, its discoverer. The 
figure in our plate, which is taken from Dr. Skinner's original 
type, sufficiently defines the characteristics of the upper surface. 
Expanse, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — The early stages of M. anicia and its varietal 
forms are quite unknown. 

M anicia is found in Colorado, Montana, Washington, and 
British America. 

(6) Melitaea nubigena, Behr, Plate XVI, Fig. 6, 6 ; var. 
wheeleri, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 9, 6 (The Clouded Checker- 
spot). 

Butterfly. — Smaller than any of the foregoing species, and 
characterized by the much redder ground-color of the upper side 
of the wings, an extreme form being the variety M. wheeleri, in 
which the black ground-color is greatly reduced and almost 
wholly obliterated on parts of the primaries. There are other 
marks of distinction given in the figures in the plate which will 
enable the student easily to recognize this species, which is sub- 
ject to much variation, especially in the female sex. Expanse, 
1. 20-1. 50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Mead, in the " Report upon the Lepidoptera of 
the Wheeler Survey," has described the caterpillar and chrysalis. 

The species is common in Nevada. 

(7) Melitaea augusta, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 4, 6 (Au- 
gusta). 

Butterfly. — This is another species in which red predominates 
as the color of the upper side, but it may at once be distinguished 
by the broad, clear red band on the secondaries, on either side of 
which are the marginal and outer median rows of yellow spots, 
and by the bands of yellow spots on the primaries, which are not 
so well marked in M. nubigena. Expanse, S, i. 50-1.75 inch; 
? , 1.75-2.00 inches. 

Ea rly Stages . — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is southern California. 

(8) Melitsea baroni, Henry Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 7, $ 
(Baron's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — This species closely resembles chalcedon upon the 
upper side, but is smaller and much more heavily spotted with deep 
red on the upper side toward the base and on the median area of 

141 



Genus Melitaea 

the wings. The bands of light spots on the under side are paler 
than in chalcedon, being white or very pale yellow, narrow, and 
more regular. Expanse, 5 , 1 = 50-1.80 inch; ?, 1.60- 1.90 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are in part given by Edwards, ''The 
Butterflies of North America, " vol. iii. The food-plant is Castileja. 
The young larvae have the same habit as those of M. phaeton in 
the matter of spinning a common web in which to hibernate. 

The species is found in northern California. 

(9) Melitaea rubicunda, Henry Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 10, 
^ (The Ruddy Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — Of the same size as M. baroni, from which it is 
most easily distinguished, among other things, by the tendency of 
the outer row of small yellow spots near the margin of the hind 
wings on the upper side to become greatly reduced, and in a ma- 
jority of specimens to be altogether wanting, as in the specimen 
figured in our plate. Expanse, 5 , i. 50-1.60 inch; ?, 1.80 inch. 

Early Stages. — For a knowledge of what is thus far known of 
these the reader may consult the " Canadian Entomologist," vol. 
xvii, p. 155. The caterpillar feeds on Scrophularia. 

The range of this species is in northern California. 

(10) Melitaea taylori, Plate XVI, Fig. 16, ^ (Taylor's 
Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — This insect resembles M. baroni, but is smaller, 
the red spots on the wings are larger and more conspicuous, and 
the light bands of pale spots more regular and paler in color, in 
many specimens being quite white. It looks at first sight like a 
diminutive edition of Baron's Checker-spot, and possibly is only 
a northern race of this species. Expanse, S , i. 25-1. 50 inch; ?, 
1. 50-1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Mr. W. H. Danby of Victoria, B. C, informs us 
in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxi, p. 121, that the food- 
plant of this species is the ribwort-plantain {Plantago lanceo- 
lata, Linn.). 

It is found on Vancouver's Island. 

(11) Melitaea editha, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 8, ^ (Editha). 
Butterfly. — Characterized by the considerable enlargement and 

the disposition in regular bands of the pale spots on the upper side 
of the primaries, and by the tendency to a grayish cast in the darker 
markings of the upper side, some specimens, especially females, 
being quite gray. Expanse, ^ , 1.50 inch; ? , 2.00 inches. 

142 



Genus Melitaea 

Early Stages. — The food-plants, according to Henry Edwards, 
who described the caterpillar and chrysalis in the '* Canadian 
Entomologist," vol. v, p. 167, are Erodhun cictUarmm, clover, 
and violets. 

The habitat of this species is southern California. 

(12) Melitaea acastus, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 11, 5 ; Fig. 
12, $, under side (Acastus). 

BiLtterfly. — With thinner and less robust wings than any of the 
species of the genus hitherto mentioned. It is prevalently fulvous 
upon the upper side, and on the under side of the hind wings 
heavily and somewhat regularly banded with yellowish-white 
spots, possessing some pearly luster. Expanse, 6, 1.50 inch; 
$ , 1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Common in Nevada, Utah, and Montana. 

(13) Melitaea palla, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 13, 6 ; Fig. 
14, ^, under side (The Northern Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side resembling the preceding spe- 
cies, but with the median band of spots on the hind wings paler. 
On the under side the markings are different, as is shown in 
the plate. Expanse, $> , 1.50 inch; $, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — The larva and chrysalis were described by 
Henry Edwards, the actor naturalist, in the '* Proceedings of the 
California Academy of Sciences," vol. v, p. 167. The food-plant 
is Castileja. 

The species ranges from California to Colorado, and north- 
ward into British Columbia. 

(14) Melitaea whitneyi, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 7, ^ ; Fig. 8, 
$> , under side (Whitney's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — The markings are much as in M. palla, the spots 
are lighter fulvous and larger than in that species, the yellow 
bands on the under side are more prominent, and the marginal 
spots have a silvery luster which is lacking in M. palla. The 
female has the yellow of the under side more prominent than is 
the case in the male sex. Expanse, 5, 1.50 inch; ?, 1.70 inch. 

Early Stages. — Altogether unknown. 

Whitney's Checker-spot ranges from California into Nevada. 

(15) Melitaea hoffmanni, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 13, 6 ; Fig. 
14, ? , aberration (Hoffmann's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly, S . — General style of marking much as in the two 

143 



Genus Melitaea 

preceding species, but with the basal area black, and the black 
markings toward the outer margin not so heavy, giving it here 
a more fulvous appearance. The median bands on both wings 
are broader and paler than in M. palla. The under side is much 
as in the last-mentioned species, but the yellow markings are 
more prominent. 

?. — Much like the male. Expanse, 6, 1.35 inch; $, 1.45 
inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species, which is found in California and Nevada, is 
subject to extreme variation, and 1 have placed upon the plate 
one out of many beautiful and singular aberrations which I 
possess. 

(16) Melitaea gabbi, Behr, Plate XVI, Fig. 15, $ (Gabb's 
Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — In the style of its markings on the upper side it 
almost completely resembles M. acastus, but the dark markings 
are slighter, giving the wings a more fulvous appearance. On 
the under side the bands are narrower, defined more sharply 
with black, and pearly, almost silvery white, whereas in acastus 
they are pale yellowish-white, and not so lustrous. Expanse, o , 
1.20 inch; ? , i.so inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is southern California. 

(17) Melitsea harrisi, Scudder, Plate XVII, Fig. 5, $ ; Fig. 
6, ?, under side; Plate V, Figs. 17-18, chrysalis (Harris' 
Checker-spot). 

Butterfly, S . — Wings fulvous, black at the base and on the 
outer margin, with five fulvous spots in the cell of the fore wing, 
two below the cell; and three in the cell of the hind wing. 
The black border is widest at the apex of the fore wing, and be- 
low this runs inwardly on the veins. There are two white spots 
near the apex. At the anal angle on the hind wing the border 
is somewhat divided so as to present the appearance of two in- 
distinct lines. On the under side the wings are fulvous, marked 
with black bands and spots, and crossed by bands and crescents 
of pale yellow, as is shown in the figure on the plate. 

9. — The female is much like the male. Expanse, $, 1.50 
inch; ? , 1.75 inch. 

Egg. — The eggs are lemon-yellow, in the form of a truncated 

144 



Genus Melitaea 

cone, with fifteen or sixteen vertical ribs, which are highest 
about the middle. 

Caterpillar. — The matured caterpillar is reddish-fulvous, with 
a black stripe on the back. Each segment is marked with one 
black ring before and two black rings behind the sets of spiny 
tubercles with which the segments are adorned. There are nine 
rows of spines, those above the feet being quite small. The 
spines are black, tapering, and set with diverging black hairs. 
The food-plants are aster and Diplopappus umbellatus. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pearly-gray or white, blotched 
with dark brown or black. 

This choice little butterfly ranges from Nova Scotia to Wis- 
consin, extending as far south as northern Illinois, and north- 
ward to Ottawa. 

(i8) Melitaea elada, Hewitson, Plate XVII, Fig. 2, -^ 
(Hewitson's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly, -5 . — The wings on the upper side are black, crossed 
by numerous bands of small fulvous spots, the one crossing 
the middle of the median area being composed of the largest 
spots. The fore wings on the under side are fulvous, shading 
outwardly into ferruginous. The spots and bands of the upper 
side reappear upon the under side, but are lighter, and the sub- 
marginal row of crescents is pale yellow and very distinct, the 
spot between the second and third median nervules being the 
largest, and the spot between the fourth and fifth subcostals 
being only a little smaller. The under side of the hind wings is 
deep ferruginous, crossed by bands of pearly pale-yellow spots, 
those of the outer margin being the largest. 

$ . — The female is much like the male, with the ground-color 
a little paler. Expanse, 6,. 90 inch; $, i.oo-i. 10 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This little species is found in western Texas, Arizona, and 
northern Mexico. 

(19) Melitaea dymas, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 18, $ 
(Dymas). 

Butterfly. — This species is closely related in size and the style 
of some of the markings to the foregoing species, but may be 
at once distinguished by the lighter ground-color, which is pale 
fulvous, and the totally different style of the marginal markings 
on the under side of the wings. The female represented in the 

145 



Genus Melitsea 

plate is a trifle paler than the male. Expanse, $> , .85 inch; $, 
1. 00 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is southwestern Texas. 

(20) Melitaea perse, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 19, S 
(Perse). 

Butterfly. — This is nearly related to the two foregoing species, 
but the ground-color is darker fulvous than in dymas, the mark- 
ings are slight as in that species, and the arrangement of the 
spots and bands on the under side is similar. The marginal 
crescents on the under side of the primaries are largest at the 
apex and rapidly diminish in size, vanishing altogether about 
the middle of the wing. Expanse, $, i. 00 inch; ?, 1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages. — These remain to be discovered. 

The only specimens so far found have come from Arizona. 

(21) Melitaea chara, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 3, 6 ; Fig. 
4, 6, under side (Chara). 

Butterfly. — No lengthy description of this pretty little species 
is required, as the plate, which gives both sides of the wings, 
shows their peculiarities with sufficient accuracy to enable an 
exact determination to be made. The whitish spot on the costa 
before the apex on the upper side, and the chalky-white mark- 
ings and spots on the under side, serve at once to distinguish 
this form from its near allies. Expanse, 6, i.oo inch; $, 1.25 
inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

I have a large series of this species, all from Arizona, where 
it appears to be common. 

{22) Melitsea leanira, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 20, ? 
(Leanira). 

Butterfly, $ . — Ground-color brownish-black, fulvous on the 
costa, with submarginal, median, and basal rows of yellow spots. 
Both the primaries and secondaries have a marginal row of red 
spots, and the former have in addition a submarginal row of such 
spots. The under side of the primaries is reddish-fulvous, with 
the markings of the upper side reproduced. The secondaries 
have a marginal row of yellow crescents, then a black band in- 
closing yellow spots, then a median band of long yellow cres- 
cents. The remainder of the wing to its insertion is black, spotted 
with yellow. 

146 



Genus Melitaea 

$. — Much like the male. Expanse, $, 1.50 inch; ?, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This pretty insect ranges from southern California and Arizona 
to Nevada, Montana, and British America. 

(2}) Melitaea wrighti, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 9, ^ ; Fig. 
10, ? , tinder side (Wright's Checker-spot). 

Butterfly. — Much like M. leanira, but with more fulvous upon 
the upper side of the wings, and the under side yellow. The 
black bands on the secondaries are reduced, and the dividing- 
lines between the spots are confined to the nervules, which are 
narrowly black. This is probably only a varietal form of the 
preceding species. 1 figure the types. Expanse, 6, 1.30 inch; 
? , 1.80 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Habitat, southern California. 

(24) Melitaea alma, Strecker, Plate XVII, Fig. i, $ (Strecker's 
Checker-spot). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side of the wings is bright fulvous, 
with the margins and veins black. There are three rows of 
transverse spots paler than the ground-color. The fore wings on 
the under side are pale fulvous, with pale-yellow spots and a sub- 
marginal and marginal row of yellow spots separated by a narrow 
black line. The hind wings on this side are yellow, with the 
veins and margins black, and a transverse double band of black 
on the outer margin of the median area. 

$ . — Much like the male, but larger, and redder on the upper 
side. Expanse, $, 1.25 inch; ?, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The specimens I have came from the Death Valley. The spe- 
cies occurs in southern Utah and Arizona. 

(2s) Melitaea thekla, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 15, 5, tender 
side; Fig. 16, $ (Thekla). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side of the wings is fulvous, black 
toward the base and on the outer margin. The primaries are 
adorned with a large oval pale-fulvous spot at the end of the cell, 
a small one on the middle of the upper side of the cell, and another 
small one below the cell, at the origin of the first median nervule. 
The discal area is defined outwardly by a very irregular fine black 
transverse line, beyond which is a transverse band of pale-fulvous 
oblong spots, an incomplete series of spots of the ground-color 

M7 



Genus Melitaea 

sharply defined upon the black outer shade, followed by a row of 
irregular white submarginal spots. The transverse bands of spots 
on the primaries are repeated upon the secondaries, where they 
are more regular and the spots more even in size. On the under 
side both wings are pale red, with the light spots of the upper side 
reappearing as pale-yellow sharply defined spots. The fringes are 
checkered black and white. 

?. — Much like the male, but larger. Expanse, $, i. 35-1. 50 
inch; $ , i. 50-1. 75 inch. 

Ea liy Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is common in Texas. It is identical, as an ex- 
amination of the type shows, with M. bolli, Edwards, and the 
latter name as a synonym falls into disuse. 

{26) Melitaea minuta, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 11, S, 
iiiider side; Fig. 12, S (The Smaller Checker-spot). 

Butterfly, $ . — This species is fulvous on the upper side, rather 
regularly banded with black lines. The veins are also black. The 
result is that the wings appear to be more regularly checkered than 
in any other species which is closely allied to this. The markings 
of the under side are white edged with black, and are shown very 
well in the plate, so that a lengthy description is unnecessary. 
Expanse, S, 1.2S-1.35 inch; ?, i. 50-1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The specific name, minuta, is not altogether appropriate. 
There are many smaller species of the genus. It is found rather 
commonly in Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. 

(27) Melitaea arachne, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 22, ? 
(Arachne). 

Butterfly.— \ have given in the plate a figure of a female bear- 
ing this name in the Edwards collection. It is remarkably pale 
on the upper side. There is a large series of types and paratypes 
in the collection, but all of them vary on the upper side of the 
wings in the intensity of the fulvous ground-color and the width 
of the black markings. Underneath they are absolutely like M. 
minuta. I think M. arachne is without much doubt a synonym 
for M. minuta. The species varies very greatly. The types are 
from Colorado and western Texas. Expanse as in M. minuta. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

(28) Melitaea nympha, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 21, $ 
(Nympha). 

148 



Collecting in Japan 

Butterfly. — This species differs from M. minuta only in having 
the black markings darker and the outer median bands of spots 
on the upper side yellow. On the under side the pattern of the 
markings is exactly as in M. minuta. It seems to me to be a 
dark, aberrant form of M. minuta, but is very well marked, and 
constant in a large series of specimens, so that we cannot be sure 
until some one breeds these creatures from the Qgg. Expanse, 
the same as that of M. minuta. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Habitat, Arizona. 

In addition to the species of the genus Melitcea illustrated in our 
plates there are a few others which are credited to our fauna, some 
of these correctly and some erroneously, and a number of so-called 
species have been described which are not true species, but varie- 
ties or aberrations. 

COLLECTING IN JAPAN 

I was tired of the Seiyo-ken, the only hotel at which foreigners 
could be entertained without the discomfort of sleeping upon the 
floor. There is a better hotel in Tokyo now. I had looked out 
for five days from my window upon the stinking canal through 
which the tide ebbs and flows in Tsukiji. I felt if I stayed longer 
in the lowlands that I would contract malarial fever or some other 
uncomfortable ailment, and resolved to betake myself to the moun- 
tains, the glorious mountains, which rise all through the interior 
of the country, wrapped in verdure, their giant summits capped 
with clouds, many of them the abode of volcanic thunder. So I 
went by rail to the terminus of the road, got together the coolies 
to pull and push my jinrikishas, and,. accompanied by a troop of 
native collectors, made my way up the Usui-toge, the pass over 
which travelers going from western Japan into eastern Japan 
laboriously crept twelve years ago. 

What a sunset when we reached an elevation of three thou- 
sand feet above the paddy-fields which stretch across the Kwanto 
to the Gulf of Yeddo ! What a furious thunder-storm came on just 
as night closed in! Then at half-past nine the moon struggled 
out from behind the clouds, and we pushed on up over the muddy 
roads, until at last a cold breath of night air sweeping from the 
west began to fan our faces, and we realized that we were at the 

149 



Genus Phyciodes 

top of the pass, and before us in the dim moonlight loomed the 
huge form of Asama-yama, that furious volcano, which more than 
once has laid the land waste for leagues around, and compared 
with which Vesuvius is a pygmy. We slept on Japanese mats, 
and in the morning, the drops glittering on every leaf, we started 
out to walk through the fields to Oiwake, our baggage going for- 
ward, we intending to loiter all day amid the charms of nature. 
Seven species of lilies bloomed about us in the hedges and the 
fields; a hundred plants, graceful and beautiful in blossom, 
scented the air with their aroma, and everywhere were butterflies 
and bees. Above us hung in the sky a banner, the great cloud 
which by day and by night issues from the crater of Asama- 
yama. Five species of fritillaries flashed their silvery wings by 
copse and stream; great black papilios soared across the meadows; 
blue lycaenas, bright chrysophani, and a dozen species of wood- 
nymphs gamboled over the low herbage and among the grass. 
Torosan, my chief collector, was in his element. *'Dana-san" 
{my lord, or my master), "this kind Yokohama no have got." 
''Dana-san, this kind me no catchee Tokyo side." And so we 
wandered down the mountain-slope, taking species new alike to 
American and Japanese, until the sun was sinking in the west. 
The cloud-banner had grown crimson and purple in the sunset 
when we wandered into the hospitable doorway of the wayside 
inn at Oiwake. There we made our headquarters for the week, 
and thence we carried away a thousand butterflies and moths 
and two thousand beetles as the guerdon of our chase. 



Genus PHYCIODES, Doubleday 
(The Crescent-spots) 

" Flusheth the rise with her purple favor, 
Gloweth the cleft with her golden ring. 
'Twixt the two brown butterflies waver, 
Lightly settle, and sleepily swing." 

Jean Ingelow. 

Butterfly. — The butterflies composing this genus are generally 
quite small. Their wings on the upper side are fulvous, or 
brown, with black margins, spots, and lines upon the upper side 
of the wings, and with the under side of the wings reproducing 

150 




Genus Phyciodes 

the spots of the upper side in paler tints. Of the spots of the under 
side of the wings one of the most characteristic is the pale crescent 
situated on the outer margin of the hind wings, 
between the ends of the second and third me- 
dian nervules. This spot is frequently pearly- 
white or silvered. Structurally the butterflies of 
this genus may be distinguished from the pre- 
ceding genus by the enlarged second joint of the 
palpi and the very fme, extremely pointed third 
joint. In the neuration of the wings and in their 
habits these butterflies closely approximate 

Melitcea. Fig. 92.— Neura- 

E^f[S' — The eggs are always higher than tion of the genus 
broad, with the surface at the base more or 
less pitted, giving them a thimble-like appearance. On the 
upper end in some species they have a few short, vertical ridges, 
radiating from the micropyle. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, marked with pale 
longitudinal stripes upon a darker ground, and adorned with 
tubercles arranged in regular rows. These tubercles are generally 
much shorter than in the genus Melitcea. The caterpillars do not, 
so far as is known, weave webs at any time. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pendant, with the head slightly 
bifid. The dorsal region of the abdomen is provided with slight 
tubercles. The color is generally some shade of pale gray, 
blotched with black or dark brown. 

This genus finds its principal development in South and Cen- 
tral America, which are very rich in species, some of them 
mimicking in a most marvelous manner the butterflies of the pro- 
tected genus Heliconius and its allies. The species found in the 
United States and Canada are for the most part not very gaily 
colored insects, chaste shades of brown, or yellow, and black 
predominating. 

(i ) Phyciodes nycteis, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XVII, 
Fig. 28, 6 , tinder side; Fig. 29, $ ; Fig. 30, ? ; Plate V, Fig. 
19, chrysalis (Nycteis). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side very closely resembling Melitcea 
harrisi, for which it may easily be mistaken upon the wing. The 
under side of the hind wings is very different, and may at once 
be distinguished by the lighter color of the base of the wing, 

151 



Genus Phyciodes 

and the pale, silvery crescent on the outer margin. Expanse, S , 
1. 25-1. 65 inch; ?, 1.65-2.00 inches. 

Egg. — The tgg is half as high again as broad, marked with 
sixteen or seventeen vertical ribs above, and pitted about the 
middle by hexagonal cells. It is pale green in color. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar undergoes four moults after 
hatching. In the mature stage it is velvety-black, with a dull 
orange stripe along the back, and purplish streaks on the sides. 
The body is studded with whitish spots, each giving rise to a 
delicate black hair, and is further beset with rather short, black, 
hairy spines. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is pearly-gray, blotched with dark 
brown. 

The life-history of this species has been carefully worked out, 
and all the details may be found described in the most minute 
manner by Edwards and by Scudder. 

The insect ranges from Maine to North Carolina, and thence 
westward to the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. 

(2) Phyciodes ismeria, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XVII, 
Fig. 24, 6 ; Fig. 25, 6 , under side (Ismeria). 

Butterfly, $ . — Easily distinguished from all other allied species 
by the double row of small light spots on the dark margin of the 
fore wings on the upper side, and by the silvery, narrow, and 
greatly bent line of bright silvery spots crossing the middle of the 
hind wings on the under side. 

? . — The female is like the male, but larger and paler, and all 
the spots on the upper side are pale fulvous, and not as distinctly 
white on the outer margin as in the male sex. Expanse, $ , 
1.15-1.35 inch; ?, 1.35-2.00 inches. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar, according to Boisduval and 
Leconte, is yellowish, with blackish spines and three longitudinal 
blackish stripes. The head, the thoracic legs, and the under side 
are black; the other legs are yellow. 

Chrysalis. — According to the same authors, the chrysalis is 
pale gray, with paler light spots and nearly white dorsal tubercles. 

This insect ranges over a wide territory from Canada to the 
Southern and Western States east of the Rocky Mountains. 

(3) Phyciodes vesta, Edwards, Plate XVll, Fig. 17, 6 ; Fig. 
18, ? ; Fig. 19, ?, under side (Vesta). 

Butterfly, $ . — On the upper side it closely resembles the win- 

152 



Explanation of Plate XVII 



Mi'lilcvj ahiuj. Strecker, '^. 
Mclitiva L'lachi . Hewitson, (^\ 
Mclitcvj cbara. Edwards, (^. 
Mclitcva clmra. Edwards, (J\ under 

side. 
Mclila'j bjrn'si. Scudder, (J\ 
Mel it era bjrrisi . Scudder, ^ , under 

side. 
MeHla\i lebitiievi'. Behr, rj'. 
Melitera ■ubihien. Behr, r?\ under 

side. 
Melilecj icrigbli, Edwards, (i\ 
Melitevet icrigbti , Edwards. V • ""- 

der side. 
Melilevj niinulei. Edwards, (j\ un- 
der side. 
Melileva inini/Li. Edwards, (J\ 
MeJilerj bojjnuiinii , Behr, (J'. 
Melita\i boffnianni , Behr, 9 • |■^l''^'l'- 

reilion . 
Melilera IbekLi, Edwards, r^'. under 

side. 
Meliienr IbekLi. Edwards, J'. 
Pbvciodes vesta. Edwards, (J'. 
Pbveiodes -eestj, Edwards, 9. 
Pbvciodes vest J . Edwards. 9- under 

side. 
Pbvciodes pictei. Edwards, 9- ">'- 

der side. 
Pbvciodes picta, Edwards, rj'. 
Pbvciodes phaon, Edwards, r^. 



54- 



^8. 



40. 



Pbvciodes pbaon, Edwards, 9. un- 
der side. 

Pbyciodcs ismeria, Boisduval and 
Leconte, (-J'. 

Pbvciodes ismeria^ Boisduval and 
Leconte, (^, under side. 

Pbvciodes inonteiim, Behr, ^, un- 
der side. 

Pbvciodes niontanei, Behr, r^. 

Pbvciodes urctcis, Doubleday and 
Hewitson, (J', under side. 

Pbvciodes nvcteis, Doubleday and 
Hewitson, (J\ 

Pbvciodes nvcteis. Doubleday and 
Hewitson. 9. 

Pbvciodes orseis, Edwards, (J'. 

Pbvciodes c a mi 11 us, Edwards, r^. 

Pbyciodes caniillus, Edwards, 2 . 

Pbvciodes caniillus, Edwards, ^, 
under side. 

Pbvciodes Imtesi, Reakirt, cf-. 

Pbvciodes batesi, Reakirt, (J\ under 
side. 

Pbvciodes pratensis, Behr, r^. 

Pbvciodes prateusis, Behr, 9 j "^'' 
der side. 

Eresia punctata, Edwards, (^'. 

Pbyciodes inrlitta, Edwards, (^, 
under side. 

Pbyciodes myJitta, Edwards, ^. 

Eresia frisia, Poey, (^ . 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XVII 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND 



Genus Phyciodes 

ter form marcia of Phyciodes tharos, Drury; but the black 
markings are more evenly distributed. The under side is a pale 
yellowish-fulvous, and the black markings are slight. 

? . — The female is like the male, but paler. Expanse, $ , 
1. 1 5 inch; ? , 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — The chrysalis has been described by Edwards 
in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xi, p, 129. This is all 
we know of the early life of the insect. 

It is found in Texas and Mexico. 

(4) Phyciodes phaon, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 22, $ ; Fig. 
2^, $ , under side (Phaon). 

Butterfly, $ . — The ground-color of the male is paler on the 
upper side than in Phyciodes tharos, and the black markings are 
much heavier. The median band on the fore wings is yellowish. 
The wings on the under side are yellow, shaded with fulvous on 
the primaries, on which the dark markings are heavy. 

$. — Like the male. Expanse, 6, .90 inch; ?, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This insect inhabits the Gulf States, and has been occasionally 
taken in Kansas. 

(5) Phyciodes tharos, Drury, Plate XVIII, Fig. i, 6 ; Fig. 
2, ? ; var. marcia, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 3, $> ; Fig. 4, ? ; 
Plate V, Figs. 20-22, chrysalis (The Pearl Crescent). 

Butterfly. — This very common and well-known little insect 
scarcely needs to be described. The upper side is bright fulvous, 
with heavy black borders; all the other dark markings are slight. 
The wings on the under side are paler, with the dark markings of 
the upper side showing through, and there are additional markings 
ofbrownon the hind wings. Expanse, $> , 1.25 inch; ?, 1.65 inch. 

Early Stages. — The early stages of this insect have been 
worked out with the most extreme care by Mr. Edwards, and the 
reader who is curious to know about them should consult "The 
Butterflies of North America." Dr. Scudder also has minutely 
and laboriously described the early stages in "The Butterflies of 
New England." The &gg is light greenish-yellow. The cater- 
pillar, which feeds upon various species of aster and allied Com- 
positce, is dark brown after the third moult, its back dotted with 
yellow, adorned with short, black, bristly spines, which are yel- 
low at the base. The chrysalis is grayish-white, mottled with 
dark spots and lines. 

153 



Genus Phyciodes 

This species is one of many dimorphic species, the winter 
form marcia, which emerges in spring, having the under side 
brighter, and the light markings more conspicuous on that side 
than in the summer form, which has been called morpheiis. Con- 
cerning all of this, and the way in which cold affects the color of 
butterflies, the reader will do well to consult the splendid pages 
of Edwards and of Scudder. 

The pretty little Pearl Crescent ranges from southern Labrador 
to Florida; in fact, all over North America north of Texas and 
south of the region of Hudson Bay, except the Pacific coast of 
California. 

(6) Phyciodes batesi, Reakirt, Plate XVll, Fig. 35, $> ; Fig. 
36, ? , under side (Bates' Crescent-spot). 

Butterfly, $ . — On the upper side much like P. tharos, with 
the black markings very heavy. The under side of the hind 
wings is uniformly pale fulvous or yellow, with a row of faint 
submarginal brown spots. 

?. — Like the male. Expanse, S, 1.25 inch; ?, i. 50-1.65 
inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species ranges from New York to Virginia, and westward 
to Ohio. 

(7) Phyciodes pratensis, Behr, Plate XVll, Fig. 37, $> ; Fig. 
38, ? , under side (The Meadow Crescent-spot). 

Butterfly, $ . — The butterfly resembles the preceding species 
on the upper side, but the ground-color is much paler and the 
black markings are not so heavy. The under side of the wings 
is pale fulvous, spotted with yellow. 

$ . — The female has the black markings of the upper side 
heavier than the male, and all the spots pale yellow. The mark- 
ings on the under side are heavier than in the male sex. Ex- 
panse, $, 1. 1 5 inch; ?, 1.40 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The range of this species is the Pacific coast from Oregon to 
Arizona. 

(8) Phyciodes orseis, Edwards, Plate XVll, Fig. 31, $ 
(Orseis). 

Butterfly, $ .—The dark markings on the upper side are much 
heavier than in either of the two preceding species, and the ful- 
vous spots are smaller, the marginal crescents more regular and 

154 



Genus Phyciodes 

distinct. The markings on the under side are also much heavier 
than in P. batesi or P. pratensis. 

$ . — The female is Hke the male, but all the dark markings are 
heavier and the pale markings lighter. Expanse, <$ , 1.35 inch; 
?, 1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — These remain to be described. 

Phyciodes orseis ranges from Washington Territory in the 
north to Mexico in the south. 

(9) Phyciodes camillus, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 32, $ ; 
Fig- 33^ ? 5 Fig- 34' ^ > under side (The Camillus Crescent). 

Butterfly, S . — The male is more like P. pratensis, but the 
light spots on the primaries are paler, on the secondaries brighter, 
fulvous. The dark markings on the under side are Jess pro- 
nounced than in pratensis. 

?. — The female is much like the male. Expanse, $, 1.30 
inch; ? , 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are wholly unknown. 

The species is reported from British Columbia, Colorado, Mon- 
tana, Kansas, and Texas. 

(10) Phyciodes mylitta, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 40, $, 
tinder side ; Fig. 41, ^ (The Mylitta Crescent). 

Butterfly, S-. — Broadly bright fulvous on the upper side, 
with the dark markings slight; on the under side closely resem- 
bling P. tharos, var. marcia, Edwards. 

? . — The female is like the male, but paler. Expanse, 5 , 1. 15 
inch; ? , 1.25-1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by Mr. Harrison G. 
Dyar in the ''Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiii, p. 203. The 
eggs are laid in clusters upon the thistle {Car dims). The cater- 
pillar in its final stage after the fourth moult is black, yellowish 
below, with a faint twinned yellow dorsal line and faint lines of 
the same color on the sides. The spines, which are arranged in 
six rows, are black; those of segments four, five, and six, yellow. 
The chrysalis is dull wood-brown. 

This species has a wide range in the region of the Rocky 
Mountains, extending from Washington to Arizona, and eastward 
to Colorado. 

(11) Phyciodes barnesi, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 5, 5 
(Barnes' Crescent-spot). 

Butterfly, $ .—Very like the following species, with the light 

155 



Genus Phyciodes 

fulvous of the upper side of the wings more widely extended, 
causing the dark markings to be greatly restricted. The figure 
in the plate is, in this species as in most others, that of the type, 
and I am under obligations to Dr. Skinner for kind permission to 
have the use of the specimen. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 
The type came from Colorado Springs. 

(12) Phyciodes montana, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 26, ?, 
under side ; ¥'\g. 2^, ? (The Mountain Crescent-spot). 

Butterfly. — Upon the upper side the wings are marked 
much as in P. camillus, but are prevalently bright fulvous, with 
the dark markings quite slight in most specimens. On the 
under side the wings are pale yellowish-fulvous. The female 
usually has the secondaries crossed by a broad median band of 
very pale spots. Expanse, 5, 1.25 inch; ?, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is the Sierras of California and 
Nevada. 

(13) Phyciodes picta, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 20, ?, 
underside; Fig. 21, S (The Painted Crescent-spot). 

Butterfly. — The butterfly in both sexes somewhat closely re- 
sembles P. phaon on the upper side. On the under side the fore 
wings are red on the median area, with the base, the costa, the 
apex, and the outer margin pale yellow; the black markings very 
prominent. The hind wings on the under side are nearly im- 
maculate yellow. Expanse, ($, .80-1. 10 inch; $ , 1. 10-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These may be found described with minute ex- 
actness by Mr. W. H. Edwards in the pages of the ''Canadian 
Entomologist," vol. xvi, pp. 163-167. The tgg is yellowish- 
green. The caterpillar moults five times. When mature it is 
about six tenths of an inch long, armed with seven principal 
rows of short spines, which appear to vary in color in the spring 
and fLill broods, being light brown in the June brood and greenish- 
yellow in the October brood. The prevalent color of the cater- 
pillar is some shade of yellowish- or greenish-brown, mottled 
with lighter and darker tints. The chrysalis is yellowish-brown. 
The food-plants of the caterpillar are various species of aster. 

This species is found as far north as Nebraska, and is abundant 
in Colorado and New Mexico, ranging southward through Ari- 
zona into Mexico. 

156 



Explanation of Plate XVIII 



i. Phyciodcstharos, Druiy, r^. 

2. Pbvciodes tharos, Drwy, 9- 

'.. Phyciodes tbaros, var. inarcia, Ed- 
wards, J^. 

4. Phyciodes tharos, var. maycia, Ed- 
wards, $ . 

^. Phyciodes barnesi. Skinner, (^ . 

r,. Aio;yitui$ siiyderi, Skinner, (J". 

7. Ai\iiyiniis pJatiua, Skinner, rj'. 

8. pycsia texana, Edwards, 9- 

o. £/v5m texana, Edwards, , J*, /r/zt/^f 

5/a'i'. 
!0. Syncbloe jauiiis, Drury, rj^. 
li. Synchioc laciiiia, Hubner, (^ . 



\1. 
13- 



14. 



fy-cw/^ ianfhe, Fabricius, ,^. 
Mclitcra anicia, var. beani. Skin- 
ner, J'. 
Bycutbis astartc, Doubleday and 

Hev.'itson, J". 
Breiithis astayte, Doubleday and 

Hewitson, (^, under side. 
Breiiibis belena, Edv/avds, (J" , uinier 

side. 
Brenihis heJena, Edwards, .-^ . 
Dehis creola, Skinner, (f. 
Debts creola, Skinner, 9 • 
Debis portlaiidia, Fabricius, ^. 
GeirocheiUis tritoiiia, Edwards, -f'. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XVI II 





Genus Eresia 



Genus ERESIA, Doubleday 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, closely resembling the species of 
the genus Phyciodes in the neuration of the wings, and only differ- 
ing from them in the outline of the outer margin of the primaries, 
which are more or less excavated about the mid- 
dle. In the style of the markings they differ 
somewhat widely from the butterflies of the genus 
Phyciodes, notably in the absence of the crescents 
on the margins of the wings. The wings on the 
upper side are generally some shade of deep brown 
or black, marked with spots and bands of white 
or fulvous, the median band on the hind wings 
being generally more or less conspicuous. In the fig. 93.— Neu- 
pattern of their markings they illustrate a transition ration of the genus 
from the genus Phyciodes to the genus Synchloe. enkrged. ^ '^ ^ 

Egg. — Hitherto undescribed. 

Caterpillar. — Cylindrical, with seven rows of spines, one 
dorsal, and three lateral on each side; the spines are short, blunt, 
and armed with short bristles. The head is subcordate, with the 
vertices rounded. It moults four times. 

Chrysalis. — Cylindrical, abdomen stout, head-case short, bev- 
eled, nearly square at top, the vertices pyramidal. There are 
three rows of small tubercles on the dorsal side of the abdo- 
men. 

The caterpillars so far as known feed upon various Compositce, 
as Diclippa and Actinomeris. 

The genus, which is somewhat doubtfully separable from Phy- 
ciodes, and probably possesses only subgeneric value, is well 
represented in Central and South America. But three species 
are found in the faunal region of which this book treats. 

(i) Eresia frisia, Poey, Plate XVII, Fig. 42, 6 (Frisia). 

Butterfly. — Upper side reddish-fulvous, clouded with fuscous 
at the base. On the basal area are waved black lines, separate 
on the hind wings, more or less blended on the fore wings. 
The outer border is broadly black. Between this border and 
the basal third the wing is crossed by irregular black bands, the 
spaces between which are paler fulvous than the base and the 
hind wings, those near the outer margin being whitish. These 

157 



Genus Eresia 

bands are continued broadly across the , hind wings. The 
wings on the under side are fulvous, mottled with dark brown 
and white, and spotted with conspicuous white spots. The 
male and the female closely resemble each other. Expanse, 1.40 
inch. 

The early stages are wholly unknown. 

The only locality within the limits of the United States in 
which this insect has been found is Key West, in Florida. It is 
abundant in the Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America. 

(2) Eresia texana, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 8, $ ; Fig. 9, 
$ , under side (The Texan Eresia). 

Butterfly. — Black on the upper side of the wings, shading 
into reddish-brown on the basal area. The fore wings are 
spotted on the median and limbal areas with white, and the hind 
wings are adorned by a conspicuous median band of small white 
spots. On the under side the fore wings are fulvous at the base, 
broadly dark brown beyond the middle. The light spots of the 
upper side reappear on the lower side. The hind wings on 
the under side are marbled wood-brown on the basal area and the 
inner margin, darker brown externally. The white macular band 
of the upper side reappears on this side, but less distinct than 
above. Expanse, 6, 1.25-1.50 inch; ?, i. 60-1. 75 inch. 

Early Stages. — For the only account of the life-history of this 
species the reader is referred to the ''Canadian Entomologist," 
vol. xi, p. 127, where the indefatigable Edwards gives us an 
interesting account of his original observations. 

This insect ranges from Texas into Mexico. It has been con- 
founded by some with a closely allied insect, Eresia ianthe, 
Fabricius, and to show the difference we have given in Plate 
XVIII, Fig. 12, a representation of that species, by means of which 
the reader will be enabled to mark the difference on the upper 
surfaces of the two species. 

(3) Eresia punctata, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 39, $> (The 
Dotted Eresia). 

Butterfly. — A lengthy description of this little species is 
scarcely necessary, as the figure in the plate will suffice for its 
accurate determination. Nothing is known of its early stages. 
Expanse, 1. 10 inch. It is found in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, 
and Mexico. It has been recently declared to be identical with 
E. tulcis, Bates, an opinion I am not quite prepared to accept, but 

158 



Genus Synchloe 

which, if correct, will force us, according to the law of priority, 
to substitute the name given by Bates for that given by Edwards. 



Genus SYNCHLOE, Boisduval 
(The Patched Butterflies) 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized or small butterflies, rather gaily 
colored, although the species found in the United States are not 
very brilliant. They may be distinguished structurally from the 
butterflies of the two preceding genera not 
only by their larger size and the spindle- 
formed third article of the palpi, which in 
the genera Eresia and Phyciodes is thin and 
pointed like a needle, but also by the fact 
that the lower discocellular vein of the fore 
wings is generally quite straight and not 
bowed or angled as in the before-mentioned 
genera. 

Egg. — Similar in appearance to the eggs 
of the genus Phyciodes: obovoid, truncated FiG.94.-Neurationof 
and slightly depressed at top, rounded at the the genus Synchloe, en- 
bottom ; the lower three fifths with shallow ^"^^^ * 
depressions ; the upper part with about twenty-four light blunt- 
edged ribs. The eggs are laid in clusters upon the leaves of 
Helianthus. 

Caterpillar. — Varying in color, generally black or some shade 
of red or brown, covered with spines which are arranged as in 
the genus Melitcea and are thickly beset with diverging bristles. 
The caterpillar moults four times. 

Chrysalis. — Shaped as in the genus Melitcea, light in color, 
blotched with dark-brown or black spots and lines. 

The genus is well represented in Central and South America. 
Some of the species are polymorphic, many varieties being pro- 
duced from a single batch of eggs. The result has been con- 
siderable confusion in the specific nomenclature. 

(i) Synchloe janais, Drury, Plate XVIII, Fig. lo, 5 (The 
Crimson-patch). 

Butterfly.— Y^ ox t wings black above, spotted with white; 
hind wings black above, marked in the center with a broad band 

159 




Genus Synchloe 

of crimson. On the under side the markings of the upper side 
of the fore wings are reproduced. The hind wings on the under 
side are black at the base and on the outer third; immediately at 
the base is a yellow bar; across the middle is a broad yellow 
band laved outwardly by red, upon which are numerous black 
spots. There is a marginal row of yellow spots and an inner 
row of smaller white spots on the limbal area. Expanse, 2.50- 
3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Wh^dt is known of these is contained in articles 
published by Mr. William Schaus, "Papilio," vol. iii, p. 188; 
and by Henry Edwards, " Entomologica Americana," vol. iii, 
p. 161, to which the reader may refer. 

The habitat of the species is Texas, Mexico, and Central 
America. The insect is very variable in the markings both of 
the upper and under sides, and several so-called species are only 
varietal forms of this. 

(2) Synchloe lacinia, Hubner, Plate XVllI, Fig. 11, $ ; 
form crocale, Edwards, Plate XXIV, Fig. 8, $ , under side; 
Fig. 9, 6 (Lacinia). 

Butterfly. — This is a protean species, a dozen or more well- 
marked varietal forms being produced, many of them from a 
single batch of eggs. The wings on the upper side are black ; 
both primaries and secondaries are crossed about the middle by 
a band of spots, generally broken on the primaries and continuous 
on the secondaries. These spots in the typical form lacinia are 
fulvous, and the bands are broad. In the form crocale the spots 
are white, the bands narrow. A great variety of intergrading 
forms are known and are represented in the author's collection, 
most of them bred specimens reared from the ^gg. On the 
under side the fore wings are marked as on the upper side. The 
hind wings on the under side are black, with a marginal row of 
spots, a transverse straight median band, a short basal band, and 
a costal edging, all bright straw-yellow; in addition there is a 
submarginal row of small white spots and a crimson patch of 
variable size at the anal angle. Expanse, .^ , 1.50-2.00 inches; ?, 
1.75-2.75 inches. 

Early Stages. — These are described fully by Edwards in the 
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxv, p. 286. 

Lacinia ranges from Texas and Nev/ Mexico to Bolivia. 

160 



Faunal Regions 



FAUNAL REGIONS 

That branch of zoological science which treats of the geograph- 
ical distribution of animals is known as zoogeography. None of the 
zoological sciences has contributed more to a knowledge of the facts 
with which zoogeography deals than the science of entomology. 

Various divisions of the surface of the earth, based upon the 
character of the living beings which inhabit them, have been sug- 
gested. At the present time, however, it is agreed that in a 
general way five major subdivisions are sufficient for the purposes 
of the science, and we therefore recognize five faunal regions, 
namely, the Palcearctic, which includes the temperate regions of 
the eastern hemisphere; the Indo-Malayan, covering the tropics 
of Asia and the islands lying south of that great continent, in- 
cluding Australia; the Ethiopian, covering the continent of Africa 
south of the lands bordering on the Mediterranean, and extending 
northward into the southern part of Arabia; the Neotropical, 
covering the continent of South America and the islands of the 
Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico; and, finally, the Nearctic, 
covering the temperate and polar regions of North America. The 
butterflies with which this volume deals are mostly nearctic 
species, only a few species representing the neotropical region 
being found as stragglers into the extreme southern portion of 
the United States. 

These five faunal regions are characterized by the presence of 
certain groups of insects which are more or less peculiar to them. 
In the Palsearctic Region, for instance, we find a very great de- 
velopment of the Satyrince, of the genera Argynnis, Melitcea, 
and Lyccena, and of the genus Colias. The genus Papilio is but 
poorly represented, there being only three species found on the 
entire continent of Europe, and comparatively few in Asia north 
of the Himalayan mountain-ranges. 

As soon as we pass from the boundaries of the Palaearctic 
Region into India there is discovered a great number of species 
of the genus Papilio. The Euploeince, of various genera, swarm, 
and splendid creatures, magnificent in color, present themselves, 
replacing among the Nymphalince the small and obscurely col- 
ored forms which are found among the mountains of Europe and 
on the great Asiatic steppes. In the Indo-Malayan Region one 

i6i 



Faunal Regions 

of the most gorgeous of the papilionine genera is known as Orni- 
thoptera. These great ''bird-wing" butterflies are most brilliant 
in color in the male, and in the female attain an expanse of wing 
reaching in some species eight and even nine inches, so that it 
would be impossible to represent them in their natural dimen- 
sions upon a page such as that which is before the reader. One 
of these giants of the butterfly family, named Victoria after her 
Majesty the Queen of England, is found in the Solomon Islands, 
and is probably the largest of all known butterflies. One speci- 
men, belonging to the author, has an expanse of wing exceeding 
nine inches. Among the strangest of recent discoveries is Orni- 
thoptera paradisea, which is found in New Guinea. The male has 
the hind wings produced in the form of a very delicate and slender 
tail; the upper surfaces of the wing are broadly marked with 
shining green and lustrous orange upon a velvety-black ground. 
The female is black with white spots, slightly marked with yel- 
low, being obscure in color, as is for the most part characteristic 
of this sex among butterflies, as well as other animals. 

The Ethiopian Region is rich in beautiful butterflies of the genus 
Callosune, which are white or yellow, having the tips of the an- 
terior wings marked with crimson or purple. There are many 
scores of species of these which are found on the grassy park-like 
lands of southeastern Africa, and they range northward through 
Abyssinia into Arabia, and a few species even invade the hot 
lands of the Indian peninsula. In the great forests of the Congo, 
and in fact throughout tropical Africa, the genus Acrcea, com- 
posed of beautiful insects with long, narrow wings like the genus 
Heliconius, but for the most part yellow, rich brown, and red, 
spotted with black, abound. And here, too, are found some of 
the noblest species belonging to the great genus Papilio, among 
them that most singular and, until recently, rarest of the genus, 
Papilio antimachus of Drury, one specimen of which, among a 
dozen or more in the author's possession, has wings which exceed 
in expanse even those of Ornithoptera victoria, though this but- 
terfly, which seems to mimic the genus Acrcea, has compara- 
tively narrow wings, and they, therefore, do not cover so large an 
area as is covered in the case of the genus Ornithoptera. 

In the Neotropical Region we are confronted by swarms of 
butterflies belonging to the Ithomiinx, the Heliconiince, and the 
Acrceince, all of which are known to be protected species, and 

162 



Genus Grapta 

which are mimicked by other species among the butterflies and 
moths of the region which they frequent. A naturaHst flimiliar 
with the characteristics of the butterfly fauna of South America 
can at a glance determine whether a collection placed before him 
is from that country or not, merely by his knowledge of the 
peculiar coloration which is characteristic of the lepidoptera of 
the region. The most brilliant butterflies of the neotropical 
fauna are the Morphos, glorious insects, the under side of their 
wings marked with eye-like spots, the upper side resplendent in 
varying tints of iridescent blue. 

In the Nearctic Region there is a remarkable development of 
the genera Argyimis, Melitcea, and Phyciodes. There are also a 
great many species of the Satyr ince and of the Hesperiidce, or 
"skippers." The genus Colias is also well represented. The 
Nearctic Region extends southwardly into northern Mexico, at 
high elevations, and is even continued along the chain of the 
Andes, and there are species which are found in the vicinity of 
San Francisco which occur in Chili and Patagonia. In fact, when 
we get to the southern extremity both of Africa and of South 
America we find certain genera characteristic of the north tem- 
perate zone, or closely allied to them, well represented. 



Genus GRAPTA, Kirby 
(The Angle-Wings) 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized or small, characterized by the more 
or less deeply excavated inner and outer margins of the fore wings, 
the tail-like projection of the hind wings at the ex- 
tremity of the third median nervule, the closed cell 
of the same wings, and the thick squamation of 
the palpi on the under side, while on the sides 
and tops of the palpi there are but few scales. 
They are tawny on the upper side, spotted and 
bordered with black; on the under side mimick- 
ing the bark of trees and dead leaves, often with 
a ^-shaped silvery spot on the hind wings. The 
insects hibernate in the butterfly form in hollow 
trees and other hidins^-places. ^. Fig 95 — Neura- 

^ ^ tion of the genus 

Egg. — The eggs are taller than broad, taper- Grapta. 

■63 




Genus Grapta 

ing upward from the base. The summit is broad and flat. The 
sides are marked by a few equidistant narrow longitudinal ribs, 
which increase in height to the top. A few delicate cross-lines 
are interwoven between these ribs. They are laid in clusters or 
in short string-like series (see p. 5, Fig. 10). 

Caterpillar. — The head is somewhat quadrate in outline, the 
body cylindrical, adorned with rows of branching spines (see 
Plate 111, Figs. 23, 27, 31-33, 38). 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalids have the head more or less bifid. 
There is a prominent thoracic tubercle, and a double row of 
dorsal tubercles on the abdomen. Viewed from the back they 
are more or less excavated on the sides of the thorax. In color 
they are generally some shade of wood-brown or greenish. 

The caterpillars feed for the most part upon the Urticacece, 
plants of the nettle tribe, such as the stinging-nettle, the elm, 
and the hop-vine, though the azalea and wild currants furnish 
the food of some species. 

The genus is confined mainly to the north temperate zone. 

(i) Grapta interrogationis, Fabricius, Plate 1, Fig. 3, ^, 
under side; form fabricii, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 1,6; form 
umbrosa, Lintner, Plate XIX, Fig. 2, ? ; Plate III, Fig. 2}, larva, 
from a blown specimen; Fig. 27, larva, copied from a drawing 
by Abbot; Plate IV, Figs. 21, 22, 24-26, 40, chrysalis (The Ques- 
tion-sign). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished by its large size, being the 
largest species of the genus in our fauna. The fore wings are 
decidedly falcate, or sickle-shaped, bright fulvous on the upper 
side, spotted and bordered with dark brown and edged with pale 
blue. On the under side they are mottled brown, shaded with 
pale purplish, and have a silvery mark shaped like a semicolon 
on the hind wings. The dimorphic variety umbrosa, Lintner, has. 
the upper side of the hind wings almost entirely black, except 
at the base. Expanse, 2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been frequently described, and the 
reader who wishes to know all about the minute details of the 
life-history will do well to consult the pages of Edwards and 
Scudder, who have written voluminously upon the subject. The 
food-plants are the elm, the hop-vine, and various species of nettles. 

This is one of our commonest butterflies. It is double- 
brooded in the Middle States. It hibernates in the imago form, 

164 



HXI'LANATION 01- PIjVH: XIX 



1. Grapia inten'ogalioiiis, Fabiiciiis, 9. Kjy/r.N-.Nj y-j//i///i/^ Boisduval and Le- 
var./(;7/7/'/f//"^ Edwards, (^. conic, 9- 

Grapia iiilerrogalioiiis, Fabiicius, 



var. iimbrosa, Lintncr, 9 • 
(jiapla connna, Hniris, var. clryas, 

Hd wards, r/"'. 
Grapia coimiia, Harris, var. barrisi, 

Rd wards, o'^'- - 
Grapia sileiius, Edwards, (^. 
Grapia silciins, Edwards, (^"', under 
- side. 

Grapia bylas, Edwards, (^. 
Grapia hrlas, Edwards, (^, under 

side. 



0. Grapia /gracilis, (jrote and Robin- 

son, r'{'. 

1 . (jrapla gracilis, Grotc and Robinson, 

^ , ////(/('/■ side: 

2. Grapia Jam/US. Htlwards, (J". 

•;. Grapia fa units. Edwards, r^, under 

side. ' 
4. Grapia salyriis, Edwards, var. uiar- 

syas, Edwards, (^. 
^. Grapia salj'rns, Edwards, var. niar- 

syas, Edwards, (^^ under side. 



The Butterfly Book. 



1^^ 



Plate XIX. 





COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLANC 



Genus Grapta 

and when the first warm winds of spring begin to blow, it may 
be found at the sap-pans in the sugar-camps, sipping the sweets 
which drip from the wounded trunks of the maples. It ranges 
all over the United States, except the Pacific coast, and is com- 
mon throughout Canada and Nova Scotia. 

(2) Grapta comma, Harris, form dry as, Plate XIX, Fig. 3, S ; 
form harrisi, Edwards, Fig. 4, $ ; Plate III, Fig. 38, larva; Plate 
IV, Figs. 27, 29, 30, 39, 46-48, chrysalis (The Comma Butterfly). 

Butterfly. — Dimorphic, in the form dryas with the hind wings 
heavily suffused with black, in the form harrisi predominantly 
fulvous. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches. 

The caterpillars feed upon the Urticacece, and are very com- 
mon upon the nettle. They vary greatly in color, some being 
almost snow-white. This species is found throughout Canada 
and the adjacent provinces, and ranges south to the Carolinas and 
Texas and over the Northwestern States. 

(3) Grapta satyrus, Edwards, Plate XX, Fig. i, ? ; Fig. 2, ? , 
under side ; form marsyas, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 14, 6 ; Fig. 
15, 6, under side\ Plate III, Fig. }^, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 41, 
42, chrysalis (The Satyr). 

Butterfly. — The species is so accurately depicted in the plates 
that a description is hardly necessary. The form marsyas is 
smaller, brighter, and with the dark spots on the upper side of 
the hind wings reduced in size. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches. 

The food-plant of the caterpillar is the nettle. It occurs occa- 
sionally in Ontario, and thence ranges west, being not uncommon 
from Colorado to California and Oregon. 

(4) Grapta hylas, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 7, ^ ; Fig. 8, $ , 
under side (The Colorado Angle- wing). 

Butterfly. — The butterfly closely resembles G. silenus on the 
upper side, but may easily be distinguished by the uniform pale 
purplish-gray of the lower side of the wings. Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

The early stages are unknown. The insect has thus for been 
found only in Colorado, but no doubt occurs in other States of 
the Rocky Mountain region. 

(5) Grapta faunus, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 12, 6 ; Fig. 13, 
6 , under side; Plate III, Fig. ^2, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 31, 33-35, 
chrysalis (The Faun). 

Butterfly. — This species is readily recognized by the deep 
indentations of the hind wings, the heavy black border, and the 

165 



Genus Grapta 

dark tints of the under side mottled with paler'shades. Expanse, 
2.00-2. 15 inches. 

The caterpillar feeds on willows. It is found from New England 
to the Carolinas, and thence westward to the Pacific. 

(6) Grapta zephyrus, Edwards, Plate XX, Fig. 5, $ ; Fig. 6, 
$ , under side (The Zephyr). 

Butterfly. — Fulvous, marked with yellowish toward the outer 
margins, the dark markings upon which are not as heavy as in 
the other species of the genus. On the under side the wings are 
paler than is the case in other species, reddish-brown, marbled with 
darker brown lines and frecklings. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches. 

The caterpillar, which feeds upon Azalea occidentalis, is de- 
scribed and figured by Edwards in "The Butterflies of North 
America," vol. i. Zephyrus is found throughout the region of 
the Rocky Mountains, from Colorado to California, and from 
Oregon to New Mexico. 

(7) Grapta gracilis, Grote and Robinson, Plate XIX, Fig. 10, 
$> ; Fig. II, ? , under side (The Graceful Angle-wing). 

Butterfly. — A small species, rather heavily marked with dark 
brown or blackish on the upper side. The wings on the under 
side are very dark, crossed about the middle by a pale-gray or 
white band shading off toward the outer margins. This light 
band serves as a means of easily identifying the species. Ex- 
panse, 1.75 inch. 

The early stages are unknown. 

The species has been found on the White Mountains in New 
Hampshire, in Maine, Canada, and British America, as far west 
as Alaska. 

(8) Grapta silenus, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 5, S ; Fig. 6, 
? , under side (Silenus). 

Butterfly. — Larger than gracilis, and the wings more deeply 
excised, as in faunus. On the under side the wings are very 
dark, with lighter irrorations, especially on the fore wings. Ex- 
panse, 2.00-2.30 inches. 

The early stages have never been studied. This species 
appears to be found only in Oregon, Washington, and British 
Columbia. 

(9) Grapta progne, Cramer, Plate XX, Fig. 3, 6 ; Fig. 4, ^ , 
under side; Plate III, Fig. 31, larva; Plate IV, Figs. }2, 37, 38, 
chrysalis (Progne). 

166 



Genus Vanessa 

Butterfly. — A rather small species, with light-fulvous fore 
wings, shading into yellow toward the outer margins; the dark 
markings slight, but deep in color. The secondaries are heavily 
bordered with black on the outer margin. On tlie under side the 
wings are very dark, variegated with paler shades, somewhat as in 
G. gracilis. Expanse, 1.85-2.00 inches. 

The early stages have been quite fully described by various 
authors, and the reader may consult ''The Butterflies of New 
England," vol. i, pp. 266-26^, for a full account. The caterpillar 
feeds on the elm, but more commonly on various species of the 
GrossMlacece, or currant tribe, wild or domesticated. It ranges 
from Siberia to Nova Scotia, and southward as far as Pennsyl- 
vania. 

There are several other species of Grapta found in our fauna, 
which are not delineated in this book; but they are rare species, 
of which little is as yet known. The types are in the collection 
of the writer, and if the reader finds any species which he cannot 
identify by means of this book the author will be pleased to help 
him to the full extent of his ability. 



Genus VANESSA, Fabricius 
(The Tortoise-shells) 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized insects, the wings on the upper 
side generally some shade of black or brown, marked with 
red, yellow, or orange. The head is moder- 
ately large, the eyes hairy, the palpi more 
or less heavily scaled, the prothoracic legs fee- 
ble and hairy. The lower discocellular vein 
of the fore wings, when present, unites with 
the third median nervule, not at its origin, but 
beyond on the curve. The cell of the primaries 
may or may not be closed. The cell of the secon- 
daries is open. The fore wings have the outer mar- 
gin more or less deeply excavated between the 
extremities of the upper radial and the first medi- 
an, at which points the wings are rather strongly 
produced. The hind wings have the outer margin denticulate, 
strongly produced at the extremity of the third median nervule. 

167 




Fig. 96. — Neura- 
tion of the genus 
Vanessa. 



Genus Vanessa 

E^g. — Short, ovoid, broad at the base, tapering toward the 
summit, which is broad and adorned with a few narrow, quite 
high longitudinal ridges, increasing in height toward the apex. 
Between these ribs are a few delicate cross-lines. They are 
generally laid in large clusters upon twigs of the food-plant. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar moults four times. In the ma- 
ture form it is cylindrical, the segments adorned with long, 
branching spines arranged in longitudinal rows; the spines much 
longer, and branching rather than beset with bristles, as in the 
genus Grapta. It lives upon elms, willows, and poplars. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis in general appearance is not unlike 
the chrysalis of Grapta. 

The genus is mainly restricted to the north temperate zone 
and the mountain regions of tropical lands adjacent thereto. 
The insects hibernate in the imago form, and are among the first 
butterflies to take wing in the springtime. 

(i) Vanessa j-album, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XIX, 
Fig. 9, ? (The Compton Tortoise). 

Butterfly. — No description is required, as the figure in the 
plate will enable it to be immediately recognized. On the under 
side of the wings it resembles in color the species of the genus 
Grapta, from which the straight edge of the inner margin of 
the primaries at once distinguishes it. It is a very close ally of 
the European K. vau-alhum. Expanse, 2.60-2.75 inches. 

The caterpillar feeds upon various species of willow. It is a 
Northern form, being found in Pennsylvania upon the summits of 
the Alleghanies, and thence north to Labrador on the east and 
Alaska on the west. It is always a rather scarce insect. 

(2) Vanessa californica, Boisduval, Plate XX, Fig. 11, 5 
(The California Tortoise-shell). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side deep fulvous, mottled with yel- 
low, spotted and bordered with black. On the under side dark 
brown; pale on the outer half of the primaries, the entire surface 
marked with dark lines and fine striae. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — The larva and chrysalis have been described 
by Henry Edwards in the *' Proceedings of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences," vol. v, p. 171. The caterpillar feeds upon 
Ceanothtis thyrsiflorus. 

This insect is a close ally of the European K. xanthomelas. 
It ranges from Colorado to California and as far north as Oregon. 

168 



Explanation of Plate XX 



Grapla satyrus, Edwards, 9- 
(Ji\ipti! satynis, Edwards, 9 , under 

side. ' ' 

(j)\ipLi progjie. Cramer. ^'. 
Gyjphi progiii', Cramer, q^. under 

side. 
Greipiei ^ephvrus, Edwards, rj\ 



7. Jiiuoiiia cecum, Hlibner, 9- 

8. Junouia leiviiiia. Cramer, rf . 
g. Jiiuoiiiei geiiove-va, Cramer, (^ . 

10. l^\iiiessa Jiiilberii, Godart, :^. 

11. Vanessa califoniica, Boisdiival, J^. 

12. Pyrameis caryev, Hiibner, (^. 
n. Anartia jatropha.', Linnaeus, ^. 



6. Grapla {epbyrus, Edwards, (J^, under side 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XX. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND 



Genus Pyrameis 

(3) Vanessa milberti, Godart, Plate XX, Fig. 10, 6 ; Plate 
III, Fig. 36, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 43, 49, 50, chrysalis (Milbert's 
Tortoise-shell). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished by the broad yellow submar- 
ginal band on both wings, shaded outwardly by red. It is nearly 
related to the European y. urticce. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

The life-history has been worked out and described by nu- 
merous writers. The caterpillars feed upon the nettle {Urtica). 

This pretty little fly ranges from the mountains of West Vir- 
ginia northward to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, thence west- 
ward to the Pacific. 

(4) Vanessa antiopa, Linnaeus, Plate I, Fig. 6, ? ; Plate 
III, Fig. 28, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 51, 58, 59, chrysalis (The 
Mourning-cloak; The Camberwell Beauty). 

Butterfly. — This familiar insect needs no description. It is 
well known to every boy in the north temperate zone. It is one 
of the commonest as well as one of the most beautiful species of 
the tribe. A rare aberration in which the yellow border invades 
the wing nearly to the middle, obliterating the blue spots, is some- 
times found. The author has a fine example of this ''freak." 

The eggs are laid in clusters upon the twigs of the food- 
plant in spring (see p. 5, Fig. 1 1). There are at least two broods 
in the Northern States. The caterpillars feed on willows, elms, 
and various species of the genus Populus. 

Genus PYRAMEIS, Doubleday 

Butterfly. — The wings in their neuration approach closely to 
the preceding genus, but are not angulate, and the ornamen- 
tation of the under side tends to become ocellate,, or marked 
by eye-like spots, and in many of the species is ocellate. 

Egg. — The egg is broadly ovoid, being much like the Qgg of the 
genus l/anessa. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar in its mature form is covered with 
spines, but these are not relatively as large as in Vanessa, and are 
not as distinctly branching. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis approaches in outline the chrysalis of 
the preceding genus, and is only differentiated by minor structural 
peculiarities. 

The genus includes only a few species, but some of them have 

169 




Genus Pyrameis 

a wide range, Pyrameis cardui being almost cosmopolitan, and 
having a wider distribution than any other known butterfly, 
(i) Pyrameis atalanta, Linnaeus, Plate 
XLIIl, Fig. 4, 6 ; Plate III, Fig. 35, larva; Plate 
IV, Figs. 52, 53, 55, chrysalis (The Red Admi- 
ral). 

This familiar butterfly, which is found 
throughout North America, Europe, northern 
Asia, and Africa, needs no description beyond 
what is furnished in the plates. Expanse, 2.00 
inches. The food-plants are Humulus, Bceh- 
meria, and Urtica. 

(2) Pyrameis huntera, Plate 1, Fig. 2, $ ; 
Fig. 97. — Neura- Plate XXXlll, Fig. 6, $ , imder side; Plate III, 

alls (Hunter's Butterfly). 

Butterfly. — Marked much like the following species, but easily 
distinguished at a glance by the two large eye-like spots on the 
under side of the hind wings. Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been frequently described, and are 
in part well depicted in Plates HI and IV. The food-plants are 
cudweed {Gnaphalium) and Antennaria. 

Hunter's Butterfly ranges from Nova Scotia to Mexico and 
Central America east of the Sierras. 

(3) Pyrameis cardui, Linnaeus, Plate I, Fig. i, ^ ; Plate III, 
Fig. 37, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 60-62, chrysalis (The Painted 
Lady; The Thistle-butterfly). 

Butterfly. — This is undoubtedly the most widely distributed 
of all known butterflies, being found in almost all parts of the 
temperate regions of the earth and in many tropical lands in both 
hemispheres. It is easily distinguished from the preceding spe- 
cies by the more numerous and much smaller eye-like spots on 
the under side of the hind wings. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been again and again described at 
great length and with minute particularity by a score of authors. 
The food-plants of the caterpillar are thistles {Carduus), Urtica, 
Cnicus, and Althaea. 

(4) Pyrameis caryse, Hubner, Plate XX, Fig. 12, $> (The 
West Coast Lady). 

Butterfly. — This species is easily distinguished from P. cardui, 

170 



n 



Widely Distributed Butterflies 

its nearest ally, by the absence of the roseate tint peculiar to that 
species, the tawnier ground-color of the upper surflices, and the 
complete black band which crosses the middle of the cell of the 
primaries. Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have not all been thoroughly described, 
but we have an account of the larva and chrysalis from the pen 
of Henry Edwards, in the " Proceedings of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences," vol. v, p. 329. The food-plant of the caterpil- 
lar is Lavatera assurgentiflora. This species ranges from Van- 
couver's Island to Argentina, and is found as far east as Utah. 



WIDELY DISTRIBUTED BUTTERFLIES 

The primal curse declared that the earth, because of man's 
sin, should bring forth thorns and thistles, and thistles are almost 
everywhere. Wherever thistles grow, there is found the thistle- 
butterfly, or the " Painted Lady," as English collectors are in the 
habit of calling it, Pyrameis cardui. All over Europe, all over 
North America, in Africa,— saveinthedensejunglesoftheCongo, — 
throughout South America, in far-off Australia, and in many of 
the islands of the sea this beautiful butterfly is found. At some 
times it is scarce, and then again there are seasons when it fairly 
swarms, every thistle-top having one of the gaily colored crea- 
tures seated upon its head, and among the thorny environment 
of the leaves being found the web which the caterpillar weaves. 
Another butterfly which bids fair ultimately to take possession of 
the earth is our own Anosia plexippus, the wanderings of which 
have already been alluded to. 

Many species are found in the arctic regions both of the Old 
World and the New. Obscure forms are these, and lowly in their 
organization, survivors of the ice-age, hovering on the border- 
line of eternal frost, and pointing to the long-distant time when 
the great land-masses about the northern pole were knit together, 
as geologists teach us. 

One of the curious phenomena in the distribution of butterflies 
is the fact that in Florida we find Hypolimnas misippus, a species 
which is exceedingly common in Africa and in the Indo-Malayan 
subregion. Another curious phenomenon of a like character is 
the presence in the Canary Islands of a Pyrameis, which appears 

171 



Genus Junonia 

to be only a subvariety of the well-known Pyrameis indica, 
which is common in India, southern China, and Japan. Away 
off in southeastern Africa, upon the peaks and foot-hills which 
surround the huge volcanic masses of Kilima-Njaro, Kenia, and 
Ruwenzori, was discovered by the martyred Bishop Hannington 
a beautiful species of Argynnis, representing a genus nowhere 
else found upon the continent of Africa south of Mediterranean 
lands. Strange isolation this for a butterfly claiming kin to the 
fritillaries that sip the sweets from clover-blossoms in the Bernese 
Oberland, in the valleys of Thibet, and on the prairies of the 
United States. 

Genus JUNONIA, Hiibner. 
(Peacock Butterflies) 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized butterflies, with eye-like spots upon 
the upper wings. Their neuration is very much like that of the but- 
terflies belonging to the genus Pyrameis, to which they are closely 
allied. The eyes are naked, the fore feet are scant- 
ily clothed with hair, and the lower discocellular 
vein of the fore wing, when present, does not ter- 
minate on the arch of the third median nervule be- 
fore its origin, as in the genus Vanessa, but imme- 
diately at the origin of the third median nervule. 
Egg. — Broader than high, the top flattened, 
marked by ten vertical ribs, very narrow, but not 
very high. Between the ribs are a few delicate 
cross-lines. 

Fig. 98.— Neura- Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, 
tion of the genus ^j^g segments beins^ adorned with rows of branch- 

Junonia. x 

mg spines and longitudinally striped. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is arched on the dorsal surface and 
marked by two rows of dorsal tubercles, concave on the ventral 
side. The head is slightly bifid, with the vertices rounded. 

There are eighteen or more species which belong to this genus, 
of which some are neotropical, but the greater number are found 
in the tropical regions of the Old World. Three forms occur 
within the limits of the United States, which have by some au- 
thors been reckoned as distinct species, and by others are regarded 
merely as varietal forms. 

172 




Genus Junonia 

(i) Junonia ccenia, Hubner, Plate XX, Fig. 7, $ ; Plate III, 
Figs. 29, 30, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 56, 57, 6^-6'], chrysalis (The 
Buckeye). 

Butterfly.— The figure in the plate is far better than any verbal 
description. On the under side the eye-like spots of the upper 
side are reproduced, but are much smaller, especially on the hind 
wings. There is much variety in the ground-color of the wings 
on the under side. Some specimens are reddish-gray, and some 
are quite heavily and solidly pinkish-red on the secondaries. 
Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches. 

Egg. — The egg is dark green. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is dark in color, longitudinally 
striped, and adorned with branching spines, two of which are on 
the head and point forward. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is generally pale wood-brown, 
strongly arched on the dorsal and concave on the ventral side. 
It always hangs at less than a right angle to the surface from 
which it depends. 

This is a very common butterfly in the Southern States, 
ranging northward as far as New England, westward to the 
Pacific, and southward to Colombia. The caterpillar feeds on 
various species of plantain {Plantago), also Gerardia and Antir- 
rhifium. When I was a lad in western North Carolina these 
insects fairly swarmed one summer; thousands of the caterpil- 
lars could be found in worn-out fields, feeding on the narrow- 
leaved plantain, and every fence-rail had one or more of their 
chrysalids hanging from the under side. I have never seen such 
multitudes of this species since then. The butterflies are quite 
pugnacious, and will fight with other passing butterflies, dashing 
forth upon them, and chasing them away. 

(2) Junonia lavinia, Cramer, Plate XX, Fig. 8, 6 (Lavinia). 

Butterfly. — This species may be distinguished by the more 
rounded apex and the more deeply excavated outer margin of the 
fore wings, and also by the decided elongation of the outer margin 
of the hind wings at the end of the submedian vein. The wings 
are paler on the upper side than in the preceding species, and the 
eye-like spots much smaller. Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

The early stages are not accurately known. The insect is 
common in the Antilles and South America, but is only now and 
then taken in the extreme southern parts of Texas. 

173 



Genus Anartia 

(3) Junonia genoveva, Cramer, Plate XJ<, Fig. 9, $ (Geno- 
veva). 

Butterfly. — Much darker above than either of the two pre- 
ceding species. The transverse subapical band is pale yellow, 
almost white; the ocelli of the wings are more as in lavinia than 
m'coenia. Expanse, about 2.00 inches. 

This form, if found at all in our fauna, is confined to the ex- 
treme South. I have seen and possess some specimens reputed 
to have corhe from Texas. The specimen figured in the plate 
was taken in Jamaica, where this form is prevalent. 



Genus ANARTIA, Doubleday 

Butterfly. — The head is small; the eyes are round and promi- 
nent; the tongue is long; the antennae are relatively long, having 
the club short, compressed, and pointed. The palpi have the 
second joint thick, the third joint gradually taper- 
ing and lightly clothed with scales. The fore 
wings are rounded at the apex, and have the 
outer and inner margins somewhat excavated. 
The outer margin of the hind wings is sinuous, 
produced at the end of the third median nervule. 
The cell of the hind wing is open. The sub- 
costal nervules in the fore wing are remarkable 
because of the tendency of the first and second to 
fuse with the costal vein. The prothoracic feet of the 
Fig. 99.— Neu- male are small and weak; of the female, stronger. 

ration of the genus ^ , ^, ^, ~ • 1 

Anartia. Early Stages. — These, so far as is known to 

the writer, await description. 

There are four species belonging to this genus, only one of 
which is found within the limits of the United States. The 
others are found in Central and South America. 

(i) Anartia jatrophse, Linnaeus, Plate XX, Fig. 13, ^ (The 
White Peacock). 

Butterfly.— There can be no mistake made in the identifica- 
tion of this species if the figure we give is consulted. The male 
and female are much alike. Expanse, 1.7S-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — So far as is known to me, these have never 
been described. The butterfly is common throughout the 

174 





Genus Hypanartia 

tropics of the New World, and is occasionally found in southern 
Texas and Florida. 

Genus HYPANARTIA, Hubner 
(The Banded Reds) 

Butterfly. — The palpi of medium size, well clothed with 
scales; the second joint moderately thick; the third very little 
thinner, blunt at the tip. The antennae have a distinct, short, 
well-rounded club. The fore wings have the 
first two subcostal nervules arising before the 
end of the cell, close to each other. The third 
subcostal arises midway between the end of the 
cell and the origin of the fourth subcostal. The 
cell of the fore wing is closed by a stout lower 
discocellular vein which is more or less continuous 
with the third median nervule. The hind wing, 
has the cell open or only partially closed. 

Early Stages. — But little is known of the early 

stages of this genus. Fig. loo.— Neura- 

The species reckoned as belonging to Hypa- V?" °^ ^f!^ ^enus 
nartta number less than a dozen, most of which 
are found in tropical America, but, singularly enough, two species 
occur in tropical and southern Africa, and another has been de- 
scribed from Madagascar. 

(i) Hypanartia lethe, Fabricius, Plate XXIV, Fig. lo, 6 
(Lethe). 

This very handsome insect, which is quite common in tropi- 
cal America, is another straggler into our fauna, being occasion- 
ally found in southern Texas. But little is known of its early 
life-history. Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

Genus EUNICA, Hubner 
(The Violet-wings) 

Butterfly. — The head is narrow, hairy; the eyes prominent. 
The antennae are long and slender, having a greatly enlarged club 
marked with two grooves. The palpi have the third joint in the 
case of the female longer than in the case of the male. They are 
relatively short, thickly clothed with hairs and scales lying closely 

175 




Genus Eunica 

appressed to the surface. The fore wing has the costal and 
median vein enlarged and swollen at the base. The subcostal has 
five nervules, the first two of which arise before 
the end of the cell, the third midway between the 
end of the cell and the fourth nervule. The upper 
discocellular vein is wanting ; the middle discocel- 
lular vein is bent inwardly ; the lower discocellular 
vein is somewhat weak and joins the median vein 
exactly at the origin of the second median nervule. 
The cell of the hind wing is lightly closed. 

Early Stages. — Very little is known of the early 
stages of this genus. 
Fig. loi.— Neura- The butterflies are characterized by the dark- 
ti^on of the genus j^j-qwu or black ground-color of the upper side, 
generally glossed with rich blue or purple. On 
the under side the markings are exceedingly variable and in most 
cases very beautiful. The genus is characteristic of the neotropical 
fauna, and there are over sixty species which have been described. 
The males are said by Bates, to whom we are indebted for most 
of our knowledge of these insects, to have the habit of congre- 
gating about noon and in the early afternoon in moist places by 
the banks of streams, returning toward nightfall to the haunts of 
the females. In this respect they resemble club-men, who at the 
same hours are generally to be found congregating where there is 
something to drink. Only two species are found in our region, 
and are confined to the hottest parts of Texas and Florida, rang- 
ing thence southward over the Antilles and Central America as 
far as Bolivia. 

(i) Eunica monima, Cramer, Plate XXI, Fig. 7, $ ; Fig. 8, 
$ (The Dingy Purple-wing). 

Butterfly. — This obscure little butterfly represents in Florida 
and Texas the great genus to which it belongs, and gives but a 
feeble idea of the splendid character of its congeners, among 
which are some exceedingly beautiful insects. Nothing is known 
of its life-history. It is common in the Antilles and Mexico. 

Another species of the genus, Eunica tatila, has recently 
been reported from the extreme southern portion of Florida. 



176 



Genus Cystineura 



Genus CYSTINEURA, Boisduval 

" And here and yonder a flaky butterfly 
Was doubting in the air." 

McDonald. 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, with elongated fore wings, the 
hind wings with the outer margin rounded, slightly crenulate. 
The head is small; the palpi are very delicate and 
thin, scantily clothed with scales. The costal 
vein of the fore wing is much swollen near the 
base. The subcostal vein of this wing sends 
forth two branches before the end of the cell. 
The upper discocellular vein is lacking; the mid- 
dle discocellular is short and bent inwardly ; the 
lower discocellular is almost obliterated, and 
reaches the median vein at the origin of the second 
median nervule. In the hind wing the cell is open, 
and thetwo radial veins spring from thesame point. p,Q 102.— Neu- 

Early Stages. — Very little is as yet definitely ration of the genus 
ascertained as to these. '^ 

But one species is found within the limits covered by this work. 
Seven species have been described, all of them inhabiting Central 
or South America. 

(i) Cystineura amymone, Menetries, Plate XXIV, Fig. 
7, 6 (Amymone). 

Butterfly. — The fore wings are white on the upper side, 
dusted with gray at the base, on the costa, the apex, and the 
outer margin. The hind wings are gray on the basal area, pale 
yellowish-brown on the limbal area, with a narrow fuscous mar- 
gin. On the under side the markings of the upper side reappear, 
the gray tints being replaced by yellow. The hind wings are 
yellowish, with a white transverse band near the base and an in- 
complete series of white spots on the limbal area. Expanse, 
1.50 inch. 

The early stages await description. The insect is found 
about Brownsville, Texas, and throughout Mexico and Central 
America. 




177 



Genus Callicore 




Genus CALLICORE, Hiibner 
(The Leopard-spots) 

Butterfly. — Small-sized butterflies, with the upper side of the 
wings dark in color, marked with bands of shining metallic blue 
or silvery-green, the under side of the wings generally more or 
less brilliantly colored, carmine upon the pri- 
maries and silvery-white upon the secondaries, 
with the apex of the primaries marked with 
black transverse bands and the body of the 
secondaries traversed by curiously arranged 
bands of deep black, these bands inclosing 
about the middle of the wing circular or pear- 
shaped spots. All of the subcostal nervules in 
this genus arise beyond the end of the cell. 
The costal and the median veins are swollen 
Fig. 103.— Neura- near the base. The cell in both the fore and 
tion of the genus C^/- hj^j wings is open. 

Early Stages. — Very little is known of these. 

This genus numbers about thirty species, almost all of which 
are found in South America, only one being known to inhabit the 
United States, being found in the extreme southern portion of 
Florida, and there only rarely. 

(1) Callicore clymena, Hubner, Plate XXI, Fig. 5, $ ; Fig. 
6, S, iiihicr siiie (The Leopard-spot). 

Butterfly. — The wings on the upper side are black, the pri- 
maries crossed by an oblique iridescent bluish-green band, and 
the secondaries marked by a similarly colored marginal band. On 
the under side the primaries are crimson from the base to the 
outer third, which is white, margined with black, and crossed by 
an outer narrow black band and an inner broad black band. The 
secondaries on this side are white, marked about the middle by 
two large coalescing black spots, and nearer the costa a large 
pear-shaped spot, both ringed about with black lines. Beyond 
these black rings are two black bands conformed to the outline 
of the inner and outer margins of the wing, and, in addition, a 
tine black marginal line. The costa is edged with crimson. 
Expanse, 1.7^ inch. 

178 



.Explanation of Pi-ate XXI 

77„./... a„-.v.V, Codart, J', -../.■.■ _ ^-j- ,„,„,„„, Cn.n,er, J^. 

•"'^''- .- ^ 8 F//;/;a7 /^H)//////^?, Cramer, V. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXI. 




J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



Genus Timetes 



Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The Leopard-spot is found occasionally in Florida, but quite 
commonly in the Antilles, Mexico, and Central America. 



Genus TIMETES, Boisduval 
(The Dagger-wings) 

Butterfly. — The palpi are moderately long, thickly clothed with 
scales, the last joint elongated and pointed. The antennae have a 
well-developed club. The fore wings and the hind wings have 
the cell open. In the fore wing the sub- 
costal vein, which has five branches, 
emits the first nervule well before the 
end of the cell, the second a little be- 
yond it, and the third and fourth near 
together, before the apex of the wing. 
The third median nervule of the hind 
wing is greatly produced and forms the 
support of the long tail which adorns 
this wing. Between the end of the sub- 
median vein and the first median nervule 
is another lobe-like prolongation of the 
outer margin of the wing. The butter- 
flies are characterized for the most part 
by dark upper surfaces, with light under 
surfaces marked with broad bands and 
lines of varying intensity of color. They 
are easily distinguished from the butter- 
flies of all other genera of the "Nymphalidae by the remarkable 
tail-like appendage of the hind wing, giving them somewhat the 
appearance of miniature Papilionidae. 

Early Stages. — Nothing of note has been recorded of their 
early stages which may be accepted as reliable, and there is an 
opportunity here for study and research. 

There are about twenty-five species belonging to the genus, 
all found within the tropical regions of America. Four species 
are occasionally taken in the extreme southern portions of Florida 
and Texas. They are all, however, very common in the An- 
tilles, Mexico, and more southern lands. 

179 




Fig. 



104. — Neuration of the 
genus Timetes. 



Genus Hypolimnas 

(i) Timetes coresia, Godart, Plate XXI, Fig. i, $ ', Fig. 2, 

6 , under side (The Waiter). 

Butterfly. — Easily recognized by means of our figures, which 
show that this creature deserves the trivial name I have bestowed 
upon it. In its dark coat and white vest it gracefully attends the 
feasts of Flora. Expanse, 2.50 inches. 

So far as I am aware, nothing reliable has been recorded as 
to the early stages of this insect. It is occasionally found in 
Texas. 

(2) Timetes petreus, Cramer, Plate XXI, Fig. 3, ^ (The 
Ruddy Dagger-wing). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings is accurately deline- 
ated in the plate. On the under side the wings are pale, with 
the dark bands of the upper side reproduced. Expanse, 2.60 
inches. It occurs in southern Florida and Texas, and elsewhere 
in tropical America. 

(3) Timetes chiron, Fabricius, Plate XXI, Fig. 4, ^ (The 
Many-banded Dagger-wing). 

Butterfly. — Easily recognized by means of the figure in the 
plate. Like the preceding species, this is occasionally found in 
Texas. It is very common in Mexico, South America, and the 
Antilles. 

Genus HYPOLIMNAS, Hubner 
(The Tropic Queens) 

Butterfly. — Eyes naked. The palpi are produced, rising above 
the head, heavily scaled. The antennae have a well-developed, 
finely pointed club. The fore wings have stout costal and medi- 
an veins. The subcostal throws out five nervules, the first two 
before the end of the cell, the third midway between the end of 
the cell and the outer border; the fourth and the fifth diverge from 
each other midway between the third and the outer border, and 
both terminate below the apex. The upper discocellular vein is 
wanting; the middle discocellular vein is bent inwardly ; the lower 
discocellular is very weak, and, in some species, wanting. The 
cell of the hind wing is lightly closed. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, thickest toward the 
middle. The head is adorned with two erect rugose spines; the 
segments have dorsal rows of branching spines, and three lateral 

180 



Genus Hypolimnas 




rows on either side of the shorter spines. It feeds on various 
species of malvaceous plants and also on the common portulnca. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is thick, 
with the head obtusely pointed; the 
abdominal segments adorned with a 
double row of tubercles. The thorax 
is convex. 

This genus, which includes a large 
number of species, reaches its fullest 
development in the tropics of the Old 
World, and includes some of the most 
beautiful, as well as the most singular, 
forms, which mimic the protected spe- 
cies of the Euploeinae, or milkweed but- 
terflies, of the Indo-Malayan and Ethi- 
opian regions. In some way one of the 
most widely spread of these species, 
which is found throughout the tropics 
of Asia and Africa, has obtained lodg- 
ment upon the soil of the New World, 
and is occasionally found in Florida, 
where it is by no means common. It 
may be that it was introduced from Africa in the time of the 
slave-trade, having been accidentally brought over by ship. That 
this is not impossible is shown by the fact that the writer has, 
on several occasions, obtained in the city of Pittsburgh specimens 
of rare and beautiful tropical insects which emerged from chrysa- 
lids that were found attached to bunches of bananas brought 
from Honduras. 

(i) Hypolimnas misippus, Linnaeus, Plate XXI, Fig. 9, $, ; 
Fig. 10, ? (The Mimic). 

Butterfly, $ . — On the upper side the wings are velvety-black, 
with two conspicuous white spots on the fore wing, and a larger 
one on the middle of the hind wing, the margins of these spots 
reflecting iridescent purple. On the under side the wings are 
white, intricately marked with black lines, and black and red- 
dish-ochraceous spots and shades. 

$ . — The female mimics two or three forms of an Oriental 
milkweed butterfly, the pattern of the upper side of the wings 
conforming to that of the variety of the protected species which 

!8l 



Fig. 105. — Neuration of the 
genus Hypolimnas. 



Genus Basilarchia 

is most common in the region where the insect is found. The 
species mimicked is Danais chrysippus, of which at least three 
varietal forms or local races are known. The American butterfly 
conforms in the female sex to the typical D. chrysippus, to which 
it presents upon the upper side a startling likeness. On the 
under side it is marked much as the male. Expanse, (^ , 2.50 
inches; ? , 3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — What has been said as to the early stages in 
the description of the genus must suffice for the species. But 
little is as yet accurately known upon the subject. 

The range of H. misippus is southern Florida, the Antilles, 
and the northern parts of South America. It is not common on 
this side of the Atlantic, but very common in Africa, tropical 
Asia, and the islands south as far as northern Australia. 



Genus BASILARCHIA, Scudder 
(The White Admirals) 

Butterfly. — Head large; the eyes are large, naked; the antennae 
are moderately long, with a distinct club; the palpi are compact, 
stout, produced, densely scaled. The fore wings are subtriangular, 
the apex well rounded, the lower two thirds of the outer margin 
slightly excavated. The first two subcostal 
nervules arise before the end of the cell. The 
hind wings are rounded, crenulate. 

Egg. — Nearly spherical, with the surface 
pitted with large hexagonal cells (see p. 3, 
Fig. i). 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar in its mature 
state is cylindrical, somewhat thicker before 
than behind, with thesecond segment adorned 
with two prominent rugose club-shaped tu- 
bercles. The fifth segment, and the ninth and 
tenth segments also, are ornamented with dor- 
sal prominences (see p. 8, Fig. 20). 
Fig. 106.— Neuration of Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is suspended by 
the genus Basilarchia. ^ ^^^^^ cremaster ; the abdominal segments are 
rounded. On the middle of the dorsum is a prominent projecting 
boss. The thorax is rounded. Thehead is rounded or slightly bifid. 

182 





Genus Basilarchia 

The caterpillars feed upon the leaves of various species of oak, 
birch, willow, and linden. The eggs are laid upon the extreme 
tip of the leaves, and the infant caterpillar, feeding upon the leaf 
in immediate proximity to the point where it has been hatched, 
attaches bits of bitten leaf by strands of silk 
to the midrib, thus stiffening its perch and ^/ { ( -^, 
preventing its curling as the rib dries. Out 
of bits of leaves thus detached it constructs a y\g 107 —Leaf cut 
packet of material, which it moves forward away at end by cater- 
along the midrib until it has completed its v^-^ oi BasUarcMa i^- 
second moult. By this time winter begins 
to come on, and it cuts away for itself the material of the leaf 
on either side of the rib, from the tip toward the base, glues 
the rib of the leaf to the stem by means of silk, draws together 

the edges of the remaining portions of 
the leaf, and constructs a tube-like hiber- 
naculum, or winter quarters, exactly 
fitting the body, in which it passes the 

Fig. 108.— Hibernaculum, or winter, 
winter quarters, of larva of Ba- There are a number of species of the 

genus found in the United States, the 
habits of which have been carefully studied, and they are among 
our most interesting butterflies, several species being mimics of 
protected species. 

(i) Basilarchia astyanax, Fabricius, Plate XXll, Fig. i, ^ ; 
Plate 111, Figs. 17, 21, 25, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 12, 13, chrysalis 
(The Red-spotted Purple). 

Butterfly. — This common but most beautiful species is suffi- 
ciently characterized by the plate so far as the upper surface is 
concerned. On the under side the wings are brownish, banded 
with black on the margins; the lunules are on this side as above, 
but the inner band of spots is red. There are two red spots at 
the base of the fore wings, and four at the base of the hind wings. 
The palpi are white below, and the abdomen is marked with a 
lateral white line on each side. Expanse, 3.00-3.25 inches. 

Egg. — The tgg, which resembles somewhat closely that of 
B. disipptcs {see p. 3, Fig. i), is yellowish-green, gradually turn- 
ing dark brown as the time for the emergence of the caterpillar 
approaches. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is so well delineated in Plate 111, 

183 



Genus Basilarchia 

Fig. 17, as to obviate the necessity for a lengthy verbal de- 
scription. 

Chrysalis. — What has been said of the caterpillar is also true 
of the chrysalis (see Plate IV). 

The larva feeds upon the willow, cherry, apple, linden {Tilia), 
huckleberry, currant, and other allied shrubs and trees. The 
butterfly is somewhat variable, and a number of varietal forms 
have been described. It ranges generally over the United States 
and southern Canada as far as the Rocky Mountain ranges in 
the West, and is even said to occur at high elevations in Mexico. 

(2) Basilarchia arthemis, Drury, Plate XXII, Fig. 4, 6 , form 
lamina, Fabricius; Fig. 5, 6 , form proserpina, Edwards, Plate III, 
Fig. 26, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 14, 2}, chrysalis {IhtB^indQd Purple). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished in the form lamina from asty- 
anax, which in other respects it somewhat closely resembles, by 
the broad white bands crossing both the fore wings and the hind 
wings, and followed on the secondaries by a submarginal row of 
red spots shading inwardly into blue. In the form proserpina 
there is a tendency on the part of the white bands to become ob- 
solete, and in some specimens they do entirely disappear. The 
likeness to astyanax in such cases is striking, and the main point 
by which the forms may then be discriminated is the persistence 
of the red spots on the upper side of the secondaries; but even 
these frequently are obsolete. Expanse, 2.50 inches. 

Egg. — The egg is grayish-green, with "kite-shaped" cells. 

Caterpillar. — Greenish- or olive-brown, blotched with white 
in its mature form, which is well represented in Plate III. It 
feeds upon the willow, the hawthorn (Crataegus), and probably 
other plants. 

Chrysalis. — The figure in Plate IV is sufficiently exact to ob- 
viate the necessity for further description. 

This beautiful insect ranges through northern New England 
and New York, Quebec, Ontario, and the watershed of the 
Great Lakes, spreading southward at suitable elevations into 
Pennsylvania. I have taken it about Cresson, Pennsylvania, at an 
elevation of twenty-five hundred feet above sea-level. It is not 
uncommon about Meadville, Pennsylvania. The species appears 
to be, like all the others of the genus, somewhat unstable and 
plastic, or else hybridization is very frequent in this genus. 
Probably all the species have arisen from a common stock. 

184 



Explanation of Plate XXII 

1. BasiLircbia ciiilvaiicix, Fabriciiis, r( \ ^. BasiLircbia cirthcmis, Drury, vcir. 

2. Hc'terocbroa califoniica, Eut\e\\ $. proscrpiiia, Edv/iirds, (J\ 

3. B^Tsilarcbia lorqiihii, Boisduval, (J', o. Basil arcbia li'eidemcvcri, Edwards, 

4. Bcisihircbia arfbcDiis, Drury, (J^. cT- 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXII. 



f"^ 





COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



Genus Basilarchia 

(3) Basilarchia weidemeyeri, Edwards, Plate XXII, Fig. 6, 

$ (Weidemeyer's Admiral). 

Butterfly. — Superficially like arthemis, but easily distinguished 
by the absence of the lunulate marginal bands of blue on the 
margins of the hind wings and by the presence of a submar- 
ginal series of white spots on both wings. Expanse, 3.00 
inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by W. H. Edwards 
in the ''Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiv, p. 107, and show 
great likeness to the following species, B. disippMs. The cater- 
pillar feeds upon cottonwood {Popiiliis). 

The insect is found on the Pacific slope and eastward to Mon- 
tana, Nebraska, and New Mexico. 

(4) Basilarchia disippus, Godart, Plate VII, Fig. 4, ^ ; 
Plate III, Figs. 19, 22, 24, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 18-20, chrysalis 
(The Viceroy). 

Butterfly. — This species mimics Anosia plexippus in a remark- 
able manner, as may be seen by referring to Plate VII. An aber- 
ration in which the mesial dark transverse band on the secondaries 
has disappeared was named pseudodorippus hy Dr. Strecker. 
The type is in the Mead collection, now belonging to the writer. 
Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have all been carefully studied by numer- 
ous writers. The tgg is depicted on p. 3, Fig. i. The caterpillar 
is shown on p. 8, as well as in Plate III. 

The species ranges everywhere from southern Canada and 
British America into the Gulf States. 

(5) Basilarchia hulsti, Edwards, Plate VII, Fig. 5, 5 (Hulst's 
Admiral). 

Butterfly. — This form is apparently a mimic oi Anosia berenice. 
The ground-color of the wings is not so bright as in B. disippus, 
and the mesial band of the secondaries on the upper side is re- 
lieved by a series of small whitish spots, one on each interspace. 
The perfect insect can easily be distinguished by its markings. 
Expanse, 2.50-2.60 inches. Thus far it is only known from Utah 
and Arizona. The early stages have not been described. 

(6) Basilarchia lorquini, Boisduval, Plate XXII, Fig. 3, $ 
(Lorquin's Admiral). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from all the other species of 
the genus by the yellowish-white bar near the end of the cell of 

185 



The Butterflies' Fad 

the fore wings and the reddish color of the apex and upper mar- 
gin of the same wings. Expanse, 2.25-2.75 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been partially described by Henry 
Edwards, and minutely worked out by Dr. Dyar, for whose de- 
scription the reader may consult the "Canadian Entomologist," 
vol. xxiii, p. 172. The food-plant of the caterpillar is Populus, 
willows, and the choke-cherry {Prunus demissa). 

Besides the forms figured in our plates there is a species in 
Florida named floridensis by Strecker, and subsequently eros by 
Edwards, which is generally larger and much darker than B. di- 
sippus, which it otherwise closely approximates. 



THE BUTTERFLIES' FAD 

" I happened one night in my travels 

To stray into Butterfly Vale, 
Where my wondering eyes beheld butterflies 

JVith wings that were wide as a sail. 
They lived in such houses of grandeur, 

Their days v^ere successions of joys, 
And the very last fad these butterflies had 

IVas making collections of hoys. 

" There were boys of all sizes and ages 

Pinned up on their walls. When I said 
'Twas a terrible sight to see boys in that plight, 

I was answered: ' Oh, well, they are dead. 
IVe catch them alive, hut we kill them 

IVith ether — a very nice way: 
Just look at this fellow — his hair is so yellow, 

And his eyes such a beautiful gray, 

*' 'Then there is a droll little darky, 

As black as the clay at our feet; 
He sets off that blond that is pinned just beyond 

In a way most artistic and neat. 
And now let me show you the latest, — 

A specimen really select, 
A boy with a head that is carroty-red 

And a face that is funnily specked. 

'' ' We cannot decide where to place him; 
Those spots bar him out of each class; 
We think him a treasure to study at leisure 
And analyze under a glass.' 
186 



Genus Adelpha 



I seemed to grow cold as I listened 
To the words that these butterflies spoke; 

With fear overcome, I was speechless and dumb, 
And then with a start— I awoke ! " 

Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 



Genus ADELPHA, Hubner 
(The Sisters) 

Butterfly. — This genus is very closely allied to the preceding, 
and is the South American representative of Basilarchia. The 
only difference which is noticeable structurally is in the fact that 
the eyes are hairy, the palpi not so densely clothed with scales. 
The prothoracic legs of the males are smaller 
than in Basilarchia. The cell of the primaries 
is very slightly closed by the lower discocel- 
lular vein, which reaches the median a little be- 
yond the origin of the second median nervule. 
The outer margin of the fore wing is rarely 
excavated, as in Basilarchia, and the lower 
extremity of the hind wing near the anal 
angle is generally more produced than in the 
last-mentioned genus. 

Early Stages. —The life-history of the genus 
has not been carefully worked out, but an 
account has been published recently of the 
caterpillar of the only species found within 
our fauna, which shows that, while in general F'g. 109.— Neurationof 
resembling the caterpillars of the genus Basil- ^S^""^ 
archia, the segments are adorned with more branching spines 
and with short fleshy tubercles, giving rise to small clusters of 
hairs. 

The chrysalids are of a peculiar form, with bifid heads and 
broad wing-cases. They are generally brown in color, with me- 
tallic spots. The only species in our fauna is confined to southern 
California, Arizona, and Mexico. 

(i) Adelpha californica, Butler, Plate XXII, Fig. 2, ? (The 
Californian Sister). 

Butterfly. — Easily recognized by the large subtriangular patch 
of orange-red at the apex of the primaries. In its habits and 

187 




Genus Chlorippe 

manner of flight it closely resembles the species of the genus 
Basilarchia. Expanse, 2.50-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — So far as is known to the writer, these have 
not been described, except partially by Henry Edwards in the 
" Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences," vol. v, 
p. 171. The caterpillar feeds upon oaks. 

The insect is found in California, Nevada, Arizona, and 
Mexico. 

Genus CHLORIPPE, Boisduval 
(The Hackberry Butterflies) 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, generally some shade of fulvous, 
marked with eye-like spots on the posterior margin of the 
secondaries, and occasionally upon the outer margin of the 
primaries, the fore wings as well as the hind 
wings being in addition more or less strongly 
spotted and banded with black. The eyes are 
naked; the antennae are straight, provided with a 
stout, oval club; the palpi are porrect, the second 
joint heavily clothed with hairs, the third joint 
short, likewise covered with scales. The costal 
vein of the fore wing is stout. The first subcostal 
vein alone arises before the end of the cell. The 
cell is open in both wings. 
Fig. no.— Neu- Egg.—^\\Q eggs, which are deposited in clus- 

ration of the genus ters, are nearly globular, the summit broad and 
0/;^^^, c5 • convex. The egg is ornamented by from eighteen 
to twenty rather broad vertical ribs, having no great elevation, 
between which are numerous faint and delicate cross-lines. 

Caterpillar. — The head is subquadrate, with the summit 
crowned by a pair of diverging stout coronal spines which have 
upon them a number of radiating spinules. Back of the head, on 
the sides, is a frill of curved spines. The body is cylindrical, 
thickest at the middle, tapering forward and backward from this 
point. The anal prolegs are widely divergent and elongated, as 
in many genera of the Satyrina^. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is compressed laterally and keeled 
on the dorsal side, concave on the ventral side, the head dis- 
tinctly bifid. The cremaster is very remarkable, presenting the 

188 




Genus Chlorippe 

appearance of a flattened disk, the sides studded with hooks, by 
means of which the chrysalis is attached to the surface, from 
which it depends in such a manner that the ventral surface is 
parallel to the plane of support. 

The caterpillars feed upon the Celtis, or hackberry. 

There are a number of species, mainly confined to the south- 
western portion of the United States, though some of them range 
southward into Mexico. Two only are known in the Middle 
States. The species are double-brooded in the more northern 
parts of the country, and the caterpillars produced from eggs laid 
by the second brood hibernate. 

(i) Chlorippe celtis, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIll, 
Fig. 3, 6 ; Fig. 4, ? ; Fig. 11, 6, under side (The Hackberry 
Butterfly). 

Butterfly, $ . — The primaries at the base and the secondaries 
except at the outer angle pale olive-brown, the rest of the wings 
black. The dark apical tract of the primaries is marked by two 
irregular, somewhat broken bands of white spots. There is a 
red-ringed eye-spot between the first and second median ner- 
vules, near the margin of the fore wing, and there are six such 
spots on each hind wing. On the under side the ground-color is 
grayish-purple; the spots and markings of the upper side reappear 
on this side. 

$ .—The female has the wings, as is always the case in this 
genus, much broader and not so pointed at the apex of the 
primaries as in the male sex, and the color is much paler. Ex- 
panse, $, 1.80 inch; ?, 2. 10 inches. 

Early Stages. — These are beautifully described and delineated 
by Edwards in ''The Butterflies of North America," vol. ii. 
The caterpillar feeds on the hackberry {Celtis occidentalis). 

This species is found generally from southern Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico. It is not, so 
far as is known, found on the Pacific coast. 

(2) Chlorippe antonia, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. 12, S 
(Antonia). 

Butterfly. — Bright yellowish-fulvous on the upper side. 
Easily distinguished from celtis by the two eye-spots near the 
margin of the primaries. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Antonia is found in Texas. 

189 



Genus Chlorippe 

(3) Chlorippe montis, Edwards, Plate XXII, Fig. 7, $ ; Fig. 
8, $ (The Mountain Emperor). 

Butterfly. — Very closely allied to C. antonia in the style and 
location of the markings, but tinted with pale ashen-gray on the 
upper side of the wings, and not yellowish-fulvous as in the last- 
named species. Expanse, 6, 1.75 inch; ?, 2.15 inches. 

The early stages are unknown. 

Montis occurs in Arizona and Colorado, and by some writers 
is regarded as a varietal form of antonia, in which opinion they 
may be correct. 

(4) Chlorippe leilia, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. 11, 5 (Leilia). 
Butterfly. — Like antonia, this species has two extra-median 

eye-spots on the primaries, and thus may be distinguished from 
celtis. From antonia it may be separated by its larger size and 
the deeper reddish-brown color of the upper surfaces. Expanse, 
2. 10-2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

So far we have received this butterfly only from Arizona. 

(5) Chlorippe alicia, Plate XXIIl, Fig. 9, $> ; Fig. 10, ? 
(Alicia). 

Butterfly. — Very bright fawn at the base of the wings, shading 
into pale buff outwardly. There is but one eye-spot on the pri- 
maries. The six eye-spots on the secondaries are black and very 
conspicuous. The marginal bands are darker and heavier than 
in any other species of the genus. Expanse, 6, 2.00 inches; 
? , 2.50 inches. 

The early stages are only partially known. 

Alicia ranges through the Gulf States from Florida to 
Texas. 

(6) Chlorippe clyton, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIII, 
Fig. 5, (5 ; Fig. 6, ? ; Plate III, Fig. 20, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 
15-17, chrysalis (The Tawny Emperor). 

Butterfly, S . — The fore wings without an extra-median eye- 
spot, and the secondaries broadly obscured with dark brown or 
blackish, especially on the outer borders, so that the eye-spots 
are scarcely, if at all, visible. 

$ . — Much larger and paler in color than the male, the eye- 
spots on the secondaries conspicuous. Expanse, $ , 2.00 inches; 
$, 2.50-2.65 inches. 

Early Stages. — The life-history has been carefully worked out, 

190 



I 





EXI^LANATION OF Pl.ATH XXIII 



Chlorippt- flor.i. Edward-. - 
Cblorippt' /loi\i, Edwai-d> 
Chlorippc' Cc'Uis. Boisd.-Le.., 
Cblorippc- ct'ltis, Boisd.-Lec. i 
Cblon'ppt'.-Iylon. Boisd.-Leo. . - 
Cblorippc civfoii. Boisd.-Lec. 
Cblon'pp^- wo////>\ Edwards, r^. 



(,-,.; ;>^.- ; //;>, Edward>. i . 
Cblorippe aitcij, Edwards, J. 
Cbhvippc <3liciu. Edwards, $• 
Cbhnppi IciliJ. Edwards, J'. 
Cblorippi- juionij. Edwards, c< 
Cblivippi' ci'liis, Boisd.-Lec. 



Thh Bv-t-rflv Book. 



-ATE XX! 




COPYRIGHTED BY rt. 



Genus Pyrrhanaea 

and the reader who wishes to know all about it should consult the 
writings of Edwards and Scudder. 

This species is occasionally found in New England, and ranges 
thence westward to Michigan, and southward to the Gulf States. 
It is quite common in the valley of the Ohio. 

(7) Chlorippe flora, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. i, ^ ; Fig. 
2, ? (Flora). 

Butterfly, $ . — The ground-color is bright reddish-fulvous on 
the upper side. The usual markings occur, but there is no eye- 
spot, or ocellus, on the primaries. The hind wings are not 
heavily obscured with dark brown, as in clyton, and the six 
ocelli stand forth conspicuously upon the reddish ground. The 
hind wings are more strongly angulated than in any other 
species. The borders are quite solidly black. 

? . — The female is much larger than the male, and looks like a 
very pale female of <;/>^/ow. Expanse, (5,i.75inch; ?, 2.35 inches. 

Early Stages. — The life-history has been described by Edwards 
in the ''Canadian Entomologist," vol. xiii, p. 81. The habits of 
the insect in its early stages and the appearance of the larva and 
chrysalis do not differ widely from those of C clyton, its nearest ally. 

Flora is found in Florida and on the borders of the Gulf to 
Texas. 

Genus PYRRHAN-ffiA, Schatz 
(The Leaf-wings) 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized butterflies, on the upper side of the 
wings for the most part red or fulvous, on the under side of the 
wings obscurely mottled on the secondaries and the costal and 
apical tracts of the primaries in such a manner as to cause them to 
appear on this side like rusty and faded leaves. Structurally they 
are characterized by the somewhat falcate shape of the primaries 
and the strongly produced outer margin of the secondaries about 
the termination of the third median nervule. The first and second 
subcostal nervules coalesce with one another and with the costal 
vein. The costal margin of the fore wing at the base is strongly 
angulated, and the posterior margin of the primaries is straight. 
The cell of the secondaries is very feebly closed. 

Egg. — Spherical, flattened at the base and somewhat depressed 
at the apex, with a few parallel horizontal series of raised points 
about the summit. 

IQI 




Genus Pyrrhanaea 

Caterpillar. — Head somewhat globular in appearance ; the an- 
terior portion of the first thoracic segment of the body is much 
smaller in diameter than the head ; the body 
is cylindrical, tapering to a point. 

Chrysalis. — Short, stout, with trans- 
verse ridges above the wings on the middle 
of the abdomen, keeled on the sides. The 
cremaster is small and furnished with a glob- 
ular tip, the face of which is on the same 
plane as the ventral surface of the body, 
causing the chrysalis to hang somewhat ob- 
liquely from the surface which supports it. 
This is a large genus bf mostly tropical 
species, possessed of rather singular habits. 
The caterpillars in the early stages of their 
existence have much the same habits as the 
caterpillars of the s^enus Basilarchia, which 
'"g^nur"^:''''" h'->ve been already^described. After passing 
the third moult they construct for themselves 
nests by weaving the edges of a leaf together, and thus conceal 
themselves from sight, emerging in the dusk to feed upon the 
food-plant. They live upon the Euphorbiacea\ the Laiiracea% and 
the Pipcracea\ The insects are double-brooded in the cooler 
regions of the North, and are probably many-brooded in the 
tropics. 

(i) Pyrrhanaea andria, Scudder, Plate XXIV, Fig. i, $ (The 
Goatweed Buttertly). 

Butterfly, S. — Solidly bright red above, the outer margins 
narrowly dusky on the borders. On the under side the wings 
are gray, dusted with brown scales, causing them to resemble 
the surface of a dried leaf. 

$ . — The female has the upper side paler and marked by pale 
fulvous bands, as shown in the plate. Expanse, S, 2. so inches; 
? , 3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — In Fig. 21, on p. 9, is a good representation of 
the mature caterpillar, the nest which it constructs for itself, and 
the chrysalis. A full account of the life-history may be found 
in the " Fifth Missouri Report " from the pen of the late C. V. Riley. 
The caterpillar feeds on Crotoii capitatitm. 

The insect ranges from Illinois and Nebraska to Texas. 

192 



Genus Ageronia 



(2) Pyrrhanaea morrisoni, Edwards, Plate XXIV, Fig. 2, ? 
(Morrison's Goatweed Butterfly). 

Butterfly, $ . — Much like P. andria, but more brilliantly and 
lustrously red on the upper side, and marked with paler macular 
bands like the female. 

$ . — Differing from the female of P. andria in the more mac- 
ular, or spotted, arrangement of the light bands on the wings, as 
is well shown in the plate. Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species occurs in Arizona and Mexico. 

(3) Pyrrhanaea portia,Fabricius, Plate XXIV, Fig. 3, 6 (Portia). 
Butterfly. — Splendid purplish-red on the upper side. On the 

under side the fo# wings are laved with bright yellow on the 
basal and inner marginal tracts, and the secondaries are dark 
brown, irrorated with blackish scales arranged in spots and striae. 
Expanse, 2.75-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Portia occurs in the extreme southern part of Florida and in 
the Antilles. 

Genas AGERONIA, Hiibner 
(The Calicoes) 

Butterfly.— The. antennae moderately long, delicate, terminated 
in a gradually thickened club. The eyes are naked; the palpi 
are compressed, only slightly porrect, not 
densely covered with scales. The neuration 
isalikeinbothsexes, thecostalandthemedian 
veins greatly thickened toward the base. The 
first and second subcostals arise from before 
the end of the cell; the fourth and fifth sub- 
costals arise from a common stem emitted 
from the third subcostal beyond the end of 
the cell. The cells in both the fore and hind 
wings are closed. The butterflies are of 
medium or large size, curiously marked with 
checkered spots, blue and white, with 
broad paler shades on the under side of the 
secondaries. They are rapid fliers and are 
said to alight on the trunks of trees with 
their v/ings expanded and their heads 

193 




-Neuration of 
the genus Ageronia. 



Genus Victorina 

down. When flying they emit a clicking sound with their 
wings. 

Early Stages, — Very little is known of these. 

The chrysalids are slender and have two ear-like tubercles on 
the head. 

This genus is, strictly speaking, neotropical. About twenty- 
five species have been described from Central and South Amer- 
ica, some of them being exceedingly beautiful and rich in color. 
The two species credited to our fauna are reported as being 
occasionally found in Texas. I have specimens of one of the 
species which certainly came from Texas. I cannot be so sure 
of the other. 

(i) Ageronia feronia, Linnaeus, Plate XXIV, Fig. 4, ^ 
(The White-skirted Calico). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from the only other species 
of the genus found in our fauna by the white ground-color of 
the under side of the hind wings. Expanse, 2.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This remarkable insect is said to be occasionally found in Texas. 

(2) Ageronia fornax, Hubner, Plate XXIV, Fig. 5, $ , under 
side (The Orange-skirted Calico). 

Butterfly. — Closely resembling the preceding species on the 
upper side, but at once distinguished by the orange-yellow 
ground-color of the under side of the hind wing. Expanse, 2.60 
inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Like its congener, A. fornax is reported only from the hotter 
parts of Texas. 



Genus VICTORINA, Blanchard 
(The Malachites) 

Butterfly. — Large butterflies, curiously and conspicuously 
marked with light-greenish spots upon a darker ground; wings 
upon the under side marbled with brown about the spots and 
having a satiny luster. The third median nervule of the fore 
wing is very strongly bowed upward. The cells of both wings 
are open. The hind wing is tailed at the end of the third median 
nervule. The two first subcostals arise before the end of the 

194 



Fossil Insects 



cell; the fourth and fifth spring from a common stem which is 
emitted from the third beyond the end of the cell, as the cut shows. 

Early Stages. — We know nothing of 
these. 

This genus, in which are reckoned 
five species, all found in the tropics of 
the New World, is represented by but a 
single species in our fauna, which oc- 
curs in southwestern Texas and in Flor- 
ida. It is very common in the West 
Indies and Central America. 

(i) Victorina steneles, Linnaeus, 
Plate XXIV, Fig. 6, 5 (The Pearly Mal- 
achite). 

This splendid insect is occasionally 
found in southern Florida and the extreme 
southern part of Texas. It is common 
throughout tropical America. Nothing 
has ever been written upon its early p,«. ,,3._Neuration ofthe 

Stages. genus yictorina. 




FOSSIL INSECTS 



Investigations within comparatively recent times have led to 
the discovery of a host of fossil insects. A few localities in 
Europe and in North America are rich in such remains, and the 
number of species that have been described amounts to several 
thousands. Strangely enough, some of these fossil insects are 
very closely allied in form to species that are living at the present 
time, showing the extreme antiquity of many of our genera. One 
of the comparatively recent discoveries has been the fossil remains 
of a butterfly which Dr. Scudder, who has described it, declares 
to be very near to the African Libythea labdaca, which differs in 
certain minor anatomical respects from the American Libytheas 
which are figured in this work; and Dr. Scudder has therefore pro- 
posed a new generic name, Dichora, meaning " an inhabitant of 
two lands," which he applies to the African species because 
related to the extinct American butterfly. The strange dis- 
coveries, which have been made by palaeontologists as to the 
huge character of many of the mammals, birds, and reptiles 

195 



Fossil Insects 

which at one time tenanted the globe, are paralleled by recent 
discoveries made in insect-bearing strata in France. M. Charles 
Brongniart of the Paris Museum is preparing an account of the 
collection which he has made at Commentry, and among the 
creatures which he proposes to figure is an insect which is 
regarded by Brongniart as one of the forerunners of our dragon- 
flies, which had an expanse of wing of two feet, a veritable giant 
in the insect world. 

Of fossir butterflies there have thus far been discovered sixteen 
species. Of these, six belong to the subfamily of the Nymphali- 
dee, and five of the six were found in the fossiliferous stral^a of 
Florissant, Colorado. Two species belong to the subfamily Saty- 
rince, both occurring in deposits found in southern France, and 
representing genera more nearly allied to those now found in 
India and America than to the Satyrince existing at the present 
time in Europe. One of the fossils to which reference has al- 
ready been made belongs to the subfamily of the Libytheince. 
The remainder represent the subfamilies of the Pierince, the 
Papilionince, and the family Hesperiidce. 

It is remarkable that the butterflies which have been found in 
a fossil state show a very close affinity to genera existing at the 
present time, for the most part, in the warmer regions of the 
earth. Though ages have elapsed since their remains were 
embedded in the mud which became transformed into stone, 
the processes of life have not wrought any marked structural 
changes in the centuries which have fled. This fixity of type 
is certainly remarkable in creatures so lowly in their organi- 
zation. 



II 



196 



Explanation of Plate XXIV 



1. Pj'rrhiDio'a and rid, Scuddtr, 9- t>- t^ictoriiia stcnt'lcs, Liunxus, ^. , 

2. PrrrbaiiiTLi iiionisoiii, Edwmds, 9- 7- Cvstint'urii ainvnionc, bAenetries, rj^. 
-,. Pyrrhatia\i portia, Fabricius, ^. S. 5r//c-/'/tv (vocj/r, Edwards, cJ", ////cff/' 

4. Agcroiiij fcronia, Linnaeus. J"'. 5/^*'. 

5. /ls{i'roiiiL,-i fonui.x, Hiibner, (;J^, ;/;/tfr'' Q. Svucblol' crocalc. Edwards, r^ . 

siiii-. 10. Eiirenm leibc, Fabricius, -/'. 



Bl'tterfly Book 



Plate XXIV. 




:0?YRIGHTE0 Br 



SUBFAMILY SATYRIN.^ (THE SATYRS) 

** Aught unsavory or unclean 
Hath my insect never seen; 
But violets and bilberry bells, 
Maple-sap and daffodils, 
Grass with green flag half-mast high, 
Succory to match the sky. 
Columbine with horn of honey, 
Scented fern and agrimony. 
Clover, catch-fly, adder's-tongue, 
And brier-roses dwelt among." 

Emerson. 

The butterflies belonging to this subfamily are, for the most 
part, of medium size, and are generally obscure in color, being of 
some shade of brown or gray, though a few species within our 
territory are brightly colored. Gaily colored species belonging 
to this subfamily are more numerous in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres. The wings are very generally ornamented, especially upon 
the under side, by eye-like spots, dark, pupiled in the center 
with a point of lighter color, and ringed around with one or 
more light circles. They are possessed of a weak flight, flitting 
and dancing about among herbage, and often hiding among the 
weeds and grasses. Most of them are forest-loving insects, 
though a few inhabit the cold and bleak summits of mountains 
and grassy patches near the margins of streams in the far North, 
while some are found on the treeless prairies of the West. In 
the warmer regions of the Gulf States a few species are found 
which have the habit of flitting about the grass of the roadsides 
and in open spaces about houses. The veins of the fore wings 
are generally greatly swollen at the base, enabling them thus to 
be quickly distinguished from all other butterflies of this family. 

The eggs, so far as we have knowledge of them, are subspher- 

197 



Satyrinae (the Satyrs) 

ical, somewhat higher than broad, generany ribbed along the 
sides, particularly near the apex, and rounded at the base, which 
is generally broader than the apex. 

The caterpillars at the time of emergence from the egg have 
the head considerably larger than the remainder of the body; but 
when they have reached maturity they are cylindrical, tapering a 
little from the middle to either end. They are bifurcated at the 
anal extremity, a character which enables them to be distin- 
guished at a glance from the larvse of all other American butter- 
flies except those of the genus Chlorippe. They are mostly pale 
green or light brown in color, ornamented with stripes along 
the sides. They feed upon grasses and sedges, lying in con- 
cealment during the daytime, and emerging at dusk to take their 
nourishment. 

The chrysalids are rather stout in form, but little angulated, 
and without any marked prominences or projections. They are 
green or brown in color. Most of them are pendant, but a few 
forms pupate at the roots of grasses or under stones lying upon 
the ground. 

The butterflies of this subfamily have been arranged, so far 
as they are represented in the faunal region of which this book 
treats, in nine genera, which include about sixty species. It is 
quite possible that a number of species still remain to be discov- 
ered and described, though it is also true that some of the so- 
called species are likely to prove in the end little more than local 
races or varieties. 

Genus DEBIS, Westwood 
(The Eyed Nymphs) 

" The wild bee and the butterfly 

Are bright and happy things to see, 
^ Living beneath a summer sky." 

Eliza Cook. 

Butterfly. — Characterized by the stout but not greatly swollen 
costal vein of the fore wing, by the rather short costal vein of the 
hind wing, which terminates before quite reaching the outer 
angle, by the great length of the lower discocellular vein of the 
fore wing, and by the prolongation of the outer margin of the 
hind wing at the end of the third median nervule. The outer 

198 




Genus Debis 

margin of the fore wing is either rounded or slightly excavated. 
The palpi are long and narrow, thickly clothed with hairs below; 
the antennae are moderately long, gradually 
thickening toward the tip, without a well- 
marked club ; the fore legs in both sexes greatly 
atrophied. 

Egg. — Flattened spheroidal, broadly trun- 
cated at the base, the surface smooth. 

Caterpillar. — Body long, slender, tapering 
from the middle; the head cleft, each half being 
produced upward as a conical horn; the anal 
segment provided with a pair of horns similar 
to those of the head, produced longitudinally Fig. 114.— Neura- 

bnrkwnrd tionofthe genus Z)^&J5. 

DacKwara. ^^^^^ Scudder.) 

Chrysalis. — Strongly convex dorsally, con- 
cave ventrally, with a stout tubercular eminence on the thorax, 
without any other projecting tubercles or eminences; light green 
in color. 

This genus is large, and is well represented in Asia and the 
Indo-Malayan region. I cannot see any good ground for gener- 
ically separating the two species found in North America from their 
congeners of Asiatic countries, as has been done by some writers. 

(i) Debis portlandia, Plate XVIII, Fig. 20, ^ ; Plate III, Fig. 
16, larva; Plate IV, Fig. 6, chrysalis (The Pearly Eye). 

Butterfly.— The butterfly, the male of which is well depicted 
as to its upper side on the plate, does not differ greatly in the 
sexes. The hind wings on the under side are marked with a 
series of beautiful ocelli. In the North the insect is single- 
brooded; in the region of West Virginia and southward it is 
double-brooded. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — The illustrations give a good idea of the ma- 
ture larva and the chrysalis. The caterpillar, like most of the 
Satyrince, feeds upon grasses. 

The range of this pretty insect is extensive, it being found 
from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico, and westward to the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(2) Debis creola, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 18, $ ; Fig. 19, 
? (The Creole). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from the preceding species by 
the elongated patches of dark raised scales upon the fore wings, 

199 



Genus Satyrodes 

situated on the interspaces between the median nervules. The 
female has more yellow upon the upper side of the fore wings 
than D. portlandia. Expanse, 2.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Creola ranges from Florida to Mexico along the Gulf. 



Genus SATYRODES, Scudder 
(The Grass-nymphs) 

Butterfly. — The head is moderately large; the eyes are not 
prominent, hairy ; the antennae are about half as long as the costa of 
the fore wing, not distinctly clubbed, gradually thickening toward 
the extremity. The palpi are slender, compressed, 
hairy below, with the last joint rather short and 
pointed. The fore and hind wings are evenly 
rounded on the outer margin. The costal vein of 
the fore wing is thickened, but not greatly swollen. 
The first and second subcostals are emitted well 
before the end of the cell, the third beyond it, and 
the fourth and fifth from a common stem, both 
terminating below the apex. The upper disco- 
rati'on of\he~g^nu"s ^^Hular vein is wanting, and the upper radial, 
Satyrodes. (After therefore, Springs from the upper angle of the 

Scudder.) ^g|j Qf ^j^g ^^j.g ^ij^g^ 

Egg. — Flattened spheroidal, broader than high, flat at the 
base and rounded above. 

Caterpillar. — The head is full, the summit of either half pro- 
duced upward and forward into a slender, conical horn. The 
body is nearly cylindrical, tapering backward, the last segment 
furnished with two pointed, backward projections, resembling 
the horns of the head. 

Chrysalis. — Relatively longer and more slender than in the 
preceding genus, with the thoracic prominence more acute and 
the head more sharply pointed. 

This genus was erected to receive the single species which, 
until the present time, is its sole representative. 

(1) Satyrodes canthus, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXV, 
Fig. I, 6 ; Plate 111, Fig. 9, larva; Plate IV, Fig. 9, chrysalis 
(The Common Grass-nymph). 

200 




Genus Neonympha 

Butterfly. — It always haunts meadows and hides among the 
tufts of tall grasses growing in moist places. It is rather com- 
mon in New England and the Northern States generally. It is 
found in Canada and is reported from the cool upper mountain 
valleys in the Carolinas. It has a weak, jerking flight, and is 
easily taken when found. Expanse, i. 65-1. 90 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been well described by various 
writers. The caterpillar feeds upon grasses. 



Genus NEONYMPHA, Westwood 
(The Spangled Nymphs) 

" Oh! the bonny, bonny dell, whaur the primroses won, 
Luikin' oot o' their leaves like wee sons o' the sun; 
Whaur the wild roses hing like flickers o' flame, 
And fa' at the touch wi' a dainty shame; 
Whaur the bee swings ower the white-clovery sod, 
And the butterfly flits like a stray thoucht o' God." 

MacDonald. 

Butterfly. — Eyes hairy. The costal and median veins of the 
fore wings are much swollen at the base. The palpi are thin, 
compressed, thickly clothed below with long hairs. The antennae 
are comparatively short, gradually thickening to- 
ward the outer extremity, and without a well-de- 
fined club. Both the fore wing and the hind wing 
have the outer margin evenly rounded. 

Egg. — Globular, flattened at the base, marked 
with irregular polygonal cells. 

Caterpillar. — The head is large, rounded, the 
two halves produced conically and studded with 
little conical papillae. The last segment of the body 

' ^-r ^ Fig. 116.— 

IS bifurcate. Neuration of 

Chrysalis. — Relatively long, strongly produced the genus A^^o- 
at the vertex ; elevated on the thorax into a blunt s'cr^er.) 
tubercular prominence; green in color. 

This genus, which has by some writers been sunk into the 
genus Euptychia, Hubner, is quite extensive. Nearly two hun- 
dred species are included in Euptychia, which is enormously 
developed in the tropical regions of the New World. Seven 

201 




Genus Neonympha 

species of Neonympha are found within the region of which 
this book treats. 

(i) Neonympha gemma, Hubner, Plate XXV, Fig. 2, $, 
under side (The Gemmed Brown). 

Butterfly.— {J pon the upper side the wings are pale mouse- 
gray, with a couple of twinned black spots on the outer margin 
of the hind wings. On the under side the wings are reddish- 
gray, marked with irregular ferruginous lines. Near the outer 
margin of the hind wings is a row of silvered spots, the spots 
corresponding in location to the dark marginal spots being ex- 
panded into a violet patch marked in the middle by a twinned 
black spot centered with silver. Expanse, i. 25-1. 35 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have been beautifully described and fig- 
ured by Edwards in the third volume of "The Butterflies of 
North America." 

The egg is somewhat globular, rather higher than wide, flat- 
tened at the base, and marked with numerous shallow reticulated 
depressions. The caterpillar of the spring brood is pale green, 
of the fall brood pale brown, marked respectively with numerous 
longitudinal stripes of darker green or brown. It has two long, 
elevated, horn-like projections upon the head, and on the anal 
segment two similar projections pointing straight backward. 
The chrysalis is small, green, or brown, strongly bifid at the 
head. The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

The insect ranges from West Virginia to Mexico. 

(2) Neonympha henshawi, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 8, $ 
(Henshaw's Brown). 

Butterfly. — Much like N. gemma, but considerably larger and 
decidedly reddish upon the upper side of the wings. Expanse, 
1.65 inch. 

Early Stages. — Mr. Edwards has figured the egg, which is 
different in shape from that of the preceding species, being 
broader than high, subglobular, flattened broadly at the base, 
green in color, and almost devoid of sculpturings upon its sur- 
face. Of the other stages we know nothing. 

Henshaw's Butterfly ranges through southern Colorado into 
Mexico. 

(3) Neonympha phocion, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 7, $ , 
under side; Plate III, Fig. 8, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 10 and 11 
(The Georgian Satyr). 

202 



Genus Neonympha 

Butterfly. — The upper side is immaculate gray; beneath 
pale, with two ferruginous transverse lines. Between these 
lines is a ferruginous line on each wing, rudely describing a circle. 
In the circle on the fore wing are three or four eye-spots with a 
blue pupil and a yellow iris; in the circle on the hind wing are 
six eye-spots which are oblong and have the pupil oval. Ex- 
panse, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been fully described, and are not 
unlike those of other species of the genus. The caterpillar feeds 
on grasses. 

The insect ranges from New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico as 
far west as Texas. 

(4) Neonympha eurytus, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 4, ^ ; 
Plate III, Figs. 3, 6, 10, 13, 14, larva; Plate IV, Fig. 28, chrysa- 
lis (The Little Wood-satyr). 

Butterfly.— Esisily distinguished from other species in our 
fauna by the presence of two more or less perfectly developed, 
ocelli on the upper side of the fore wing and also of the hind 
wing. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages.— This is a rather common butterfly, the larval 
stages of which have been fully described by various authors. 
The egg is even taller in proportion to its breadth than that of 
N. gemma, which it otherwise closely resembles in outline and 
sculpturing. The caterpillar is pale brown, conformed in gen- 
eral form to that of other species of the genus, but somewhat 
stouter. It feeds on grasses. The chrysalis is pale brown, 
mottled with darker brown. 

The insect ranges through Canada and the United States to 
Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas. 

(5) Neonympha mitchelli, French, Plate XXV, Fig. 6, $, 
under side (Mitchell's Satyr). 

Butterfly.— Easily distinguished from the other species of the 
genus by the eye-spots on the under side of the wings, four on 
each of the primaries and six on each of the secondaries, arranged 
in a straight series on the outer third, well removed from the 
margin. These spots are black, ringed about with yellow and 
pupiled with blue; 

Early Stages.^- Unknown. 

The species is local, and thus far is recorded only from 
northern New Jersey, near Lake Hopatcong, and the State of 

203 



Genus Neonympha 

Michigan. No doubt it occurs elsewhere, but has been over- 
looked by collectors. 

(6) Neonympha sosybius, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 5, $ , 
under side (The Carolinian Satyr). 

Butterfly. — The upper surface is immaculate dark mouse- 
gray. On the under side the wings are paler, with three 
transverse undulatory lines, one defining the basal, the other 
the median area, and one just within the margin. Between the 
last two are rows of ocelli. The spots in these rows are obscure, 
except the first on the primaries and the second and last two on 
the secondaries, which are black, ringed about with yellow and 
pupiled with blue. 

The female is like the male, but a trifle larger. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by Edwards, 
French, and Scudder, and do not differ strikingly from those of 
other species. 

The species ranges from the latitude of New Jersey south- 
ward, throughout the southern half of the Mississippi Valley to 
Mexico and Central America. 

(7) Neonympha rubricata, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 3, S 
(The Red Satyr). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished by its much redder color 
from all its congeners, among which it has its closest ally in 
N. eurytus. It has an eye-spot near the apex of the fore wing, 
and one near the anal angle of the hind wing. The basal area of 
the primaries beneath is bright reddish; the secondaries on this 
side are gray, crossed by two transverse lines as in the preceding 
species, and a double submarginal line. On the fore wings the 
double submarginal line is repeated, and in addition there is 
another line which runs upward from just before the inner angle 
to the costa, at about one third of its length from the apex. The 
eye-spots of the upper side reappear below, and in addition there 
is another near the outer angle of the secondaries, and a few sil- 
very well-defmed ocelli between the two on the secondaries. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The Red Satyr is found in Texas, Arizona, Mexico, and Cen- 
tral America. 



204 



Explanation of Plate XXV 

1 Scifyrocic's cnilhiis, Boisd.-Lec, rj". i6. Nnuniuois dioin'.^ius, Scudder, cf. 

-. Nconvmpha ocnna , Hlibner. J\, uu- 17. Er.'hui uuigdaJciui. Strecker, ^. 

^',^. ,,Y/<.. ^ i^- Hvibia sojm, Strecker, = t'tht'].i, 

1. Nc'oiivmpha nihnc.iLi. Edwards, r^\ Edwards, ^. 

4 N.'onnnpha curvtiis. Fabricius, J'. iQ. F.ri-hia cliscoicLilis. Kirby, d'- 

,. M-o/nw/z/^/ur nom'^h/n. Fabricius, e. 20. Hirhui iyudarus, var. .-^///.7n, Ed- 

inuU'y side. ^^'^i'-^'^- c"'- ^ ^ „ 

Neouvmpha mitcl.wlli, French. ,f\ 2 1 . C>;/(»/i'^^/;^/u7 .r/yy/Was-, Edwards, (^ , 

- N.'ouvmplKJ phocioN. Fabricius. c\ ^-- Ca^nounnphj kodmk, Edwiuds, y. 

'■ ui'-udi 2->. HrdvJ disa. var. nmuciiiiis, Dbl.- 

<s Neoiiviiipha beiislhiici . Edwards, (f' . Hew.. (- . 

9 Cci'iiouvrnphicalifonnj, Dbl.-Hew., 24. C^r ;/<>;/ rmj^/u? /u/rr/^///. Edwards, cf. 

var.'..^^/.Tr//>///.s. Boisd.. J'. 2^. C\rm);/r;;/;>/.v ./^o, Edwards, ?, 

10. C\p;/();/r;//;>/u7 cj/z/or/zm, Dbl.-Hew., underside. 

VAr.' i'n'iii{ii\ Henrv Edwards, J. 20. C(f)ioin'mph.r clko, Edwards, J'. 

M. C<rm);/r/L;^L (n/'/v?.:./. Edwards, r^^ 27. C>y/o;/r/y;//v7 pampbiloidcs, Rea- 

1^ ("rr;/c)>7r;;//>/v7 or/'/- jrr J, Edwards, r^^, kirt, ^. 

h;,^;;- side. :=«^. /^'v/^nr epipsodea, Butler, J'- 

1 ; Ca'uouvmpha nioruata. Edwards. J, 20. (:rr;;o;/r/;/;^/u7 ///o/';/^/.7. Edwards, cf • 

/n/J<v .^/c7t'. ^f>- Ca-nonvyiipha'ainpehs, Edwards, (^. 

14 (\r;/.)y/r;;7/)/.vu7//7i.n7U7.Dbl.-Hew., :^^. Orncrvmpha pamphiJoidcs, Rea- 

i;. Neomiiiois ridin<(sii. Edwards, rj*. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXV. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1893. 




Genus Ccenonympha 



Genus CCENONYMPHA, Westwood 
(The Ringlets) 

" There is a differency between a grub and a butterfly; yet your butterfly was a 
grub. " — Shakespeare. 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies. The costal, median, and sub- 
median veins are all strongly swollen. The palpi are very 
heavily clothed with hairs, the last joint quite long and porrect. 
The antennae are short, delicate, gradually but 
distinctly clubbed. The eyes are naked. Both 
wings on the outer margin are evenly rounded. 

£^;^".— The egg is conical, truncated, flat on the 
top, rounded at the base, with the sides marked 
with numerous low, narrov/ ribs, between which 
are slight cross-lines, especially toward the apex. 

Caterpillar. — The head is globular; the body 
is cylindrical, tapering gradually backward, fur- Fig. 117.— Neu- 
nished in the last segment with two small hori- fZuymphT""" 
zontal cone-shaped projections. 

Chrysalis. — Ventrally straight, dorsally convex, strongly 
produced in a rounded, somewhat keeled eminence over the 
thorax ; pointed at the end. Generally green or light drab in color, 
with dark markings on the sides of the wing-cases. 

This genus is distributed throughout the temperate regions 
both of the Old and the New World, and includes in our fauna a 
number of forms, the most of which are peculiar to the Pacific 
coast. 

(i) Ccenonympha California, Doubleday and Hewitson, 
Plate XXV, Fig. 14, ? ; form galactinus, Boisduval, Plate XXV, 
Fig. 9, 6 ; form eryngii, Henry Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 10, 
$> (The California Ringlet). 

Butterfly. — 1 his little species is to be distinguished from its 
near allies by its white color. The form galactinus is the winter 
form; the form California the summer form. The former is 
characterized by the darker color of the hind wings on the under 
side and the more prominent development of the marginal ocelli. 
The form eryngii is simply a yellower form, with less dark 
shading on the under side. 

205 



Genus Ccenonympha 

Early Stages.— ^htse have been most carefully and beauti- 
fully worked out by Edwards, and the reader, for a full know- 
ledge of them, may consult the splendid plate in "The Butterflies 
of North America," vol. iii. 

The species ranges from Vancouver's Island southward on 
the Pacific coast and eastward into Nevada. 

(2) CcEnonympha elko, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 25, ? , 
under side; Fig. 26, $ (The Elko Ringlet). 

Butterfly. — Yellow on both sides of the wings, the lower 
side paler than the upper, and the basal area lightly clouded with 
fuscous. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Undescribed. 

This species is found in Nevada and Washington. 

(3) Ccenonympha inornata, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 13, 
$ , under side; Fig. 29, $ (The Plain Ringlet). 

Butterfly.— The wings on the upper side are ochreous- 
brown, lighter on the disk. The costal margin of the fore wings 
and the outer margin of both fore and hind wings are gray. 
The ocellus at the apex of the fore wings on the under side is 
faintly visible on the upper side. On the under side the fore 
wings are colored as on the upper side as far as the termination 
of the discal area, which is marked by a narrow transverse band 
of pale yellow, followed by a conspicuous ocellus. The hind 
wings are gray, darkest toward the base, behind the irregular 
whitish transverse band which crosses the outer portion of the 
disk. 

Early S/^^"^5. — Unknown. 

The species occurs in Montana, Minnesota, British America, 
and Newfoundland. Newfoundland specimens, of which I 
possess a large series, are distinctly darker in color than those 
taken in the Northwest. Some recent writers are inclined to 
regard this as a variety of the European C. typhon. I am per- 
suaded that they are mistaken. 

(4) Ccenonympha ochracea, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 11, 
$ ; Fig. 12, 6 , under side (The Ochre Ringlet). 

Butterfly.— Glossy ochreous, yellow above, with no markings 
but those which show through from below. On the under side 
the wings are marked precisely as in the preceding species, ex- 
cept that there are two or three small rays on the secondaries 
near the base, one on the cell and one on either side of it, of the 

206 



Genus Ccenonympha 

same tint as the dlscal transverse band, and in some specimens 
there is a series of incomplete marginal ocelli on the hind wings. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Ocbracea ranges from British Columbia to Arizona, as far 
east as Kansas. 

(5) Ccenonympha ampelos, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 21, 
5, under side; Fig. 30, 6 (The Ringless Ringlet). 

5z///^r/7>'.— Distinguished from its allies by the total absence 
of ocelli on both wings, above and below. Otherwise the 
species is very near ochracea. 

Early Stages.— Thtst have been described with minute accu- 
racy by Edwards in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xix, p. 41. 

Ampelos occurs from Nevada and Montana westward to 
Vancouver's Island. 

(6) Ccenonympha kodiak, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 22, 
? (The Alaskan Ringlet). 

Btitterffy.—Much darker both on the upper and under sides 
than C. California, which in many other respects it resembles. 
The figure in the plate is that of the type. It is as yet rare in 
collections. 

£^r(v5/<3^^5.— Nothing is known of these. It is found in Alaska. 

(7) Ccenonympha pamphiloides, Reakirt, Plate XXV, Fig. 
27, ?, underside; Fig. 31, S (The Utah Ringlet). 

Butterfly. — K2i\\\tx larger than the other species of the genus 
found in North America. Easily distinguished by the marginal 
row of ocelli on the secondaries, which are always present, 
though often "blind," that is to say, without a distinct dark 
pupil. The author of the species named it from a supposed 
likeness to the European C. pamphilus. The resemblance is only 
superficial. C. pamphilus is a much smaller insect and much 
more plainly marked, judging from the large series of specimens 
I have received from various European localities. Pamphilus has 
no eye-spots on the hind wings. They are a conspicuous fea- 
ture of pamphiloides, more so than in any other North American 
species except C. haydeni. 

Early S/^^^s.— Unknown. 

Habitat, Utah and California. 

(8) Ccenonympha haydeni, Plate XXV, Fig. 24, $, , under 
side (Hayden's Ringlet). 

Butterfly. — Dark immaculate mouse-gray on the upper side. 

207 



Genus Erebia 

On the under side the wings are pale hoary gray, with the hind 
wings adorned by a marginal series of small ocelli, black, ringed 
about with yellow and pupiled with pale blue. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Hayden's Ringlet is found in Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, 
and Colorado. 



Genus EREBIA, Dalman 

(The Alpines) 

" Then we gather, as we travel, 
Bits of moss and dirty gravel, 

And we chip off little specimens of stone; 
And we carry home as prizes 
Funny bugs of handy sizes, 
Just to give the day a scientific tone." 

Charles Edward Carryl. 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized or small butterflies, dark in color, 
wings marked on the under side with eye-like spots; the 
antennae short, with a gradually thickened club. The eyes are 
naked. The costal vein of the fore wing is 
generally strongly swollen at the base. The 
subcostal vein is five-branched ; the first two 
nervules generally emitted before the end 
of the cell; the third nearer the fourth than 
the end of the cell; the fourth and fifth ner- 
vules spring from a common stem, the 
fourth terminating immediately on the apex. 
The lower radial is frequently projected in- 
wardly into the cell from the point where 
it intersects the union of the middle and 
lower discocellular veins. The outer mar- 
gins of both wings are evenly rounded. 

£^^.— Subconical, flattened at the base 
and at the top, the sides marked by nu- 
merous raised vertical ridges, which oc- 
casionally branch or intersect each other. 
Caterpillar.— Tht head is globular, the body cylindrical, 
tapering gradually backward from the head, the last segment 
slightly bifurcate. 

208 




Fig. 118. — Neuration 
of the^genus Erebia, en- 
larged. 



Genus Erebia 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is formed about the roots of grass 
and on the surface of the ground, either lying loosely there or 
surrounded by a few strands of silk. The chrysalis is convex, 
both ventrally and dorsally, humped on the thorax, produced at 
the head; all the projections well rounded. The chrysalids are 
generally some shade of light brown or ashen-gray, with darker 
stripes and spots. This genus is arctic, and only found in the 
cooler regions of the North or upon elevated mountain summits. 
A few species range downward to lower levels in more temperate 
climates, but these are exceptional cases. 

(i) Erebia discoidalis, Kirby, Plate XXV, Fig. 19, $> (The 
Red-streaked Alpine). 

Butterfly . — Easily distinguished by the plain black wings, re- 
lieved by a reddish-brown shade on the disk of the primaries on 
the upper side. 

Early S/^^'^5. — Hitherto undescribed. 

This species is found in the far North. My specimens came 
from the shores of Hudson Bay. 

(2) Erebia disa, var. mancinus, Doubleday and Hewitson, 
Plate XXV, Fig. 2^, $ (The Alaskan Alpine). 

Btitterfly.— The wings are dark brown on the upper side. 
On the outer third below the apex are three or four black ocelli, 
broadly ringed with red and pupiled with white. The upper 
ocellus is generally bipupiled, that is to say, the black spot is 
twinned, and there are two small light spots in it. On the 
under side the fore wings are as on the upper side. The hind 
wings are broadly sown with gray scales, giving them a hoary 
appearance. The base is more or less gray, and there is a broad, 
regularly curved mesial band of dark gray, which in some speci- 
mens is very distinct, in others more or less obsolete. The 
female does not differ from the male, except that the ocelli on 
the fore wings are larger and more conspicuous. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is found in Alaska and on the mountains of 
British Columbia. 

(3) Erebia callias, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 20, $ (The 
Colorado Alpine). 

Butterfly. — Pale brown on the upper side, with a more or 
less indistinctly defined broad transverse band of reddish on the 
outer third of the fore wings. At the apical end of this band are 

209 



Genus Erebia 

two black ocelli, pupiled with white. The fore wings on the 
under side are reddish, with the costa and outer margin grayish. 
The ocelli on this side are as on the upper side. The hind wings 
are gray, dusted with brown scales and crossed by narrow, irreg- 
ular, dark-brown subbasal, median, and submarginal lines. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is not uncommon on the high mountains of 
Colorado and New Mexico. It is regarded as a variety of the 
European £. tyndarus, Esper, by many. All the specimens of 
tyndarus in my collection, and there are many, lack the ocelli on 
the fore wing, or they are very feebly indicated on the under 
side. Otherwise the two forms agree pretty closely. 

(4) Erebia epipsodea, Plate XXV, Fig. 28, 5 (The Common 
Alpine). 

Butterfly. — The wings are dark brown on the upper side, with 
four or five black ocelli, pupiled with white and broadly sur- 
rounded by red near the outer margin of the fore wings, and 
with three or four similar ocelli located on the upper side of 
the hind wings. The spots on the upper side reappear on the 
under side, and in addition the hind wings are covered by a 
broad curved median blackish band. 

Early Stages. — These have been carefully described by Ed- 
wards in ' ' The Butterflies of North America, " vol. iii, and by H. H. 
Lyman in the ''Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxviii, p. 274. 
The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

The species ranges from New Mexico (at high elevations) 
northward to Alaska. It is common on the mountains of 
British Columbia. 

(5) Erebia sofia Strecker (ethela, Edwards), Plate XXV, 
Fig. 18, ? (Sofia . 

Butterfly. — Dark brown on the upper side, with an even 
submarginal band of red spots on the primaries, and five similar 
spots on the secondaries, the last two of the latter somewhat 
distant from each other and from the first three, which are 
nearer the outer angle. On the under side the primaries are 
reddish, with the submarginal band as on the upper side, but 
paler. On the secondaries, which are a little paler below than 
above, the spots of the upper side are repeated, but they are 
yellowish-white, standing forth conspicuously upon the darker 
ground-color. 

210 



Genus Geirocheilus 

Early Stages.— WxWxqxXo undescribed. 

Sofa has been found at Fort Churchill in British America, in 
the Yellowstone National Park, and in a few localities in Colo- 
rado. It is still rare in collections. The figure in the plate is 
that of the female type of Edwards' ethela, ethela being a 
synonym for sofia. 

(6) Erebia magdalena, Strecker, Plate XXV, Fig. 17, 6 
(Magdalena). 

Butterfly. — Uniformly dark blackish-brown on both sides of 
the wings, with no spots or markings. 

Early Stages. — These have been partially described and figured 
by Edwards. 

This species has thus far been found only in Colorado at an 
elevation of from ten to twelve thousand feet above sea-level. 

There are two or three other species of this obscure genus, 
but they are rare boreal insects, of which little is as yet known. 



Genus GEIROCHEILUS, Butler 

5////^r/j'.— Medium-sized butterflies, dark in color, with light 
eye-like spots on the primaries and brown borders on the secon- 
daries. The antennae are short, with a gradually tapering club; 
the palpi are long, slender, compressed, well 
clothed with scales on the lower surface. The 
costa of the fore wings is strongly arched, the 
outer margin evenly rounded, the outer margin 
of the hind wings regularly scalloped. The 
costal vein of the primaries is somewhat 
thickly swollen at the base. 

Early S/^o-^'s.— Unknown. 

(i) Geirocheilus tritonia, Edwards, Plate 
XVllI, Fig. 21, 6 (Tritonia). 

Butterfly.— The wings of the upper side 
are dark brown, with a submarginal row of 
white-centered ocelli below the apex of the 
primaries. The secondaries are marked with 
a submarginal band of red. On the under 
side the fore wings are as on the upper side. The hind wings 
have the submarginal band purplish-red, irrorated with whitish- 

21 1 




Fig. 1 1 9. — Neuration 
of the genus Geirochei- 
lus. 



Genus Neominois 

and dark-brown scales, on the inner edge- relieved by a number 
of imperfectly developed ocelli, which are partially ringed about 
on the side of the base by pale yellow. 

Early 5/j^'^5. — Unknown. 

Tritonia occurs in southern Arizona and northern Mexico. 



Genus NEOMINOIS, Scudder 

Butterfly. — lAtdmrn-s'iz^d, with the costa and inner margin 
of the fore wing straight, the outer margin of the same wing 
evenly rounded. The hind wings have the outer margin evenly 
rounded, and the costal margin quite strongly produced, or bent 
at an angle, just above the origin of the costal vein. The 
inner margin is straight. The costal vein of the fore wing is 
slightly swollen. The costal margin at the extremity of the 

second costal nervule is slightly bent in- 
ward; the upper discocellular vein is 
wanting; the lower radial vein is emit- 
ted from the lower discocellular a little 
below the point at which it unites with 
the middle discocellular. The middle 
discocellular of the hind wing appears 
as an inward continuation of the lower 
radial for some distance, when it bends 
upward suddenly to the origin of the 
upper radial. The head is small ; the an- 
tennae are short, with a thin, gradually 
developed club; the palpi are slender, 
Neuration of the ge- compressed. Well clothed with long hairs 

minois, enlarged. ^ ^ 

below. 

£^;^-.— The egg is somewhat barrel-shaped, broader at the 
base than at the top, with the summit rounded. The sides are 
ornamented with fourteen or fifteen vertical raised ridges, which 
are quite broad, and sometimes fork or run into each other. On 
the sides these ridges seem to be regularly excised at their bases, 
and between them on the surface are many horizontal raised 
cross-lines, giving the depressed surface the appearance of being 
filled with shallow cells. 

Caterpillar. — The mature caterpillar has the head globular, 

212 




Fig. 120 

nus Neoni 



Genus Neominois 

the body cylindrical, gradually tapering backward, and provided 
with two very short conical anal horns. 

Chrysah's.— The chrysalis is formed under the surface of the 
earth; it is rounded, somewhat carinate, or keel-shaped, where 
the wing-cases unite on the ventral side. The head is rounded, 
the thorax strongly arched, the dorsal side of the abdomen very 
convex. On either side of the head are small clusters of fine 
processes shaped somewhat like an Indian club, the thickened 
part studded with little spur-like projections. These can only 
be seen under the microscope. 

But two species of the genus are known within our faunal 
limits. 

(i) Neominois ridingsi, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 15, $ 
(Ridings' Satyr). 

Butterfly.— The upper side is well depicted in the plate. 
The under side is paler than the upper side, and the basal and me- 
dian areas of both wings are profusely mottled with narrow pale- 
brown striae, the secondaries crossed by a darker mesial band, the 
outer margin of which is sharply indented. Expanse, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have been beautifully ascertained, de- 
scribed, and figured by Edwards in the third volume of " The 
Butterflies of North America." The egg, larva, and chrysalis 
agree with the generic description already given, which is based 
upon the researches of Edwards. 

It is found in the Mountain States of the Pacific coast. 

(2) Neominois dionysius, Scudder, Plate XXV, Fig. 16, $ 
(Scudder's Satyr). 

^/^//^r/j^. — Distinguished from the preceding species by the 
larger and paler submarginal markings on the upper side of the 
wings and the pale color of the basal tract in both wings. On 
the under side the median band of the secondaries is narrower 
and more irregularly curved than in ridingsi, with the dentations 
of the outer margin more sharply produced. Expanse, 1.90 inch. 

Early S/^^^5.— Nothing has been written on the early stages, 
but no doubt they agree closely with those of the other species. 

It is found in Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. 

" Hast thou heard the butterflies, 
What they say betwixt their wings ? " 

Tennyson, Adeline. 

213 




Genus Satyrus 

Genus SATYRUS, Westwood 

(The Wood-nymphs) 

** Fluttering, like some vain, painted butterfly, 
From glade to glade along the forest path." 

Arnold, Light of Asia. 

Butterfly. — huXier^its of medium size, their wings marked with 
eye-like spots, or ocelli. Upon the upper surface they are generally 
obscurely colored of some shade of gray or brown, 
occasionally marked with bands of yellow. On 
the under side the wings are generally beautifully 
striated and spotted, with the eye-like spots more 
prominent. The costal vein at the base is greatly 
swollen; the median and submedian veins less 
so. The first and second subcostal nervules 
arise very near the end of the cell, slightly be- 
fore it. The outer margin of the fore wing is 
evenly rounded; the outer margin of the hind 
Fig i27^Neu- ^^'^^ somewhat scalloped; the head small, the 
ration of the genus eyes of moderate size, full, naked; the antennae 
Scudder') ^^^^^^ gradually thickening to a broadly rounded club, 
which is slightly depressed; the palpi slender, 
compressed, profusely clothed beneath with long hairs. The 
fore legs are very small. 

J?^^.— Short, barrel-shaped, greatly diminishing in size on 
the upper half; truncated at the summit; the sides furnished 
with a large number of vertical ribs, not very high, with numer- 
ous delicate cross-lines between them. At the summit the ribs 
are connected by a waved, raised elevation. 

Caterpillar. — Ue3.d globular; body cylindrical, tapering from 
the middle forward and backward; provided with short and 
slender diverging anal horns. 

C/;rv5^//5.— Shaped very much as in the genus Debts, from 
which it is hardly distinguishable. Generally green in color. 

This genus includes numerous species which are more or less 
subject to varietal modifications. In the following pages I have 
treated as species a number of forms which by some writers are 
reckoned as mere varieties. Whether the view of those who 
regard these forms in the light of varieties is correct is not per- 

214 



Explanation of Plate XXVI 

1. Saiyrus alope, Fabricius, (J'. 12. Satyr us charoii, Edwards, 9- 

2. Satynis alope, Fabiicius, 9- '3- Satyrus meadi.EdwciYds, 9- 

;. Satyrus iiephele, Kirby, (j^. - 14. Satynis mccidi, Edwards, J^, under 

4. Satyrus uephelc, Kirby, 9 , under side. 

side. 1=;. 5^/>7'//5 ^t7/'t>;//', Edwards, (J'. 

5. Satyrus ariaue, Boisduval, (^. 10. Satyrus haroui, Edwards, (J*, tnider 
b. Satyrus ariaue, Hohduvi\\, ^,uuder side. 

side. 17. Satyrus gabbi, Edwards, 9j under 

7. Satyrus oetus, Boisduval, (^. side. 

8. Satyrus oetus, Boisduval, <^, under 18. Satyrus pegala, Fabricius, 9, under 

side. side. 

9. S'atyrus olynipus, Edwards, (J\ 10. Satyrus pa u I us, Edwards, (J', under 

10. 5(a'/;'r»5 o//;;//)//.N", Edwards, ^ , under side. 

side. 20. Satyrus stbenele, Boisduval, (f*, un- 

11. Satyrus charon, Edwards, f^'. der side. 



:e Butterfly Book 



Plate XXVI. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898, 



Genus Satyrus 

fectly plain to me, and we cannot be sure until more extensive 
experiments in breeding have been carried out. 

(i) Satyrus pegala, Fabricius, Plate XXVI, Fig. i8, $, under 
side (The Southern Wood-nymph). 

Butterfly.— The largest species of the genus in our fauna, 
easily recognized by the broad yellow submarginal band on the 
primaries, marked with a single eye-spot in the male and two 
eye-spots in the female. The plate gives a correct idea of the 
under side of the wings. Expanse, 2.75 inches. 

Early Stages.— These have only been partially ascertained. 
The caterpillar, like all others of the genus, feeds on grasses. 

This insect is found in the Gulf States and as far north as 
New Jersey, and is probably only a large Southern form of the 
next species. 

(2) Satyrus alope, Fabricius, Plate XXVI, Fig. i, ^ ; Fig. 2, 
$ ; Plate III, Fig. 18, larva (The Common Wood-nymph). 

Butterfly.— Closely resembling the preceding species, but only 
two thirds of its size. The figures in our plate give a correct 
idea of its appearance. The number of the ocelli is not constant, 
and occasionally specimens occur in which they are almost want- 
ing. Several varietal forms have been described : S. maritima, from 
Long Island and Martha's Vineyard, in which the wings are 
smaller, the band inclined to orange-yellow, and the upper side 
of the wings is darker than in the typical form ; and S. texana, 
from the extreme South, in which the ground-color of the wings 
is paler brown, the yellow band ochreous, and the spots on the 
under side of the hind wings larger than in the other forms. 

{a) Satyrus alope, form nephele, Kirby, Plate XXVI, Fig. 3, 
6 ; Fig. 4, ?, under side; Plate IV, Figs. 7, 8, chrysalis (The 
Clouded Wood-nymph). 

This varietal form of S. alope, long held to be a species, but 
now known to be a dimorphic variety, is characterized by the 
partial or entire suppression of the yellow band on the primaries 
and the tendency of the eye-spots to become obsolete. It is the 
Northern form of the species, and is found in Canada, New Eng- 
land, and on the continent generally, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, north of the latitude of central New York and southward 
on the mountain masses of the Appalachian ranges. 

{b) Satyrus alope, form olympus, Edwards, Plate XXVI, 
Fig. 9, 6 ; Fig. 10, ?, under side (Olympus). 

215 



Genus Satyrus 

This form of S. alope is common in the region west of the 
Mississippi. The males are a trifle darker and the females a 
shade paler than in the form nephele, which they closely approxi- 
mate, and from which it would almost be impossible to separate 
them without a knowledge of the country whence they come. 

{c) Satyrus alope, form ariane, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 
5, 5 ; Fig. 6, $ , under side (Ariane). 

In ariane we have a decidedly dwarfed form, in which the 
males and the females are quite dark. The ocelli, though small, 
are persistent, well defined, rarely showing a tendency to dis- 
appear completely. This form is found in British America, Ore- 
gon, and the northwestern portion of the United States. 

{d) Satyrus baroni, Plate XXVI, Fig. 15, 6 ; Fig. 16, $, 
under side (Baron's Satyr). 

This is another form, dark on the upper side and reddish 
below, in which the ocelli on the under side show a tendency to 
become obsolete, and in some specimens are wholly wanting. 

There are other varietal forms, one of which, named boopis 
by Behr, is commonly found on the Pacific coast in northern 
California, Oregon, and Washington, and the ocelli, while prom- 
inent on the upper side of the wings, are almost obsolete below. 

Early Stages.— Ihe early stages of S. alope (typical form) 
and its variety nephele have been well described by several 
authors. The caterpillar feeds on grasses. There is, however, 
a fine field for the entomologist to work out the causes of the 
rather remarkable variation to which the species is subject. 

(3) Satyrus gabbi, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 17, ?, under 
side (Gabb's Satyr). 

Butterfly.— J \\t male is dark reddish-brown, the female pale 
fawn. The ocelli in both sexes are very well developed on both 
sides of the wings. The anal series on the secondaries consists 
of three spots, of which the one in the middle is always large. 
Expanse, 2.2^ inches. 

Early 5/^^^^5. — Unknown. 

Gabb's Satyr is found in Oregon and Utah. 

(4) Satyrus meadi, Plate XXVI, Fig. 13, ?; Fig. 14, 5, 
under side (Mead's Satyr). 

Butterfly.— This well-marked species is comparatively small, 
and may easily be distinguished from all others by the bright red 
on the limbal area above and on the middle area of the prima- 
ries below. Expanse, i. 60-1. 75 inch. 

216 



Genus Satyrus 

Early Stages.— 'Xhtst have been described and figured by 
Edwards in "The Butterflies of North America," vol. iii. The 
caterpillar is green, marked by paler stripes and lozenge-shaped 
spots of pale green on the side. The chrysalis is pale green. 
The egg is pale saffron. The caterpillars feed on grass. 

Mead's Satyr ranges through Colorado, Montana, Utah, and 
Arizona. 

(5) Satyrus paulus, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 19, S , under 
side (The Small Wood-nymph). 

Butterfly. — K little smaller than 5. nephele, dark brown above 
in both sexes, the fore wings always with two pupilate ocelli, 
one near the apex, the other near the inner angle, most conspicu- 
ously developed in the female. The secondaries have one or 
two spots of the same kind near the anal angle. On the under 
side the wings are pale reddish-brown, abundantly marked by 
transverse striae. The primaries are marked with gray at the 
apex and on the outer margin, and have a submarginal and sub- 
median transverse ferruginous line, between which the ocelli are 
located. The secondaries are crossed by a broad darker median 
band defined inwardly and outwardly by narrow dark lines. The 
outer third is pale gray, mottled with darker spots and lines, and 
traversed by a dark ferruginous submarginal line. Expanse, 
1.75-2.00 inches. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Paulus occurs in California and Nevada. It has been regarded 
as a variety of sthenele by some writers; but I am convinced of 
its distinctness, though there is considerable resemblance. 

(6) Satyrus charon, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 11, 6 ; Fig. 
12, ? (The Dark Wood-nymph). 

Butterfly.— The male is dark in color; the female is paler. 
There are two eye-spots on the fore wings in the usual location, 
indistinct on the upper, distinct on the lower side of the wings. 
The under sides of the wings are variable. In the type they are 
dark; in other specimens they are paler. They may or may not 
have ocelli on the secondaries. The form with obsolescent 
ocelli has been named silvestris by Edwards. Both the fore and 
hind wings are abundantly and evenly marked by little striae, and 
crossed on either side of the median area by obscure, irregular, 
transverse dark lines, either one or both of which may be want- 
ing in some specimens. Expanse, i. 50-1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described and beautifully 

217 



Genus CEneis 

figured by Edwards in the third volume of his great work, to 
which the reader may refer. The caterpillar is green, cylindrical, 
tapering before and behind, marked with longitudinal pale-yellow 
lines. The chrysalis is green or black, striped with narrow white 
lines. The egg is somewhat firkin^shape^l flat at the top and base, 
vertically ribbed, and honey-yellow. TheXlarva feeds on grasses. 
Charon is found in the Northwest, ganging from British 
Columbia as far as New Mexico. 

(7) Satyrus oetus, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 7, 5 ; Fig. 8, 
6 , under side (Boisduval's Satyr). 

Butterfly. — Larger than charon, paler on the upper side, 
especially in the female sex, in which the outer third of the pri- 
maries is reddish-fawn. On the under side the secondaries of 
the male are without ocelli, or at most faint traces of ocelli ap- 
pear. In the female the ocelli near the anal angle of the secon- 
daries are usually well developed. Expanse, 1.60-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages.— Ihtse await description. 

The species is found in northern California. 

(8) Satyrus sthenele, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 20, $ , 
under side (The Least Wood-nymph). 

Butterfly.— Quite small, superficially resembling char on. The 
female is paler and the ocelli are larger and more distinct than in 
charon. The distinguishing mark of this species is the irregular, 
dark, twice-strangulated band of the secondaries, bordered on 
both sides externally by whitish shades. This is shown in our 
figure. Expanse, i. 40-1. 50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species is Californian. 



Genus OENEIS, Hubner 

(Chionobas, Boisd.) 
(The Arctics) 

'* To reside 

In thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice." 

Shakespeare. 

Butterfly. — The antennae are short; the eyes of moderate size; 
the front full, protuberant; the palpi slender; the fore wings 
somewhat produced at the tip, with the outer margins rounded 

218 



Genus CEneis 




Fig. 122. — Neuration of the 
genus CEneis, enlarged. 



and the hind margins very slightly, if at all, sinuated. The ner- 
vules of the fore wings are slightly dilated toward the base; the 
hind wings are elongated, oval, with the 
outer margins evenly rounded. The col- 
or of these butterflies is some shade of 
brown; the outer margin is generally 
lighter than the base of the wing, and is 
marked with black spots, sometimes pu- 
piled with white. The wings are gener- 
ally marbled and mottled on the under 
side, and sometimes crossed on the mid- 
dle of the hind wings by a broad band of 
darker color. The fringes are brown, 
checkered with white. 

£^^. — The tgg is ovate-spherical, 
higher than broad, marked on the side 
from the apex to the base with raised 
sculptured ridges. These eggs are de- 
posited, so far as we have been able to learn, on dried grass and 
the stems of plants in proximity to the growing plants upon 
which the young caterpillars are destined to feed. 

Caterpillar. — The head of the caterpillar when it emerges 
from the tgg is somewhat larger than the rest of the body, but 
as it passes successive moults and attains maturity the relative 
thickness of the body increases, and the adult larva tapers a 
little from about the middle in either direction. The larvae are 
pale green or brown, marked by darker stripes upon the back 
and on the sides, the markings on the sides being in most spe- 
cies more conspicuous than those on the back. The species all 
feed on grasses. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalids are stout, very slightly angulated, 
and are formed, so far as we know, unattached, under stones 
and at the roots of grasses. When pupating, the caterpillar often 
makes for itself a slight depression or cell in the soil, in which a 
few threads of silk have been deposited, though not enough to 
justify us in calling the structure a cocoon. 

This genus is composed of butterflies which are mainly arctic 
in their habitat, or dwell upon the summits of lofty mountains, 
where the summer is but brief. Only a few species are found 
at comparatively low elevations, and these in British America, or 

219 



Genus CEneis 

the parts of the United States immediately contiguous to the 
Canadian line. The most widely known of all the species up to 
this time is the White Mountain Butterfly, CEneis semidea. Say, 
a colony of which has existed probably ever since the glacial 
period upon the loftiest summit of iMount Washington, in New 
Hampshire. A number of species are found in the region of the 
Rocky Mountains. One species, CEneis jutt a, Hubner, occurs in 
Maine, Nova Scotia, and parts adjacent. There are in all about 
a score of species of this genus recognized by authors as occur- 
ring in our fauna. In spite of the fact that these insects are 
boreal or arctic in their habits, Mr. W. H. Edwards has with 
marvelous skill and patience succeeded in obtaining the eggs 
and rearing at his home in Coalburg, West Virginia, a number 
of species. We are indebted to him for more of our knowledge 
of the generic characteristics of these insects, in their early stages, 
than had been ascertained hitherto during a century of investi- 
gation. His work is one of the beautiful triumphs of that endur- 
ing zeal which is a supreme quality in the naturalist. In their 
early stages all of the species show a close likeness to one an- 
other. 

(i) CEneis gigas, Butler, Plate XX VII, Fig. i, 6 ; Fig. 2, ? 
(The Greater Arctic). 

Butterfly.— l\\\s, one of the largest species in the genus, 
occurs on Vancouver's Island. The butterfly hides among the 
dark mosses and upon the trunks of prostrate trees. The males 
are vigilant and inquisitive, and dart out suddenly when alarmed, 
or attracted by passing insects. The females have a slower and 
more leisurely flight and are more readily taken. Expanse, 2.00- 
2.25 inches. 

Early 5/^^^5.— Edwards has figured the tgg and the cater- 
pillar in its first three stages, but the remaining life-history of 
the species awaits investigation. 

(2) CEneis iduna, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 4, 5 (The 
Iduna Butterfly). 

Butterfly.— This insect, which even exceeds CE. gigas in size, 
is found on the Coast Range in northern California. It is 
decidedly lighter on the outer third of the wings than the pre- 
ceding species, the male being prevalently a pale yellowish- 
brown, with the basal and median areas of the fore wing dark 
brown. On the under side the wings are somewhat lighter than 

220 



Explanation of Plate XXVII 



C£iu'is gig.is, BuIUy, rj'. . 7. 

GEju'is gigi-Ts, Butler, 9 • 8. 

CEiicis macoimi, Edwards, rj. g. 

(JEiieis iditnj, Edwards, rj'. 10. 

CEiu'is juttcT. Hiibner, 2. 11. 

CEiu'is taygcti. Hlibner. -f'. ' 12. 



CE)icis bnict'i, Edwards, ^. 
CEiieis varuim , Edwards, (^'. 
CEncis ivallda, Mead, (J^. 
Glneis cbijxus, DbL-Hew., ^. 
CE/U-is seinidea. Say, rf . 
OEiicis iihleri, Reakirt, ^. 



I 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXVII. 





L. w 






v^ 



RIGHTED BY W. j. HOLLAND 



Genus CEneis 



in the preceding species, and the transverse lines are more dis- 
tinctly marked. Expanse, 2.00-2.30 inches. 

Early Stages.— l^htse have been most beautifully delineated by 
Edwards in the third volume of "The Butterflies of North America." 

(3) CEneis macouni, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 3, S 
(Macoun's Arctic). 

Butterfly.— 1\\\?, species is closely allied to the two foregoing, 
but may be distinguished by the broad median band of dark brown 
traversing the under side of the hind wings, as well as by other 
peculiarities of marking. It 
lacks the bar of raised scales 
which is found in the male sex 
about the lower part of the cell 
of the fore wing in most of the 
species of the genus. It has 
been found thus far only on 
the north shore of Lake Su- 
perior and at the eastern base 
of the Rocky Mountains in 
the territory of Alberta. Ex- 
panse, 2.00-2.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — For a know- 
ledge of these in all their 
minute details the reader is 
again referred to the pages of 
the indefatigable Edwards. 

(4) CEneis chryxus, West- 
wood, Plate XXVII, Fig. 10, 6 
(The Chryxus Butterfly). 

Butterfly.— This species is widely distributed, being found in 
Colorado, British Columbia, and the vicinity of Hudson Bay. It 
is distinguished from other species by the darker brown color, 
which covers the basal and median areas of both the fore and 
hind wings, leaving a broad band of lighter brown on the outer 
margin. On the under side the wings are beautifully mottled 
with white and dark brown. CEneis calais, Scudder, is prob- 
ably only a form of chryxus, which is somewhat lighter in color 
on the base of the wings. Expanse, i. 60-1. 75 inch. 

Early Stages.— Th^ life-history is fully recorded in the pages 
of Edwards. 

2^\ 




Fig. 123. — Caterpillars of CEneis 
macouni (Riley). 



Genus CEneis 

(5) CEneis ivallda, Mead, Plate XXVII, Fig. 9, $ (Mead's 
Arctic). 

Butterfly.— This species is easily distinguished from all others 
by the peculiar pale ashen-brown of the upper side of the wings. 
It is not a common species, and is apparently restricted to the 
mountains of Nevada, principally about Lake Tahoe, though it 
probably occurs elsewhere. Expanse, 1.90-2. 10 inches. 

Early S/j^^5, — Unknown. 

(6) CEneis varuna, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 8, $ (The 
Varuna Butterfly). 

Butterfly.— This species is much smaller than any of those 
which have thus far been mentioned. It is found in the prairie 
lands of Montana, North Dakota, and the parts of Canada adjacent. 
It is not uncommon about Calgary. It is light in color on the upper 
side of the wings, and on the under side it is mottled with brown, 
strongly marked with blackish blotches or shades. Expanse, 
1. 50- 1. 60 inch. 

Early Stages.— These await description. 

(7) CEneis uhleri, Reakirt, Plate XXVII, Fig. 12, $ (Uhler's 
Arctic). 

Butterfly.— This species is found in Colorado. It is redder 
on the upper side than varuna, and the females are generally 
very richly ornamented with eye-spots on the outer borders of 
both the fore and hind wings. Expanse, i. 45-1. 55 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have been most thoroughly described 
and beautifully delineated by Edwards. 

(8) CEneis jutta, Hubner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 5, ? (The Nova 
Scotian). 

Butterfly.— Th\s beautiful species, which is also found in 
Europe, is not uncommon in the State of Maine as far south as 
Bangor, and occurs also in Nova Scotia, and ranges thence west- 
ward to Ottawa and the Hudson Bay country. It is one of the 
more conspicuous species of the genus, the eye-like spots upon 
the wings having a very striking appearance. Expanse, 1.80- 
2.10 inches. 

Early Stages.— For a thorough knowledge of these the reader 
may consult the pages of Scudder and Edwards. 

(9) CEneis semidea, Say, Plate XXVII, Fig. u, $ ; Plate III, 
Figs. I, 2, 4, 7, 15, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 4, 5, chrysalis (The 
White Mountain Butterfly). 

222 



Genus OEneis 

Butterfly.— This species has thin wings, and is much darker 
in color than any of the species which have thus far been men- 
tioned. It is restricted in its habitat to the summit of Mount 
Washington, in New Hampshire, and only reappears on the high 
mountains of Colorado and in Labrador. Its life-history has 
been very carefully worked out. It is to be hoped that entomol- 
ogists and tourists resorting to Mount Washington will not suf- 
fer it to disappear by reason of too wholesale a capture of the 
specimens, which hover about the barren rocks on which the 
race has existed since the great continental ice-sheet melted away 
and vanished from the face of New England. Expanse, 1.75 
inch. 

Early Stages.— The curious reader is again referred for a 
knowledge of these to the pages of Scudder and Edwards. 
They are similar to those of other species, and the generic de- 
scription which has been given must suffice for all in this work. 

(10) CEneis brucei, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 7, $ (Bruce's 
Arctic). 

Butterfly.— Though somewhat closely related to the last spe- 
cies, Bruce's Arctic may at once be distinguished from it by the 
broad dark band on the under side of the secondaries and the 
great translucency of the wings, which permits a label to be 
read through them. It is found in Colorado and in British Co- 
lumbia at an elevation of from twelve to thirteen thousand feet 
above sea-level. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages.— AW we know of these is contained in the 
pages of Edwards' great work. 

(11) CEneis taygete, Hubner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 6, S (The 
Labrador Arctic). 

Butterfly.— Much like CE. brucei, but the wings are not so 
translucent as in that species, and the broad mesial band on the 
under side of the hind wings is differently shaped, being more 
strongly directed outward just below the costa. The figure in 
the plate is from a specimen taken at Nain, in Labrador. Ex- 
panse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — ^JnYnov^n. 

There are eight or nine other species of CEneis in our fauna, 
but they are all arctic, and most of them very rare. Those we 
have described and figured will give a good idea of the genus. 

22} 



In the Face of the Cold 



IN THE FACE OF THE COLD 

When the full moon hangs high overhead, the snow creaks 
underfoot, the north wind roars with furious blast, and the 
trees of the forests crack in the frost with a report like that of 
cannon, then, hanging in its little nest on the bare branches of 
the wind-tossed trees, the tiny caterpillar of the Viceroy keeps 
the spark of life where men freeze and die. Nothing in the 
realm of nature is more wonderful than the manner in which 
some of the most minute animal forms resist cold. The genera 
Erebia and CEneis, and many species of the genus Brentbts, are, 
as we have already learned, inhabitants of the arctic regions or 
of lofty Alpine summits, the climate of which is arctic. Their 
caterpillars often hibernate in a temperature of from forty to 
fifty, and even seventy, degrees below zero, Fahrenheit. 

It has been alleged that caterpillars freeze in the winter and 
thaw out in the spring, at that time regaining their vitality. 
Thus far the writer is unable to ascertain that any experiments 
or observations have positively decided for or against this view. 
A number of recorded cases in which caterpillars are positively 
stated to have been frozen and to have afterward been found to 
be full of vitality when thawed are open to question. 

The most circumstantial account is that by Commander 
James Ross, R. N., F. R. S., quoted by Curtis in the Entomo- 
logical Appendix to the "Narrative" of Sir John Ross's second 
voyage to the arctic regions. The specimens upon which the 
observations were made were the caterpillars of Laiia rossi, a 
moth which is found abundantly in the arctic regions of North 
America. I quote from the account: "About thirty of the 
caterpillars were put into a box in the middle of September, and 
after being exposed to the severe winter temperature of the next 
three months, they were brought into a warm cabin, where, in 
less than two hours, every one of them returned to life, and 
continued for a whole day walking about; they were again ex- 
posed to the air at a temperature of about forty degrees below 
zero, and became immediately hard-frozen; in this state they 
remained a week, and on being brought again into the cabin, 
only twenty-three came to life; these were, at the end of four 
hours, put out once more into the air and again hard-frozen; 

224 



In the Face of the Cold 

after another week they were again brought in, when only 
eleven were restored to life; a fourth time they were exposed to 
the winter temperature, and only two returned to life on being 
again brought into the cabin; these two survived the winter, 
and in May an imperfect Laria was produced from one, and six 
flies from the other." 

The foregoing account seems to verify more thoroughly the 
stories that have been told than anything else I have been able to 
discover within the limits of entomological literature, but does 
not conclude argument. It would be interesting in these days, 
when methods of artificial freezing have been so highly per- 
fected, to undertake a series of experiments to prove or disprove, 
as the case may be, the view which has been held since the time 
of the ancients. There is here a field for nice investigation on 
the part of some reader of this book. In making the experiment 
it probably would be well to select the larvae of species which 
are known to hibernate during the winter and to be capable of 
withstanding a great degree of cold. 

The effect of cold suddenly applied to the chrysalids of 
butterflies at the moment of pupation is often to produce re- 
markable changes in the markings. The spots upon the wings 
of butterflies emerging from chrysalids thus treated are frequently 
rendered more or less indistinct and blurred. The dark mark- 
ings are intensified in color and enlarged; the pale markings 
are also in some cases ascertained to experience enlargement. 
Many of the strange and really beautiful aberrations known to 
collectors have no doubt been produced by the action of frost 
which has occurred at the season when the larva was pupating. 
The species believed by the writer to be most prolific in aberra- 
tions are species which pupate early in the spring from cater- 
pillars which have hibernated or which pupate late in the 
autumn. Some are species found at considerable altitudes 
above sea-level, where late frosts and early frosts are apt to 
occur. A number of very beautiful experiments upon the effect 
of cold upon the color of butterflies have been made in recent 
years, and some very curious phenomena have been observed. 
The writer has in his collection a considerable number of 
strikingly aberrant specimens which emerged from chrysalids 
treated to a sudden artificial lowering of the temperature at the 
critical period of pupation. 

22^ 



SUBFAMILY LIBYTHEINy^ (THE SNOUT-BUTTERFLIES) 

** What more felicitie can fall to creature 
Than to enjoy delight with libertie, 
And to be Lord of all the workes of Nature, 

To raigne in th' aire from th' earth to highest skie, 
To feed on flowres and weeds of glorious feature, 
i To take whatever thing doth please the eie ? " 

Spenser. 

Butterfly.— The butterflies of this family are very readily dis- 
tinguislied from all others by their long projecting palpi, and by 
the fact that the males have four feet adapted to walking, while 
the females have six, in which respect they approach the Ery- 
cinidse. 

Only one genus is represented in our faunal region, the 
genus Libythea, 

Genus LIBYTHEA, Fabricius 
(The Snout-butterflies) 

Butterfly.— K2iX\\QX small in size, with the eyes moderately 
large; the antennae with a distinct club at the end; the palpi 
with the last joint extremely long and heavily clothed with hair. 
The wings have the outer margin strongly excised 
between the first median nervule and the lower 
radial vein. Between the upper and lower radial 
veins the wing is strongly produced outwardly; 
the inner margin is bowed out toward the base 
before the inner angle. The costa of the hind wing 
is bent upward at the base and excised before 
the outer angle; the wing is produced at the 
ration o/tiiegenus ^^^^ of the subcostal vein, the third median ner- 
Libythea. vule, and the extremity of the submedian vein. 

There is also a slight projection at the extremity of the first me- 
dian nervule. Of these projections the one at the extremity of 

226 




Genus Libythea 

the third median nervule is the most pronounced. The cell of 
the primaries and of the secondaries is lightly closed. 

£^^'.— The Qgg is ovoid, nearly twice as high as wide, with nar- 
row vertical ridges on the sides, every other ridge much higher than 
its mate and increasing in height toward the vertex, where they ab- 
ruptly terminate, their extremities ranging around the small de- 
pressed micropyle. Between these ridges are minute cross-lines. 

Caterpillar.— The caterpillar has the head small, the anterior 
segments greatly swollen and overarching the head. The re- 
mainder of the body is cylindrical. 

Chrysalis.— The chrysalis is of a somewhat singular shape, 
the abdomen conical, the head sharply pointed, a raised ridge 
running from the extremity of the head to the middle of the first 
abdominal segment on either side, and between these ridges is 
the slightly projecting thoracic tubercle. On the ventral side 
the outline is nearly straight. 

The caterpillar feeds upon Celtis occidentalis. Three species 
are reckoned as belonging to our fauna. It is, however, doubtful 
whether these species are in reality such, and there is reason to 
believe that the three are merely varietal forms or races, no struc- 
tural difference being apparent in any of them, and the only dif- 
ferences consisting in the ground-color of the wings. 

(i) Libythea bachmanni, Kirtland, Plate XXVIII, Fig. i, $ ; 
Fig. 2, 6, under side ; Plate V, Figs. 23, 24, chrysalis (The 
Snout-butterfly). 

Butterfly. — ^?iS\\y distinguished from the following species 
by the redder color of the light spots on the upper side of the 
wings. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages.— The generic description must suffice for these. 
They have been frequently described. 

The butterfly ranges from New England and Ontario south- 
ward and westward over the whole country as far as New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

(2) Libythea carinenta, Cramer, Plate XXVllI, Fig. 3, $ 
(The Southern Snout-butterfly). 

Butterfly. — Much like the preceding species, but readily dis- 
tinguished from it by the paler yellowish-fulvous light markings 
of the upper side of the wings. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have not been carefully described as yet. 

L. carinenta ranges from New Mexico into South America. 

227 



FAMILY II. LEMONIID^ 
SUBFAMILY ERYCININ.^ (THE METAL-MARKS) 

" I wonder what it is that baby dreams. 

Do memories haunt him of some glad place 
Butterfly-haunted, halcyon with flowers, 
Where once, before he found this earth of ours, 
He walked with glory filling his sweet face ? " 

Edgar Fawcett. 

Butterfly. —SmaW, the males having four ambulatory feet, 
the females six, in which respect they resemble the Libytheinse, 
from which they may readily be distinguished by the small palpi. 
There is great variety in the shape and neuration of the wings. 
The genera of this subfamily have the precostal vein on the ex- 
treme inner margin of the wing; in some genera free at its end, 
and projecting so as to form a short frenulum, as in many gen- 
era of the moths. In addition the costal vein sends up a branch 
at the point from which the precostal is usually emitted. This 
apparent doubling of the precostal is found in no other group of 
butterflies, and is a strong diacritical mark by which they may 
p^ be recognized. They are said to carry their 

wings expanded when at rest, and frequently 
alight on the under surface of leaves, in this 
respect somewhat approaching in their habit 
the pyralid moths. Many of the species are 
most gorgeously colored; but those which are 
Fig. 125.— Neura- found within our region are for the most part 
tion of base of hind not gaily marked. They may be distinguished 

wing of the genus Z.^- . ^u j -j ^ i i -.u r 

monias: pcfprecostal f I'om the Lycsenidae not only by the pecuhar neu- 
vein; PC, second ration and manner of carrvino- the wings, but by 

precostal vein. , ,.,, ,",, 

the relatively longer and more slender antennae. 

Early 5/^^^s.— Comparatively little is known of these, though 

in certain respects the larvae and the chrysalis show a relationship 

228 




HXIM.ANATION Ol Pl.ATH XXVlll 

y. IjhHl.u'alH7chiinnnn,\i\yi\:md, ci\ 22. Eitnunis alala, Poey, cf, ""'/''■ 

2 Libvtbca hacbinaiiiii. Kirtlaml, (i', -sidi\ 

\iiidcy sicii\ ■ ^- Chn'sopl.hJinisvlroliiicnsis,Ei.\^-M-d<,, 

3. Libvlhca cariiiciila, Cramer, (?'. d' ■ 

.^. /.mo;//.rN .>-//uT.r, Hdwards, ^. , 24. C/'.T^o/^/'.n/z/N w;-.////<'//N/^,hawai-as, 

////r/(T side. -> • 

S. Arm<.///.7,s n'//vr.r. Rclwarcls, J^ -- C7'n'.su/^/.'./////N hvpopbLrus, Boisau- 

o. J.ciiioiiuis vui^iiUi, Hchr, cfV val, c^. 

7 /<•/;,<);//./> >//<.//;/o, FeKlcr, r?^, //m/< / 2... Chyrsopb.mns idilha, ^c'm\, d" ■ 

^j^l^. 27. Cbrvsophiriiiis rdin.hi, Mead, V • 

K. /..;m.;^/.r^ //.r/N. Hdwards, c?. ^^- Cbrrsopbauns cp,xanlbe, Boisd.- 

0. Ixuioiiias luiis, \'A\VM\\^, V'. Lee, J'. . , , 

,c,. Lnnomasdunu, Edwards, ?. , :- Cbrysophauns ^aulboidcs,)^o^,duv:^, 

11. /.,w//c.///</N /^j'////-'^''. Hdwards, r:". d'- • . 

,2. (.VA^M/.s/n./va//... (note and Rob- ^.c Cbrvsopbanus xanlboidcs,?>o\^duvA, 

mson, ,-f , //y/i/rr .s/c/<\ V' 
1^,. C\r/r/^/W/,s /n)r.v7//.s-. (-.rote and Kob- ^,1. aM;)vsc)/)/n7////N //w. Boisd.-Lec.,cr 



inson, cJ* 



-,2. Cbrvsopbjiiiis lbol\ Boisd.-Lec, 9- 

.4. Ca'/!-JiM/i'//<w.,5/.., I'dwards d'. ^^ Cbrvsopb^uns b^llouh:, Boisduval, 

i:^. C\7/<-/)/v//'-w7 /.'>//■ J//N, Kdwards, , ■ d"- ., . , , 

,0. G7/./.M/..^v/7;/N. Li.MKeus. d'. vb C/'n-.o/^/w^.s M/o/W.^, Bcsduvab 

17. At'mo///j.s- {t'/^r. Butler, d^. 9- ' ,, ■ , , -^ 

,8. /.-;m.;//.7. ,v/.7, Butler, 9 • '^'^- Chn'sopbauus frorgon, Bo.sduva . r^. 

,0 Anm.;//.7.vc-/.'/.sHdwards, rt^. ^.0. c7;rv.sc)/>/'.r7//Ks- ^o/'A^o'', Boisduval, +■ 

y .0 /cinoni\7s ch'is, Hdwards, 9 ■ >7- Cbrvsopb.mns nuiriposa, Reakirt, rf 

-^1 /•V;//s<-u7 /.7;7////;///r^-. Fabrieius, cl". v^. C/'/T.sc)/)/n7;//rs m.7/•;^>^■.7, Reakirt, ,. 



The Butterfly Boo 



Plate XXVII 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND 



Genus Lemonias 




to the Lycaenidae, with which some writers have in fact grouped 
them, but erroneously, as the writer believes. 

Almost all of the species are American, and the family attains 
its highest development in the tropical regions of South America. 



Genus LEMONIAS, Westwood 

Butter fly. -^SmdiW, brightly colored, the sexes often differing 
greatly in appearance from each other. The eyes are naked. 
The palpi are produced, porrect; the last joint is short, thin, 
pointed, and depressed. The antennae are moderately 
long, provided with a gradually thickening, incon- 
spicuous club. The upper discocellular vein is 
wanting in the fore wing. The middle and lower 
discocellulars are of equal length. The hind wing 
has the end of the cell obliquely terminated by the 
middle and lower discocellular veins. The apex of F1G.126.— 
the fore wing is somewhat pointed, the outward mar- Neuration of 
gin straight. The outward margin of the hind wing is monias!^ 
evenly rounded. 

Egg. — Flattened, turban-shaped, with a small, depressed, cir- 
cular micropyle, the whole surface covered with minute hexag- 
onal reticulations. 

Caterpillar. — Short, flattened, tapering posteriorly; the seg- 
ments arched; provided with tufts of hair ranged in longitudinal 
series, the hairs on the sides and at the anal extremity being long, 
bent outward and downward. 

Chrysalis. — Short, suspended at the anal extremity, and held 
in position by a silk girdle, but not closely appressed to the 
surface upon which pupation has taken place; thickly covered 
with short, projecting hair. 

The citadel of this genus is found about the head waters of 
the Amazon, where there are many species. Thence the genus 
spreads northward and southward, being represented in the 
limits of our fauna by only a few species, which are found on the 
extreme southern borders of the United States. 

(i) Lemonias mormo, Felder, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 7, 5 , under 
side (The Mormon). 

Butterfly.-— l\\t wings on the upper side are dark ashen-gray, 

229 



Genus Lemonias 

with the primaries from the base to the limbal area, and inwardly 
as far as the bottom of the cell and the first median nervule, red. 
The wings are profusely marked with white spots variously 
disposed. The under side is accurately depicted in our plate. 
Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — These have not been studied. 

The Mormon is found in Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and 
California. 

(2) Lemonias duryi, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 10, $ 
(Dury's Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — The only specimen as yet known is the type 
figured in our plate. I doubt whether it is entitled to specific 
rank, and am inclined to believe it to be a form of the succeeding 
species in which red has replaced the greater part of the gray on 
the upper side of both wings. Expanse, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The specimen came from New Mexico. 

(3) Lemonias cythera, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 4, ? , 
under side; Fig. 5, ^ (Cythera). 

Butterfly. — Distinguished from L. mormo by the red sub- 
marginal band on the secondaries on the upper side, the greater 
prevalence of red on the primaries, and by the tendency of the 
spots on the under side of the secondaries, just after the costa, 
to fuse and form an elongate pearly-white ray. The sub- 
marginal spots on the lower side of the fore wings are smaller 
than in mormo. The sexes do not differ except in size. Ex- 
panse, 1. 00- 1. 30 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Cythera is found in Arizona and Mexico. 

(4) Lemonias virgulti, Behr, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 6, ^ (Behr's 
Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — Much like the preceding species on the upper side 
of the wings, but darker. The hind wings on the under side are 
much darker than in L. cythera, and the pearly-white spots 
relatively smaller, standing out very distinctly on this darker 
ground. Expanse, .90-1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages. — Undescribed. 

Virgulti is common in southern California and Mexico. 

(5) Lemonias nais, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 8, t ; Fig. 
9, ? (Nais). 

230 



I 



Genus Lemonias 

Butterfly. — The ground-color of the upper side is bright red, 
clouded with fuscous on the base of the hind wings and bor- 
dered with the same color. There is a small precostal white 
spot on the primaries near the apex. The wings are profusely 
marked with small black spots arranged in transverse series and 
bands. The fringes are checkered with white. On the under 
side the wings are pale reddish, mottled with buff on the secon- 
daries. The black spots and markings of the upper side reappear 
on the under side and stand out boldly on the lighter ground- 
color. Expanse, i. 00-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are beautifully delineated in ''The But- 
terflies of North America," vol. ii. The egg is pale green, turban- 
shaped, covered with hexagonal reticulations. The caterpillar is 
rather stout and short, the first segment projecting over the head. 
The body is somewhat flattened and tapering behind, covered with 
tufts of hairs projecting outward and downward on all sides, 
only the two rows of short tufts on the back sending their hairs 
upward. The color is mouse-gray, striped longitudinally on the 
back with yellowish-white, the tufts more or less ringed about at 
their base with circles of the same color. The chrysalis is black- 
ish-brown, attached at the anal end, held in place by a girdle, but 
not closely appressed to the surface on which pupation has taken 
place, and thickly studded with small projecting hairs. The larva 
lives on the wild plum. 

Nais occurs from Colorado to Mexico east of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(6) Lemonias palmeri, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 11, ^ 
(Palmer's Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — Smaller than any of the preceding species. The 
ground-color of the wings is mouse-gray, spotted with white; on 
the under side the wings are whitish-gray, laved with pale red 
at the base of the fore wings. The white spots of the upper side 
reappear on the under side. Expanse, .75-95 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are, so far as they have been worked 
out by Edwards, quite similar in many respects to those of the 
preceding species. 

The range of the species is from Utah southward to Mexico. 

(7) Lemonias zela, Butler, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 17, 5 ; Fig. 18, 
? (Zela). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of both sexes is delineated in the 

231 



Genus Calephelis 

plate. On the under side the wings are pale red, marked with a 
few black spots, representing on the under side the markings 
of the upper side. Of these, the spots of the median and sub- 
marginal bands are most conspicuous. Expanse, i. 00-1.35 
inch. 

(a) Lemonias zela, Butler, van cleis, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 19, $ ', Fig. 20, ? (Cleis). 

The pale variety, cleis, is sufficiently well represented in our 
plate to need no description. On the under side it is like L. 
^ela. 

'^he species occurs in Arizona and Mexico. 



Genus CALEPHELIS, Grote and Robinson 

Butterfly. — Very small, brown or reddish in color, with me- 
tallic spots upon the wings. Head small; eyes naked; antennae 
relatively long, slender, with a bluntly rounded 
club. Palpi very short; the third joint small, 
pointed. The accompanying cut shows the neu- 
ration. 

Early Stages. — Entirely unknown, 
(i) Calephelis caenius, Linnaeus, Plate 
XXVllI, Fig. 16, $ (The Little Metal-mark). 
Fig. 127.— Neu- Butterfly. — Very small, reddish-brown on the 
ration of the genus upper side, brifi^hter red on the under side. On 

Calephelis. -, , , 

both the upper and under sides the wmgs are 
profusely spotted with small steely-blue metallic markings, ar- 
ranged in more or less regular transverse series, especially on the 
outer margin. Expanse, .75 inch. 

Early Stages. — The life-history is unknown. 

Ccenius is common in Florida, and ranges thence northward 
to Virginia and westward to Texas. 

(2) Calephelis borealis, Grote and Robinson, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 12, $, under side; Fig. 13, 5 (The Northern Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — Fully twice as large as the preceding species. The 
wings on the upper side are sooty-brown, spotted with black, 
and marked by a marginal and submarginal series of small me- 
tallic spots. On the under side the wings are light red, spotted 
with a multitude of small black spots arranged in regular series. 

2}2 




Uncle Jotham's Boarder 

The two rows of metallic spots near the margins are repeated 
more distinctly on this side. Expanse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This rare insect has been taken from New York to Virginia, 
and as far west as Michigan and Illinois. The only specimen I 
have ever seen in life I took at the White Sulphur Springs in West 
Virginia. It settled on the under side of a twig of black birch, 
with expanded wings, just over my head, and by a lucky stroke 
of the net I swept it in. 

(3) Calephelis australis, Edwards, Plate XXVIll, Fig. 14, $ 
(The Southern Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — The wings in the male sex are more pointed at 
the apex than in the preceding species, and in both sexes are 
smaller in expanse. The color of the upper side of the wings is 
dusky, on the under side pale yellowish-red. On both sides the 
wings are obscurely marked with dark spots arranged in trans- 
verse series. The marginal and submarginal metallic bands of 
spots are as in the preceding species. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Australis ranges from Texas and Arizona into Mexico. 

(4) Calephelis nemesis, Edwards, Plate XXVIll, Fig. 15, $ 
(The Dusky Metal-mark). 

Butterfly. — Very small, — as small as ccenius, — but with the 
fore wings at the apex decidedly pointed in the male sex. The 
wings are dusky-brown above, lighter obscure reddish below. 
Both the primaries and the secondaries on the upper side are 
crossed by a dark median band, broader on the primaries at the 
costa. The metallic markings are quite small and indistinct. Ex- 
panse, .85 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Nemesis occurs in Arizona and southern California. 



UNCLE JOTHAM'S BOARDER 

I 've kep' summer boarders for years, and allowed 
I knowed all the sorts that there be; 

But there come an old feller this season along, 
That turned out a beater for me. 

Whatever that feller was arter, I vow 
I hain't got the slightest idee. 



Uncle Jotham's Boarder 



"He had an old bait-net of thin, rotten stuff 
That a minner could bite his way through; 

But he never went fishin' — at least, in the way 
That fishermen gen'ally do; 

But he carried that bait-net wherever he went; 
The handle was j'inted in two. 

"And the bottles and boxes that chap fetched along! 

Why, a doctor would never want more; 
If they held pills and physic, he 'd got full enough 

To fit out a medicine-store. 
And he 'd got heaps of pins, dreffle lengthy and slim, 

Allers droppin' about on the floor. 

"Well, true as I live, that old feller just spent 

His hull days in loafin' about 
And pickin' up hoppers and roaches and flies — 

Not to use for his bait to ketch trout, 
But to kill and stick pins in and squint at and all. 

He was crazy 's a coot, th' ain't no doubt, 

"He 'd see a poor miller a-flyin' along, — 

The commonest, every-day kind, — 
And he 'd waddle on arter it, fat as he was, 

And foller up softly behind. 
Till he 'd flop that-air bait-net right over its head, 

And I 'd laugh till nigh out of my mind. 

"Why, he 'd lay on the ground for an hour at a stretch 

And scratch in the dirt like a hen ; 
He 'd scrape all the bark off the bushes and trees. 

And turn the stones over; and then 
He 'd peek under logs, or he 'd pry into holes. 

I 'm glad there ain't no more sech men. 

"My wife see a box in his bedroom, one day, 

Jest swarmin' with live caterpillars; 
He fed 'em on leaves off of all kinds of trees — 

The ellums and birches and willers; 
And he 'd got piles of boxes, chock-full to the top 

With crickets and bees and moth-millers. 

"I asked him, one time, what his business might be. 
Of course, I fust made some apology. 
He tried to explain, but such awful big words! 

Sorto' forren, outlandish, and collegey. 
'S near 's 1 can tell, 'stead of enterin' a trade. 
He was tryin' to jest enter mology. 
234 



Mimicry 



'And Hannah, my wife, says she 's heerd o' sech things; 

She guesses his brain warn't so meller. 
There 's a thing they call Nat'ral Histerry, she says, 

And, whatever the folks there may tell her. 
Till it 's settled she 's wrong she '11 jest hold that-air man 
Was a Nat'ral Histerrical feller." 

Annie Trumbull Slosson. 



MIMICRY 

Protective mimicry as it occurs in animals may be the simula- 
tion in form or color, or both, of natural objects, or it may be the 
simulation of the form and color of another animal, which for 
some reason enjoys immunity from the attacks of species which 
ordinarily prey upon its kind. Of course this mimicry is uncon- 
scious and is the result of a slow process of development which 
has, no doubt, gone on for ages. 

Remarkable instances of mimicry, in which things are simu- 
lated, are found in the insect world. The '' walking-sticks," as 
they are called, creatures which resemble the twigs of trees; 
the "leaf-insects," in which the foliage of plants is apparently 
reproduced in animate forms; the "leaf-butterfly" of India, in 
which the form and the color and even the venation of leaves are 
reproduced, are illustrations of mimicry which are familiar to all 
who have given any attention to the subject. 

Repulsive objects are frequently mimicked. A spider has 
been lately described from the Indo-Malayan region, which, as it 
rests upon the leaves, exactly resembles a patch of bird-lime. 
The resemblance is so exact as to deceive the most sagacious, 
and the discovery of the creature was due to the fact that the 
naturalist who happened to see it observed, to his surprise, that 
what he was positive was a mass of ordure was actually in 
motion. A similar case of mimicry is observable among some of 
the small acontiid moths of North America. One of these is pure 
white, with the tips of the fore wings dark greenish-brown. It 
sits on the upper side of leaves, with its fore wings folded over, 
or rolled about the hind wings, and in this attitude it so nearly 
approximates in appearance the ordure of a sparrow as to have 
often deceived me when collecting. 



235 



FAMILY III. LYC^NIDy^ 

(THE BLUES, THE COPPERS, THE HAIR-STREAKS) 

SUBFAMILY LYCy^NINy^ 

"Mark, while he moves amid the sunny beam, 
O'er his soft wings the varying lusters gleam. 
Launched into air, on purple plumes he soars, 
Gay nature's face with wanton glance explores; 
Proud of his varying beauties, wings his way. 
And spoils the fairest flowers, himself more fair than they," 

Quoted as from Haworth by Scudder. 

Butterfly.— SxmW, in both sexes having all feet adapted to 
walking. There is exceeding diversity of form in the various gen- 
era composing this family. Many of the genera are characterized 
by the brilliant blue on the upper side of the wings; in other 
genera shades of coppery-red predominate. The hair-streaks 
frequently have the hind wings adorned with one or more slen- 
der, elongated tails. In Africa and in Asia there are numerous 
genera which strongly mimic protected insects belonging to the 
Acraeinse. 

£^^-.— The eggs are for the most part flattened or turban- 
shaped, curiously and beautifully adorned with ridges, minute 
eminences, and reticulations. Some of them under the micro- 
scope strongly resemble the shells of "sea-biscuits" with the 
rays removed (see p. 4, Fig. 7). 

Caterpillar.— l\\t caterpillars are for the most part slug- 
shaped, flattened. They are vegetable feeders, save the larvae of 
two or three genera, which are aphidivorous, feeding upon mealy 
bugs or plant-lice. 

Chrysalis.— Tht chrysalids are short, compressed, attached at 
the anal extremity, with a girdle or cincture about the middle, 
closely fastened to the surface upon which pupation takes place. 

2^6 



Explanation of Plate XXIX 



Cbrvsopbcuiiis arola , Boisduval, ^\ 
Chn'sopbLimis arota, Boisduval, ^. 
Chn'sopb,iuiis sin'iis^ Edwards, (J\ 
Cbn'sopbi.7itiis siriiiSj Edwards, 2- 
Cbiysopbaiiiis nihidu^, Behr, ^J'. 
Cbn'sopbj)ius nib id us, Behr, ^ . ■ 
Cbrvsopbaiius siiowi^ Edwards, (J'. 
CbrvsopbcJi/iis siunci, Edwards, ^ . 
Thechrbali'sus, (j'anier. (^\ 
TbccUi iii-albitiii, Boisd.-Lec, (^' . 
Tbi'cia cry sal us. Edwards. (J'. 
Tbccla gruuus, Boisduval, J''. 
TbccJa auiolvcus. Edwards, 9- 
Tbccla aJccslis, Edwards, 9- 
Tbecla acadica. Edwards, (J*. 
Tbi'cla acadica, Edwards, $• 
Tbecla itys, Edwards, ^ . 
Tbccla cecrops. Hubner, 9 . under 

side. 
Tbccla "jcitlfeldi. Edwards, 9 • 
Tbccla u'itffcldi, Edwards, (^\ under 

side. 
Tbecla spiiicioruni , Boisduval, 9 • 

22. Tbecla favoiiius. 



M 



. Tbccla Icela, Edwards, (^. 

Tbecla Iccia, Edwards, (^, under side. 

Tbecla adenostoinatis, Henry Ed- 
wards, (J'. 

Tbecla calauus, Hubner, (^. 

Tbecla edu- a rd si. Sounders, 9- 

Tbecla I iparops, Eo'xsd. -Lee, 9- 

Tbecla d anion. Cramer, var. discoi- 
dalis, Skinner, J"'. 
, Tbecla tacita. Henry Edwards, (J^. 

Tbecla melinus. Hubner, form bu- 
niuli , Harris. (J\ 
. Tbecla d anion, Cramer, (^^ under 
side. 

Tbccla serpiuni, Boisduval, (^. 

Tbecla sapiit in . Boisduval, (Cylinder 
side. 

Tbecla iucs, Edwards, (^. 

Tbecla cbalcis, Behr, cf . 

Tbecla cbalcis, Behr, 9 , lender side. 

Tbecla acis, Drury, (^\ under side. 

Tbecla sinuvtbis, Drury, cT, under 
side. 
ith and Abbot, (^ . 



The Butterfly Book. 



T^^^M 



Plate XXIX. 





Genus Eumaeus 



Genus EUMiEUS, Hubner 

Butterfly. — Medium size or small; dark in color, with the 
under side and the borders of the upper sides beautifully adorned 
with spots having a metallic luster. The palpi are divergent, 
longer in the female than in the male. The an- 
tennae are stout, rather short, with a gradually 
thickened club. The eyes are naked. The veins 
on the fore wing are stout. The accompanying 
cut gives a clear idea of the neuration. 

Early Stages. — Nothing is known of these. 

Three species are reckoned as belonging to 
the genus, two of them being found sparingly 
in the extreme southern limits of our fauna. F1G.128.— Neu- 

(i) Eumaeus atala, Poey, Plate XXVlll, Fig. nation of the ge- 

,.,,.,, nus Eumceus. 

22, $ , under side (Atala). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished by the figure in the plate from 
all other species except its congener E. minyas, Hubner, which 
can be readily separated from it by its larger size. Expanse, 1.65- 
1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — These await description. 

Atala is found in Florida and Cuba. Minyas occurs in 
southwestern Texas, and thence southward to Brazil. 



Genus THECLA, Fabricius 
(The Hair-streaks) 

" These be the pretty genii of the flow'rs, 
Daintily fed with honey and pure dew." 

Hood. 

Butterfly. — Small or medium-sized; on the upper side often 
colored brilliantly with iridescent blue or green, sometimes dark 
brown or reddish; on the under side marked with lines and 
spots variously disposed, sometimes obscure in color, very fre- 
quently most brilliantly colored. 

Various subdivisions based upon the neuration of the wings 
have been made in the genus in recent years, and these subdivi- 
sions are entitled to be accepted by those who are engaged in a 

237 



Genus Thecla 




Fig. 129. — Neu- 
ration of Thecla 
edwardsi. (After 
Scudder.) Typical 
neuration of the 
genus. 



comparative study of the species belonging to this great group. 
Inasmuch, however, as most American writers have heretofore 
classified all of these insects under the genus 
Thecla, the author has decided not to deviate 
from familiar usage, and will therefore not 
attempt to effect a subdivision according to the 
views of recent writers, which he nevertheless 
approves as scientifically accurate. 

£^^.— Considerable diversity exists in the form 
of the eggs of the various species included under 
this genus as treated in this book, but all of them 
may be said to be turban-shaped, more or less 
depressed at the upper extremity, with their sur- 
faces beautifully adorned with minute projections 
arranged in geometric patterns. 

Caterpillar.— The caterpillars are slug-shaped, 
their heads minute, the body abruptly tapering at 
the anal extremity. They feed upon the tender leaves of the 
ends of branches, some of them upon the leaves of flowers of 
various species. 

Chrysalis.— Vslh^X has been said concerning the chrysalids of 
the family applies likewise to the chrysalids of this and the suc- 
ceeding genera. They lie closely appressed to the surface upon 
which they are formed, and are held in place by an attachment 
at the anal extremity, as well as by a slight girdle of silk about 
the middle. In color they are generally some shade of brown, 
(i) Thecla grunus, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. \2,$> (Bois- 
duval's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — The wings are brown on the upper side, lighter 
on the disk; in some specimens, more frequently of the female 
sex, bright orange-tawny. On the under side the wings are pale 
tawny, with transverse marginal and submarginal series of small 
dark spots on both wings. Two or three of the marginal spots 
near the anal angle are black, each crowned with a metallic- 
green crescent. Expanse, 1. 10-1.20 inch. 

Early Stages.— l\\es>e have, in part, been described by Dyar, 
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxv, p. 94. The caterpillar is 
short, flattened, the segments arched, the body tapering back- 
ward, bluish-green, covered with little dark warty prominences 
bearing tufts of hairs, obscurely striped longitudinally with broken, 

238 



Genus Thecla 

pale lines, and having a diamond-shaped shield back of the 
head. The chrysalis is thick and conformed to the generic type 
of structure. The color is pale green, striped and dotted with 
pale yellow on the abdomen. The caterpillar feeds in the Yosem- 
ite Valley upon the young leaves of the live-oak (Quercus cbryso- 
lepis). 

The insect is found in California and Nevada. 

(2) Thecla cry salus, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 11, 6 (The 
Colorado Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — The wings on the upper side are royal purple, 
broadly margined with black. On the fore wings a broad 
oblique black band runs from the middle of the costa to the mid- 
dle of the outer margin. At the inner angles of both wings are 
conspicuous orange spots. On the under side the wings are 
fawn, marked with white lines edged with brown. The orange 
spots reappear on this side, but at the anal angle of the hind 
wings are transformed to red eye-spots, pupiled with black and 
margined with metallic green. The hind wings are tailed. Ex- 
panse, 1.50 inch. 

The variety citima, Henry Edwards, differs in being without 
the orange spots and having the ground-color of the under side 
ashen-gray. Specimens connecting the typical with the varietal 
form are in my possession. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Found in southern Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and southern 
California. 

(3) Thecla halesus, Cramer, Plate XXIX, Fig. 9, 6 (The 
Great Purple Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — The hind wings have a long tail, and are lobed at 
the anal angle. The wings are fuscous, iridescent bluish-green 
at the base. The body is bluish-green above. On the under side 
the thorax is black, spotted with white, the abdomen bright orange- 
red. The wings on the under side are evenly warm sepia, spotted 
with crimson at their bases, glossed with a ray of metallic green 
on the fore wings in the male sex, and in both sexes splendidly 
adorned at the anal angle by series of metallic-green and iridescent 
blue and red spots. Expanse, i. 35-1. 50 inch. 

Early Stages.— AW we know of them is derived from the draw- 
ings of Abbot, published by Boisduval and Leconte, and this is 
but little. The caterpillar is said by Abbot to feed on various oaks. 

239 



Genus Thecla 

It is very common in Central America and Mexico; is not 
scarce in the hot parts of the Gulf States; and is even reported as 
having been captured in southern Illinois. It also occurs in Ari- 
zona and southern California. 

(4) Thecla m-album, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIX, 
Fig. ID, $ (The White-M Hair-streak). 

j5////^rj^^.— Smaller than the preceding species; on the upper 
side somewhat like it; but the iridescent color at the base of the 
wings is blue, and not so green as in halesus. On the under 
side the wings are quite differently marked. The fore w^ng is 
crossed by a submarginal and a median line of white, shaded 
with brown, the median line most distinct. This line is contin- 
ued upon the hind wings, and near the anal angle is zigzagged, so as 
to present the appearance of an inverted M. Near the outer angle 
of the M-spot is a rounded crimson patch. The anal angle is deep 
black, glossed with iridescent blue. Expanse, i. 35-1. 45 inch. 

Early Stages.— All we know of this pretty species is based 
upon the account and drawings of Abbot made in the last century. 
We need better information. According to Abbot, the caterpillar 
feeds on astragalus and different oaks. 

This species has been taken as far north as Jersey City and 
Wisconsin, and ranges southward as far as Venezuela. Its cita- 
del is found in the live-oak hummocks of the Gulf States and the 
oak forests on the highlands of Mexico and more southern 
countries. 

(3) Thecla martialis, Herrich-Schaflfer, Plate XXX, Fig. 18, 
?, under side (The Martial Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— Tht insect figured in the plate, which may easily 
be recognized by its under side, has been determined by Dr. 
Skinner to be the above species. My specimens coming from 
the Edwards collection are labeled Thecla acis, ? . They were 
taken at Key West. A comparison with the under side of T. 
acis (see Plate XXIX, Fig. 38) will reveal the great difference. 
Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early S/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Habitat, southern Florida and Cuba. 

(6) Thecla favonius, Abbot and Smith, Plate XXIX, Fig. 22, 
$ (The Southern Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— The wings are dusky-brown above, with a small 
pale oval sex-mark in the male near the upper edge of the cell in 

240 



Genus Thecla 

the primaries. On either side of the second median nervule, near 
the outer margin of both wings, are bright orange-red patches, 
most conspicuous in the female. The hind wings near the anal 
angle are blackish, margined with a fine white line. On the 
under side the wings are marked much as in m-album, but in the 
region of the median nervules, midway between their origin and 
termination, is a rather broad transverse carmine streak, edged in- 
wardly with dark lines. This is largest and most conspicuous in 
the female sex. Expanse, i.oo-i. 15 inch. 

Early Stages.— lh.QSt have been described, in part, by Abbot 
and Smith and Packard. The caterpillar feeds on oaks. 

Favonms is found in the Gulf States, and as far north as 
South Carolina. 

(7) Thecla wittfeldi, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 19, ? ; 
Fig. 20, $> , under side (Wittfeld's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— The figures in the plate give a correct idea of both 
the upper and under sides of this insect. It is much darker in 
ground-color than any of its congeners. Expanse, i. 25-1. 35 inch. 

Early 5/j^^^5. — Unknown. 

The types which are in my possession came from the Indian 
River district in Florida. 

(8) Thecla autolycus, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 13, ? 
(The Texas Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side resembling favonius, but 
with the orange-red spots on the wings much broader, ranging 
from the lower radial vein to the submedian in the fore wings. 
The carmine spots on the under side of the wings are not ar- 
ranged across the median nervules, as m favonius, but are in the 
vicinity of the anal angle, crowning the black crescents near the 
inner end of the outer margin. Expanse, i.i 5-1.30 inch. 

Early S/^^e's. — Unknown. 

This species is found in Texas, and is also said to have been 
found in Missouri and Kansas. 

(9) Thecla alcestis, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 14, ? (Al- 
cestis). 

Butterfly. — \Jn\iorm\y slaty-gray on the upper side of the 
wings, with the usual oval sex-mark on the fore wing of the 
male, and a few bluish scales near the anal angle. The ground- 
color of the wnngs on the under side is as above, but somewhat 
paler. A white bar closes the cell of both wings. Both wings 

241 



Genus Thecla 



are crossed by white lines, much as in m-aJhum. The anal angle 
is marked with black, followed outwardly by a broad patch of 
iridescent greenish-blue scales. Between the end of the sub- 
marginal vein and the first median nervule is a black spot sur- 
mounted with carmine, edged inwardly with black: three or four 
carmine crescents similarly edged, but rapidly diminishing in size, 
extend as a transverse submarginal band toward the costa. Ex- 
panse, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

AliCstis is found in Texas and Arizona. 

(10) Thecla melinus, Hubner. Plate XXIX. Fig. 31. 5 ; 
Plate XXXII. Fig. 20. 5 : Plate \'. Fig. :;o. chrysalis (The Com- 
mon Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — }i\\.\c\\ confusion has arisen from the fact that this 
insect has received a number of names and has also been con- 
founded with others. Fig. 91 in Plate XXIX repre- 
sents the insect labeled humiili, Harris, in the Ed- 
wards collection; Fig. 20 in Plate XXXII represents 
the insect labeled nieHinis. Hubner. There is a very 
large series of both in the collection, but a minute 
comparison fails to re\eal any specific difference. 
Mil mull of Harris is the same as melinus of Hubner; 
and recent authors. I think, are right in sinking the 
name given by Harris as a svnonvm. This common 
Neuration of little buttertly may easily be recognized by its plain 
Jni^^^^ iK^tx ^^'^^-^' Upper surface, adorned by a large black spot, 
Scudder )Typ- crowned with crimson between the origin oi the two 
tails of the secondaries. Expanse. 1. 10-1.20 inch. 
Early Stages.— IhtSQ are in part well known. The 
caterpillar feeds on the hop-vine. Melinus is found all over tem- 
perate North America, and ranges southward into Mexico and 
Central America at suitable elevations. 

(11) Thecla acadica, Edwards. Plate XXIX. Fig. i^. ^: 
Plate V. Fig. 5^. ebrysalis (The Acadian Hair-streak). 

Butterjfy. — The male is pale slaty-gray above, with some ill- 
detlned orange spots near the anal angle, the usual oval sex- 
mark on the fore wing. The female is like the male above; but 
the orange spots at the anal angle of the hind wings are broader, 
and in some specimens similar spots appear on the fore wings 
near the inner angle. On the under side in both sexes the 

242 




Fig. i;o. 



ical of subge- 
nus Uranoth. 



Genus Thecla 

wings are pale wood-brown, adorned by a black bar at the end 
of the cells, submarginal and median bands of small black spots 
surrounded with white, and on the secondaries by a submarginal 
series of red crescents diminishing in size from theanalangletoward 
the outer angle. Near the anal angle are two black spots separated 
by a broad patch of bluish-green scales. Expanse, 1. 1 5-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages.— For a knowledge of what is known of these 
the reader may consult the pages of Scudder and Edwards. The 
caterpillar feeds upon willows. 

It is found all over the Northern States, ranging from Quebec 
to Vancouver's Island. It seems to be very common on Mount 
Hood, from which I have a large series of specimens. 

(12) Thecla itys, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 17, ? (Itys). 
Butterfly.— The only specimen of this species known to me 

is figured in the plate. It is the type. Of its early stages nothing 
is known. It was taken in Arizona. Expanse, 1.25 inch. 

(13) Thecla edwardsi, Plate XXIX, Fig. 27, ? under side; 
Plate V, Fig. 29, chrysalis (Edwards' Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— Dm'k plumbeous-brown on the upper side, with a 
pale sex-mark on the fore wing of the male. On the under side 
the wings are paler and a trifle warmer brown, with their outer 
halves marked with numerous fine white broken lines arranged 
in pairs, with the space between them darker than the ground- 
color of the wing. The usual black spots, green scales, and 
red crescents are found near the anal angle on the under side. 

Early Stages. — For all that is known of these the reader will 
do well to consult the pages of Scudder. The caterpillar feeds 
on oaks. 

The species ranges from Quebec westward to Colorado and 
Nebraska, being found commonly in New England. 

(14) Thecla calanus, Hubner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 26, $ ; Plate 
V, Figs. 25, 27, chrysalis (The Banded Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side resembling the preceding spe- 
cies very closely, but a trifle darker, and warmer brown. On 
the under side the wings are marked by fine white lines on the 
outer half, which are not broken, as in edwardsi, but form con- 
tinuous bands. Expanse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages.— The caterpillar feeds on oaks. The life-history 
is described with minute exactness by Scudder in " The Butterflies 
of New England," vol. ii, p. 888. 

243 



Genus Thecla 

This insect has a wide range, being found from the province 
of Quebec to Texas and Colorado. It is common in western 
Pennsylvania. 

(15) Thecla liparops, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIX, 
Fig. 28, $ , under side; Plate V, Fig. 28, chrysalis (The Striped 
Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— DsLrk brown on the upper side, grayish below. 
The lines are arranged much as in T. edwardsi, but are farther 
apart, often very narrow, scarcely defining the dark bands 
between them. The spots at the anal, angle are obscure and 
blackish. Expanse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages. — Much like those of the allied species. Scudder, 
in "The Butterflies of New England," gives a full account of 
them. The caterpillar feeds on a variety of plants— oaks, wil- 
lows, the wild plum, and other rosaceous plants, as well as on 
the Ericacece. 

It ranges through the northern Atlantic States and Quebec to 
Colorado and Montana, but is local in its habits, and nowhere 
common. 

(16) Thecla chalcis, Behr, Plate XXIX, Fig. 36, $> ; Fig. 37, 
$ , under side (The Bronzed Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side uniformly brown. On the 
under side dark, with a narrow submarginal and an irregular 
median transverse band, and a pale short bar closing the cell on 
both wings; a black spot at the anal angle of the secondaries, 
preceded by a few bluish-green scales. Expanse, i.oo-i. 10 inch. 

Early Stages. — {Jriknown. 

Habitat, California and Utah. 

(17) Thecla ssepium, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 33, S ; 
Fig. 34, ? (The Hedge-row Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — KXmosX identically like the preceding species, ex- 
cept that the wings on the upper side are a trifle redder, on the 
under side paler; the lines on the under side of the wings are 
narrowly defined externally by white, and the anal spots are 
better developed and defined on the hind wings. Expanse, 1.20 
inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknov^n. 

This species is found throughout the Pacific States, and I am 
inclined to believe it identical with chalcis. If this should be 
proved to be true the latter name will sink as a synonym. 

244 



Genus Thecla 

(i8) Thecla adenostomatis, Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, 
Fig. 25, $ (The Gray Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — y[oust-gX'c\y on the upper side, with a few white 
lines on the outer margin near the anal angle; hoary-gray on 
the under side, darker on the median and basal areas. The 
limbal area is defined inwardly by a fine white line, is paler than 
the rest of the wing, and on the secondaries is marked by a full, 
regularly curved submarginal series of small dark lunules. Ex- 
panse, 1.30 inch. 

Early 5/^^^5.— Undescribed. 

Habitat, California. 

(19) Thecla spinetorum, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 21, ? 
(The Thicket Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— D-^lxV. blackish on the upper side, with both wings 
at the base shot with bluish-green. On the under side the 
wings are pale reddish-brown, marked much as in the following 
species, but the lines and spots are broader, more distinct, and 
conspicuous. Expanse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages. — This species is reported, so far, from Colorado, 
California, and Washington. 

(20) Thecla nelsoni, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 8, ? , under 
side; Fig. 13, ? (Nelson's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — ^nght fulvous on the upper side, with the costa, 
the outer margins, the base, and the veins of both fore and hind 
wings fuscous. On the under side the wings are paler red, with 
an incomplete narrow white line shaded with deep red just be- 
yond the median area, and not reaching the inner margin. This 
line is repeated on the hind wing as an irregularly curved median 
line. Between it and the outer margin on this wing are a few 
dark lunules near the anal angle. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. — I cannot discover any account of these. 

The species has been found in California and Colorado. 

(21) Thecla blenina, Hewitson, Plate XXX, Fig. 9, 5, under 
side (Hewitson's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — Brown on the upper side, in some specimens 
bright fulvous bordered with brown. On the under side the 
wings are pale red, shot with pea-green on the secondaries and 
at the base of the primaries. The markings of the under side 
are much as in the preceding species, but the line on the hind 
wing dividing the discal from the limbal area is broader and 

245 



Genus Thecla 

very white, and the spots between it and the margin more con- 
spicuous. Expanse, 1. 12 inch. 
Early Stages. — Unknown. 

It is reported from Arizona and southern California. It has been 
named siva by Edwards, and the figure is from his type so labeled. 

{22) Thecla damon, Cramer, Plate XXIX, Fig. ^2, 6 , under 
side; var. discoidalis, Skinner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 29, i ; Plate V, 
Figs. 30, 31, chrysalis (The Olive Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side bright fulvous, with the costa, 
the outer margins, and the veins of both wings blackish, darkest 
at the apex. On the under side the wings are greenish, crossed 
on the fore wing by a straight, incomplete white line, and on the 
hind wing by a similar irregular line. Both of these lines are 
margined internally by brown. There are a couple 
of short white lines on the hind wing near the base, 
and the usual crescentic spots and markings on the 
outer border and at the anal angle. Expanse, .90- 
i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. —These have been described by sev- 
eral authors. The caterpillar feeds on the red cedar 
_ (Jtcniperusvirginiana, Linn2eus). Itisdouble-brood- 
Neuration of ed in the North and triple-brooded in the South. 
Thecla damon, Damoit ranffcs from Ontario to Texas over the 

enlarged. Type . , ,r /- 1 it • i <- 

of subgenus entire eastern half of the United States. 
M^tura, Scud- (23) Thecla simaethis, Drury, Plate XXIX, 

Fig. 39, $ , under side (Simaethis). 

Butterfly. — Resembling the preceding species, but the white 
band on the secondaries is straight, and the outer margins are 
heavily marked with brown. Expanse, .85-1.00 inch. 

Early S/^^^5. — Unknown. 

This species occurs in Texas, Mexico, and southward. 

(24) Thecla acis, Drury, Plate XXIX, Fig. 38, ? , under side 
(Drury's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly.— The upper side of the wings is dark brown. The 
under side is shown in the plate. Expanse, .90 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This very pretty species is found in the extreme southern 
portions of Florida and the Antilles. 

(25) Thecla cecrops, Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 7, S ; Plate 
XXIX, Fig. 18, ?, under side (Cecrops). 

246 




Explanation of Pi.atu XXX 

1. ThccLi diiiiii-lonnii. Boisduvnl. c-^'. 27. J.vcwiici mayuui. Reakirt, $, mnici 

2. TLurLi diiniilonnn. Boisduval. ri . siiii. 

under side. -^- lycaiia da-daliis, Belir, % , under side. 

;. ThecLi j///;/m, Hdwaras. ^ , under 20. Ij'e.nui ucrnoides, Boisduval, ,^\ 

^1^1^. under side. 

.,. TbeeLi hehri, Hdwards. -J'. ''*'■ /-.iv.r//a ,■//<)/>/.>■. Boisduval, '^ , under 

^. ThecLi hehri, Hdvvartis, ,-^\ under side. ■ 

^1^^. -, 1. Lveeruii oLiueon. hdwards, ?, utider 

(). Thi'cLi eivlie, hdwaub, '. . •^"/' ■ 

7. Thccla eecrops,mU^e\\ S'- ''-■ ^='''""''''' /^>""/^'''A"<>/">- Boisd.-Lec, 

S. ThecLr nelsoni, Boisduval, ^, . under cU underside. _ 

,.,^./^, -,v l.veern.i 1S0L7. Rc:\k\Yi,(f^, U'ilder side. 
o. ThecUr hlenin.j, Hcwitson. ./ , z/^/^/.v (The figure is that of the type of A. 

side: (The tiuure is thai of the cjice, Hdwards.) 

typoof r. .sK'.r. Hdwaid^^.) -4, Lreernj couperi. Grote, d^, under 
10. 77v(7cr //7//N. Fahricius. -■'. >"/'• . ;; 

n. 77vc/j ;//>/'oz/. Hiihnei. ^. -• Aiv.r;/^ .7;///.?c/>. Boisduval, Jv''"/''' 
12. ThecLi iriis. r.odart. ^\ 'i'^'- ; 

n,. Theel.i nelsoui. Boisduval. ? . 'o. /,iY<ry/j .uitidcis. Boisduval, c^. 

14. 77v(7j /////n. Fabiiaus. r ' . ""^'^''' "7- A rar;/.r /)Mv>. Boisduval, c^. 

,.,;y,. -,8. Lycenui isola, Reakirt. ^. . 

m. ThecLi iTuousI us, K\rh\\ ^. . >*)• A iv.n/./ a'/'' '''"<"/• ^^^^ards, cl"'. 

10. Lvecrn.! /"////«///(^>J, Hdwards. / . ////- 4^'- I-.^'^-'rmi .isier. Hdwards, .J"- 

,i,'r .<ide. 4i- /jv,r;/.7j;///;rn.v. Boisduval, ?. 

17, 7 /vi-/j ,/i'/'/n"/. Boisduval. ^I . ////./rr 42. Lvcrnu pheres, Boisduval, V, ////(V.r 

.s/J.'. ■^""■/'• 

iS. 77vf/j nuirluilis. %. unJ.i >/./.. 4-. J,ve,riui \er.\es. Boisduval, c^\ under 
10. I.weciui pseudiir<{iolus, Boisd.-lAi. .. >id<. 

var. nuirifiiml.i, Edwards. /' . un- 44. I.yc^rihi sa<^nllioiru. Felder, v • ""^'^^'>' 

der side. ^'^''^''• 

20. J.vecvn.i pseud^irsiioliis, Boisd. - Lee, 4^. /.rfcr//J amnion, Lucas, ^, under 

\r;w. Iiieia. K'uby, (^\ under side. ■ ' side. 

21. 77'.v/.7 benriei. (^rote and Robinsou, 4(v Lveenui asler. Hdwards. ?. 

r 47. l.veevna aster. Edwards, J^ , //^/iV.v 

22. 77'(V/./ niphon. Hiibucr. ^ , /m/c/, / sid< 



icie. 



jS. iycerna seudderi, Edwards, (Jv 



2V /.iv<r//j .•()//^•r/. (".rote, r< . ' 4f>- /jv<r;/j .vc//^y^<'n. Hdwards, 9 

24. Ar(cr//j./////j, Hdwards, r<'. ^o. /j-amr lyodanuis, Doubleday, ,\ 

2^. /'rf.r;/^/"a//.7. Hdwards, ^. underside. 

20. /.'iv.r;/j"(7.r;j. Henry Hdwards, 9. ^1 Aivrr^/J t';/o/>/(N. Boisduval, o"- 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXX. 



w9 w w. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. 



Genus Thecla 

Butterfly.— \^2iXk brown, glossed at the base of the wings and 
on the inner margin of the secondaries with blue. The under 
side is well delineated in the plate. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages.— Thtse await description. 

Cecrops is common in the Southern States, and has been 
taken as far north as West Virginia, Kentucky, and southern 
Indiana. 

{26) Thecla clytie, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 6, ? (Clytie). 

Btctterfly. — Blue above, with the apical two thirds of the fore 
wings black. The wings on the under side are white, with the 
usual marginal and transverse markings quite small and faint. 
Expanse, .90 inch. 

Early 5/^^"^5.— Unknown. 

Habitat, Texas and Arizona. 

(27) Thecla ines, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 35, $ (Ines). 
Butterfly. — Much like the preceding species, but smaller, with 

the secondaries marked with blackish on the costa. On the 
under side the wings are slaty-gray, with numerous fme lines 
and a broad median dark shade on the hind wings, running from 
the costa to the middle of the wing. Expanse, .75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Ines is found in Arizona. 

(28) Thecla behri, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 4, $ ; Fig. 5, 
S , under side (Behr's Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. — Boih. sides are well displayed in the plate, and 
therefore need no particular description. Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species is found in northern California and Oregon, and 
eastward to Colorado. 

(29) Thecla augustus, Kirby, Plate XXX, Fig. 15, ? (The 
Brown Elfm). 

Butterfly. — Brown on the upper side; paler on the under side. 
The fore wings are marked by a straight incomplete median 
band, and the hind wings by an irregularly curved median band 
or line. Back of these lines toward the base both wings are 
darker brown. Expanse, .90 inch. 

Early Stages.— ^hese are not well known. Henry Edwards 
describes the caterpillar as "carmine-red, covered with very short 
hair, each segment involute above, with deep double foveae." 
The chrysalis is described by the same observer as being " pitchy- 

247 



Genus Thecla 

brown, covered with very short bristly hair, the wing-cases 
paler." The food-plant is unknown. 

This species is boreal in its haunts, and is found in New Eng- 
land and northward and westward into the British possessions. 

(30) Thecla irus, Godart, Plate XXX, Fig. 12. 3 ; Plate V, 
Figs. J>2- >4, ibrvsalis (The Hoary Eltln). 

B////tT//v. — Grayish-brown on the upper side. The wings on 
the under side are of the same color, paler on the outer margins, 
and darker toward the base. The species is subject to consider- 
able variation. The variety jrsace, Boisduval, has the hind wings 
marked with reddish near the anal angle, and the outer margin 
below marked with hoary-purple. The usual small crescentic 
spots appear on the outer margin of the hind wings, or they may 
be absent. Expanse, no inch. 

Eiir/v SiiiiiYS. — An epitome of all that is known is to be found 
in "The Buttertlies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on 
young plums just after the leaves of the blossom have dropped 
away. 

The species is rather rare, but has been found from the .Atlan- 
tic to the Pacific in the latitude of New England. 

(;i) Thecla henrici, Grote and Robinson. Plate XXX. Fig. 21. 
!i (Henry's Hair-streak). 

Btit/(T/I v. — Much like the preceding species on the upper side, 
but with the outer half of the wings broadly reddish-brown. 
The secondaries on the under side are broadly blackish-brown on 
the basal half, with the outer margin paler. The division be- 
tween the dark and light shades is irregular and very sharply 
defined, often indicated by a more or less perfect irregularly 
curved median white line. Expanse, i.oo-i.io inch. 

Earlv Start's, — Th^sc have been described by Edwards in the 
"American Naturalist," vol. xvi. p. 12;. The habits of the larva 
are identical with those of the preceding species. 

It occurs from Maine to West Virginia, but is rare. 

(:;2) Thecla eryphon, Boisduval Plate XXX, Fig. 17, $, 
under side (Eryphon). 

B////c7//r.— Closely resembling the following species both on 
the upper and under side of the wings, but easily distinguished 
by the fact that, on the under side of the fore wings, the inner of 
the two dark bands on the outer third of the wing is not sharply 
angulated below the third median nervule, as in F, tiipbon, but is 




Genus Thecla 

more even, and in general parallel with the submarginal line. Ex- 
panse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages.— ^htst have not been described. 

Eryphon replaces the Eastern T. niphon on the Pacific coast. 

{^}) Thecla niphon, Hubner, Plate XXX, Fig. 1 1, $ ; Fig. 22, 
$ , under side; Plate V, Figs. 38, 40, chrysalis (The Banded Elfin), 

Butterfly.— Ktdd\s\\-hxoy^n on the upper side. 
The under side is accurately depicted in the plate. 
Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been elaborately de- 
scribed by Scudder in his great work. The cater- 
pillars feed upon pine. 

The Banded Elfin is found from Nova Scotia 
to Colorado, in the Northern States, where its 
food-plant occurs, but is never abundant. ^ _ 

(34) Thecla affinis, Edwards, Plate XXX, Neuration "of 
Fig. 3, ? , under side (The Green-winged Hair- ^^f ^^^ , niphon 

. Y^ enlarged. Typical 

streak). of subgenus In- 

Butterfly.— On the upper side closely resem- cisaiia, mnoi. 
bling the following species. On the under side the wings are 
uniformly bright green. Expanse, i. 00 inch. 

Early Stages.— '\\\QS>t await description. 

The types came from Utah. I also have specimens from 
California. 

(35) Thecla dumetorum, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. \, $> \ 
Fig. 2, 6 , under side (The Green White-spotted Hair-streak). 

Btitterfly. — D2irk fawn-color above, sometimes tinged exter- 
nally with reddish. On the under side both wings are green, 
the primaries having a short straight band of white spots on the 
outer third, and the secondaries a small white spot on the 
costa beyond the middle, and two or three conspicuous white 
spots near the anal angle. Expanse, 1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages.— The eggs are laid on the unopened flower- 
heads of Hosackia argophylla. This is all we know of the life- 
history. 

The species ranges from Oregon and California eastward as 
far as Colorado. 

(^6) Thecla Iseta, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 23, $ ; Fig. 
24, S , under side (The Early Hair-streak). 

Butterfly. —The wings brown, glossed with bright blue above ; 

249 




Genus Feniseca 

on the under side pale fawn, with a band of pale-red spots on 
both wings about the middle, and a few similar spots on the 
outer and inner margins of the hind wings. Expanse, .75 inch. 
Early Stages.— Only the egg, described and figured by Scud- 
der, is known. 

It ranges from Quebec to southern New Jersey, and westward 
to West Virginia, and has been taken on Mount Graham, in Ari- 
zona. It appears in early spring. It is still rare in collections. 

(37) Thecla titus, Fabricius, Plate XXX, Fig. 10, $ ; Fig. 14, 
$ , under side; Plate V, Fig. 37, chrysalis (The Coral Hair-streak). 
Butterfly. — Uniformly gray-brown on the up- 
per side. Some specimens of the female have 
a few red spots at the anal angle of the hind 
wing. On the under side the wings are col- 
ored as on the upper side; but the hind wings 
have a conspicuous submarginal band of coral- 
red spots on their outer third. Expanse, 1.30 
inch. 

Early Stages.— These have been well described 
Fig. 133.— Neu- by several authors. The fullest account is given 
ration of Thecla ^ Scudder. The caterpillar feeds on the leaves 

titus, enlarged. -^ ^ 

Typical of sub- of the wild cherry and the wild plum. 

fmbner'^^'^'^''''' ^^^ ^"^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Atlantic to the Paci- 

fic, from Maine to Georgia. It is not very common. 
There are some ten or more other species of this genus found 
in our fauna, but the species figured in our plates will suffice to 
give a good idea of the genus. 



Genus FENISECA, Grote 

(The Harvesters) 

" Upon his painted wings, the butterfly 
Roam'd, a gay blossom of the sunny sky." 

Willis G. Clark. 

Butterfly. —Sm2ill, bright orange-yellow, on the upper side 
spotted with black, on the under side more or less mottled and 
shaded with gray and brown, the markings of the upper side 
reappearing. The cut shows the neuration, which need not be 
minutely described. 

Egg. — Subglobular, much wider than high, its surface smooth, 

250 




Genus Chrysophanus 

marked with a multitude of very fine and indistinct raised ridges, 
giving it tlie appea'rance of being covered by very delicate polyg- 
onal cells. 

Caterpillar. — In its mature stage the cater- 
pillar is short, slug-shaped, covered with a 
multitude of bristling hairs, upon which it 
gathers the white exudations or scales of the 
mealy bugs upon which it feeds. 

Chrysalis. — Small, brown in color; when 
viewed dorsally showing a remarkable and 
striking likeness to the face of a monkey, a sin- 
gular phenomenon which also appears even 
more strikingly in chrysalids of the allied genus tionof th^egenus!pJ«- 
Spalgis, which is found in Africa and Asia. i^^ca, enlarged. 

But one species of the genus is known. 

(i) Fenisecatarquinius, Fabricius, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 21, 5 ; 
Plate V, Figs. 45, 46, chrysalis (The Harvester). 

Butterfly.— Iht upper side of the wings is well depicted in 
the plate. There is considerable variation, however, in the size 
of the black markings upon the upper surface, and I have 
specimens in which they almost entirely disappear. On the 
under side the wings are paler; the spots of the upper side 
reappear, and, in addition, the hind wings are mottled profusely 
with small pale-brown spots. Expanse, 1.30 inch. 

Early Stages. — What has been said of these in the description 
of the genus will suffice for the species. 

This curious little insect, which finds its nearest allies in Asia 
and Africa, ranges all over the Atlantic States from Nova Scotia 
to the Carolinas, and throughout the valley of the Mississippi. 



Genus CHRYSOPHANUS, Doubleday 
(The Coppers) 

'' Atoms of color thou hast called to life 
(We name them butterflies) float lazily 
On clover swings, their drop of honey made 
By thee, dear queen, already for their need." 

Mary Butts. 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, with the upper side of the wings 
some shade of coppery-red or orange, frequently glossed with 

251 



Genus Chrysophanus 




Fig. 135. — Neura- 
tion of Chrysophanus 
thoe, enlarged. Typi- 
cal of the genus. 



purple. On the under side the wings are marked with a multi- 
tude of small spots and lines. The neuration of the wing is de- 
lineated in the figure herewith given, and 
needs no further description. 

Egg. — The eggs are hemispherical, flattened 
on the base, the upper surface deeply pitted 
with polygonal or somewhat circular depres- 
sions. 

Caterpillar.— The caterpillars, so far as 
known, are decidedly slug-shaped, thickest 
in the middle, tapering forward and back- 
ward, and having a very smaU head. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalids are small, 
rounded at either end, and held in place by 
a girdle of silk a little forward of the middle. 
This genus is found in the temperate regions of both the New 
and the Old World, and also in South Africa. 

(i) Chrysophanus arota, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. i, 5 ; 
Fig. 2, ? (Arota). 

Butterfly.— T\\t plate gives a good idea of the upper side of 
the wings in both sexes. On the under side the fore wings are 
pale gray in the male and pale red in the female, with the outer 
margin lavender. The spots of the upper side reappear on the 
disk. The hind wings on the under side are purplish-gray on 
the inner two thirds and paler gray on the outer third, with 
many black spots on the disk, margined with white. Expanse, 
1. 10-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages.— T\\ts>Q have been partially described by Dyar 
in the ''Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiii, p. 204. The cater- 
pillar feeds on the wild gooseberry (Ribes). 
Arota is a Californian species. 

(2) Chrysophanus virginiensis, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
23, 6 ; Fig. 24, ? (The Nevada Copper). 

Butterfly.— k\\\ed to the preceding species, but easily distin- 
guished by the submarginal white bands of crescent-shaped 
spots on the under side. These are particularly distinct on the 
hind wings. Expanse, i. 25-1. 30 inch. 
Early 5/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Virginiensis, so named because the first specimens came from 
Virginia City, ranges in California, Nevada, and Colorado. 

252 



Genus Chrysophanus 

(3) Chrysophanus xanthoides, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 29, 6 ; Fig. 30, 2 (The Great Copper). 

Btitterjfy.— The student will easily recognize it by its larger 
size, it being the largest species of the genus in North America, 
and by its creamy-white under surface, spotted with distinct 
small black spots, in large part reproducing the spots of the 
upper side. Expanse, i.=;o-i.65 inch. 

(4) Chrysophanus editha, Mead, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 26, 6 ; 
Fig. 27, $ (Editha). 

Bicfferjfy.— This is a much smaller species than the last, which 
it somewhat resembles on the upper side. On the under side 
it is wholly unlike xanthoides, the wings being pale pearly-gray, 
pale ochreous on the outer margins, the spots of the fore wings 
black and of the hind wings ochreous, narrowly margined with 
white or fine black lines. Expanse, 1.10-1.25 inch. 

Early 5A7^^5.— Entirely unknown. 

This species is found in Nevada. 

(5) Chrysophanus gorgon, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 35, 
3 ; Fig. 36, $ (Gorgon). 

5z///fr//>'.— Somewhat like the preceding species, but with 
the fore wings of the male redder on the upper side, and of the 
female more broadly mottled with pale red, the spots in some 
specimens inclining to buff. The under side of the wings is 
white, marked with the usual series of black spots. The sec- 
ondaries have a marginal series of elongated pale-red spots, 
tipped at either end with black. Expanse, i. 25-1. 30 inch. 

Early Stages.— We as yet know nothing of these. 

Gorgon is found in California and Nevada. 

(6) Chrysophanus thoe, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 31, 
6 ; Fig. }2, $ ; Plate V, Fig. 50, chrysalis (The Bronze Copper). 

Butterfly.— The plate makes a description of the upper side 
of the wings unnecessary. On the under side the fore wing in 
both sexes is bright tawny-red, pale gray at the apex; the hind 
wings are bluish-gray, with a broad band of carmine on the 
outer margin. Both wings are profusely adorned with small 
black spots. Expanse, i. 30-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages.— These are only partially known. The cater- 
pillar feeds on Rnmex. 

It is not uncommon in northern Indiana, Illinois, and Pennsyl- 
vania, and ranges from Maine to Kansas and Colorado. 

253 



Genus Chrysophanus 

(7) Chrysophanus mariposa, Reakirt, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 37, 
$ ; Fig. 38, ? (Reakirt's Copper). 

Butterfly. —Small, with a broad dusky band on the hind wing 
of the male and on the fore wing of the female. The male is 
purplish-red above, the female bright red, with the usual spots. 
On the under side the ground-color of the fore wings is pale red, 
of the hind wings clear ashen-gray, with the characteristic mark- 
ings of the genus. Expanse, 1. 10 inch. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Undescribed. 

The insect ranges from British Columbia into northern Cali- 
fornia, Montana, and Colorado. 

(8) Chrysophanus helloides, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 
33, $ ; Fig. 34, ? (The Purplish Copper). 

Butterfly.— The male has the fore wings broadly shot with 
iridescent purple. The female is well delineated in the plate. 
On the under side the fore wings are pale red, the hind wings 
reddish-gray, with a marginal row of brick-red crescents. The 
usual black spots are found on both wings. Expanse, 1.15-1.30 
inch. 

Early Stages.— We know next to nothing of these. 

The Purplish Copper is found in the Northwestern States 
from northern Illinois and Iowa to Vancouver's Island. 

(9) Chrysophanus epixanthe, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate 
XXVIII, Fig. 28, $ (The Least Copper). 

Butterfly.— The smallest species of the genus in North Amer- 
ica. On the upper side the wings of the male are dark fuscous, 
shot with purple, and having a few red spots near the anal angle of 
the secondaries. The female on the upper side is pale gray, and 
more profusely marked with black spots. On the under side the 
wings are light gray, bluish at the base, and marked with the 
usual spots. Expanse, .85-95 inch. 

Early Stages. — Little is known of these. 

This is a Northern species, ranging from Newfoundland, 
where it is common, to British Columbia, never south of the 
latitude of New England. 

(10) Chrysophanus hypophlseas, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, 
Fig. 25, $ ; Plate V, Fig. 49, chrysalis (The American Copper). 

Butterfly.— This is one of the commonest butterflies in the 
United States. The figure in the plate will serve to recall it to 
the mind of every reader. It is abundant everywhere except in 

254 



Genus Chrysophanus 

the Gulf States, and ranges as far north as Manitoba and the 
Hudson Bay region. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages.— Ihtst have often been described. The cater- 
pillar, which is small and slug-shaped, feeds upon the common 
sorrel {Ritmex acetosella). 

(i i) Chrysophanus snowi, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 7, ^ ; 
Fig. 8, ? (Snow's Copper). 

Butterfly.— This is a medium-sized species, easily recognized 
by the even, rather wide black border on both wings on the 
upper side, and the dirty-gray color of the hind wings on the 
underside. Expanse, 1. 1 5-1.25 inch. 

Early S/^^^5. — Unknown. 

Snow's Copper, which is named in honor of the amiable 
Chancellor of the University of Kansas, occurs in Colorado at 
high elevations, and is reported from Alberta and British Co- 
lumbia. 

(12) Chrysophanus rubidus, Behr, Plate XXIX, Fig. 5, S ; 
Fig. 6, ? (The Ruddy Copper). 

Butterfly.— This is a rather large species. The male on the 
upper side is prevalently pale, lustrous red, with a narrow black 
marginal band and uniformly conspicuous white fringes. The 
upper side of the female is accurately depicted in the plate. On 
the under side the wings are shining white, the secondaries im- 
maculate. Expanse, i. 30-1. 50 inch. 

Early Stages.— These are altogether unknown. 

This exceedingly beautiful species is found in Oregon, Ne- 
vada, and Montana. 

(13) Chrysophanus sirius, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 3, $ ; 
Fig. 4, ? (Sirius). 

BiMerfly. —The male closely resembles the preceding species 
on the upper side, but is brighter red, especially along the ner- 
vules of the fore wings. The female on the upper side is dusky. 
On the under side the wings are whitish or pale gray, but the 
hind wings are not without spots, as in the preceding species, 
and carry the characteristic markings of the genus. Expanse, 
1. 20-1. 30 inch. 

Early Stages. — Uviknoy^n. 

The species has been found from Fort McCleod, in British 
America, as far south as Arizona, among the North American 
Cordilleras. 

255 



The Utility of Entomology 



THE UTILITY OF ENTOMOLOGY 

All the forces of nature are interdependent. Many plants 
would not bear seeds or fruit were it not for the activity of insects, 
which cause the pollen to be deposited upon the pistil and the 
seed-vessel to be fertilized. Attempts were made many years 
ago to grow clover in Australia, but the clover did not make 
seed. All the seed required for planting had to be imported at 
much expense from Europe. It was finally ascertained that the 
reason why the clover failed to make seed was because through- 
out Australia there were no bumblebees. Bumblebees were in- 
troduced, and now clover grows luxuriantly in Australia, making 
seed abundantly; and Australian meats, carried in the cold-stor- 
age rooms of great ocean steamers, are used to feed the people of 
Manila, Hong-Kong, Yokohama, and even London. 

A few years ago the orange-groves in southern California be- 
came infested with a scale-insect, which threatened to ruin them 
and to bring orange-growing in that part of the land to an un- 
profitable end. The matter received the careful attention of the 
chief entomologist of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, the lamented Professor C. V. Riley. In the course of the 
studies which he and his associates prosecuted, it was ascertained 
that the same scale-insect which was ruining the orange-groves 
of California is found in the orange-groves of Queensland, but 
that in Queensland this insect did comparatively small injury to 
the trees. Investigation disclosed the fact that in Queensland the 
scale-insect was kept down by the ravages of a parasitic insect 
which preyed upon it. This parasite, by order of the chief en- 
tomologist, was immediately imported, in considerable numbers, 
into southern California, and let loose among the orange-groves. 
The result has been most beneficial. 

These are two illustrations, from among hundreds which 
might be cited, of the very practical value of entomological 
knowledge. 

The annual loss suffered by agricultural communities through 
ignorance of entomological facts is very great. Every plant has 
its insect enemy, or, more correctly, its insect lover, which feeds 
upon it, delights in its luxuriance, but makes short work, it may 
be of leaves, it may be of flowers, it may be of fruit. It has 

256 



Explanation of Plate XXXI 



1. Lj'ciTim psi'udargioliis, Boisd.-Lec, 

var. Iiicia, Kirby, J'. 

2. L))vcciia psc'udai'giolus, Boisd.-Lec. 

var. iimi'giiu'ilii , Edwards, q . ■ ^ 
^. Lvca'iia psciicLirgioltis. Boisd.-Lec., 
var. iiiargiiiata . Edwards, \ . 

4. Lyccciia pseudargiolns, Boi^d.-Lec, 

var. nigra, Edwards, r?'. 
i^. Lj>cce4ia pseudargiolus, Boisd.-Lec, 

var. violacea, Edwards, (J. 
o. LvciTim pseiidcjroioliis, BoiscL-Lec. 

. ' cJ'. 

7. LvccTim psc'iidaro^iohis. Ho\^i\.-\.t^L.. 

5. Lyccrna pseudargiohts, Boisd.-Lcc. 

var. )icglccta, Edwards, (^'. 
<). LvciTiij pscudcirgiolus, Boisd.-Lec. 

var. iicglecta , Edwards, ^: . 
10. 'Litueiia pseiidargiolus, Boisd.-Lec, 

var. piasns, Boisduval, c^ . 
,1. Lvcccua divdaliis, Behr, rj'- 



24. 



Lyccctia dcvdalus, Behr, 9- 
Lyca'iia hcteronea, Boisduval, r^ . 
LycaUia hetcronea, Boisduval, 9 • 
Lye cT II a SiVpioliis, Boisduval, (J^. 
LyciViia siVpiolus, Boisduval, 9 . 
lycivna lygdaiiun. Doubleday, J"' 
LvccTiia lygdaiiias^ Doubleday, 9 
LyccTiia sagilligcra. Felder, (J'. 
Lyccciia sagittigt-ra, Felder, 9- 
LyCiViia soiiorcnsis, Felder, <^. 
LyciTiia .soiioi't'iisis, Felder, 9 • 
LyccTiia sbasta, Edwards, (J" . 
Lyca^na sbasta, Edwards, 9 ■ 
LyciTita mclissa, Edwards, rf. 
Lycrnia mclissa. Edwards, 9- 
lyciTiia aciiioii. Dbl.-Hew., <^. 
Lyc.viia aciiioii. Dbl.-Hew., 9- 
LyccTiia coiiiyiilas, Godart, r^. 
Lvccriia coiiiyiitas, Godart, 9- 
Lyca'iia amnion, Lucas, 9- 
Lyca'iia marina, Reakirt, 9 



^5?*^ 



The Butterfly Booh 



Plate XXXI. 




^. X .-SJ 



^' 



Hi 



...^^ 




^^p 

wW 



r 



^ 



\/ 




o 



'^^^ 6 • WiT 





i J 



^s^§^ ^. -^.^1^ 







^:# v^ #T^ mm 



r .' -) 




17 







19 

^ ^ ** 







27 



28 



^!* . •iw ^(^ ^|i^ 

^' 32 



'VRIGHTEO BY W. J. HOLLAND 18 



The Utility of Entomology 

been estimated that every known species of plant has five or six 
species of insects which habitually feed upon it. Where the 
plant is one that is valuable to man and is grown for his use, 
the horticulturist or the farmer finds himself confronted, pres- 
ently, by the ravages of these creatures, and unless he has cor- 
rect information as to the best manner in which to combat them, 
he is likely to suffer losses of a serious character. We all have 
read of the havoc wrought by the Kansas locust, or grasshopper, 
and of the ruin brought about by insects of the same class in 
Asia and in Africa. We all have heard of the Hessian fly, of 
the weevil, and of the army-worm. The legislature of Massa- 
chusetts has in recent years been spending hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars in the attempt to exterminate the gipsy-moth. 
The caterpillar of the cabbage-butterfly ruins every year material 
enough to supply sauer-kraut to half of the people. The cod- 
ling-moth, the little pinkish caterpillar of which worms its way 
through apples, is estimated to destroy five millions of dollars' 
worth of apples every year within the limits of the United 
States. And what shall we say of the potato-bug, that prettily 
striped beetle, which, starting from the far West, has taken pos- 
session of the potato-fields of the continent, and for the exter- 
mination of which there is annually spent, by the agricultural 
communities of the United States, several millions of dollars in 
labor and in poisons ? 

A few facts like these serve to show that the study of ento- 
mology is not a study which deserves to be placed in the cate- 
gory of useless pursuits. Viewed merely from a utilitarian 
standpoint, this study is one of the most important, far outrank- 
ing, in its actual value to communities, the study of many 
branches of zoological science which some people affect to regard 
as of a higher order. 

The legislature of Pennsylvania acted wisely in passing a law 
which demands that in every high school established within the 
State there shall be at least one teacher capable of giving instruc- 
tion in botany and in entomology. The importance of entomol- 
ogy, while not perceived by the masses as yet, has been recog- 
nized by almost all the legislatures of the States; and not only 
the general government of the United States, but the governments 
of the individual commonwealths, are at the pre^sent time em- 
ploying a number of carefully trained men, whose business is to 

257 



Genus Lycaena 

ascertain the facts and instruct the people as to the best manner 
in which to ward off the attacks of the insect swarms, which are 
respecters neither of size nor beauty in the vegetable world, at- 
tacking alike the majestic oak and the lowliest mosses. 



Genus LYCi?ENA, Fabricius 
(The Blues) 

" Bright butterflies 
Fluttered their vans, azure and green and gold." 

Sir Edwin Arnold. 

Butterfly.— Generally small, for the most part blue on the 
upper side of the wings, white or gray on the under side, vari- 
ously marked with spots and lines. 

What has been said in reference to the subdivision of the 
genus Thecla may be repeated in regard to the genus which we 
are considering. It has been in recent years subdivided by 
writers who have given close attention to the matter, and these 
subdivisions are entirely defensible from a scientific standpoint. 
Nevertheless, owing to the close resemblance which prevails 
throughout the group, in this book, which is intended for popu- 
lar use, the author has deemed it best not to separate the species, 
as to do so presupposes a minute anatomical knowledge, which 
the general reader is not likely to possess. 

£^^.— The eggs are for the most part flattened, turban- 
shaped (see p. 4, Fig. 7). 

C^/^r/)/7/<2r.— Slug-shaped, as in the preceding genera, feed- 
ing upon the petals and bracts of flowers, or upon delicate ter- 
minal leaves. 

Chrysalis.— Closely resembling the chrysalids of the preceding 
genera. 

This genus is very widely distributed in the temperate re- 
gions of both hemispheres. Many of the species are inhabitants 
of the cold North or high mountain summits, while others are 
found in the tropics. 

(i) Lycsena fuliginosa, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 16, Sy 
under side (The Sooty Gossamer-wing). 

Butterfly. — DdLX^ gray on the upper side in both sexes. On 

258 



Genus Lycaena 

the under side the figure in the plate gives a correct representa- 
tion of the color and markings. Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — X^nkno^^n. 

The species occurs in northern California, Utah, Nevada, 
Oregon, and Washington. 

(2) Lycaena heteronea, Boisduval, Plate XXXI, Fig. 13, 6 ; 
Fig. 14, ? ; Plate XXXII, Fig. 19, $, w;/^^r 5/^^ (The Varied Blue). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side the male is blue, the female 
brown. On the under side the wings are white, with faint pale- 
brown spots on the hind wings and distinct black spots on the 
fore wings, more numerous than in L. lycea, which it closely 
resembles on the under side. It is the largest species of the 
genus, and the female reminds us by its markings on the upper 
side of the females of Chrysophanus. Expanse, i. 25-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages.— These await description. 

Heteronea ranges from Colorado to California, at suitable ele- 
vations among the mountains. 

(3) Lycaena clara, Henry Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 26, $ 
(The Bright Blue). 

Butterfly.— The figure in the plate is that of the type of the 
female, the only specimen in my collection. Expanse, 1.15 inch. 
Early Stages.— These are entirely unknown. 
The type came from southern California. 

(4) Lycaena lycea, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 18, $ , under 
side (Lycea). 

Butterfly.— The perfect insect is very nearly as large as L. het- 
eronea. The male is lilac-blue on the upper side, with the mar- 
gins dusky. The black spots of the under side do not show 
through on the upper side, as in L. heteronea. The female is 
dusky, with the wings shot with blue at their bases, more es- 
pecially on the fore wing. There are no black spots on the 
upper side of the wings in this sex, as in L. heteronea. On the 
under side the wings are whitish. The spots on this side are 
well delineated in our figure in Plate XXXII. Expanse, 1.30 inch. 

Early Stages.— These await description. 

The butterfly is found in the region of the Rocky Mountains, 
from New Mexico to Montana. 

(5) Lycaena fuUa, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 24, $ ; Fig. 25, 
? (Fulla). 

Butterfly .— SrmWex than the preceding species. The upper 

259 



Genus Lycaena 

side of the male is not lilac-blue, but ultramarine. The female 
is almost indistinguishable on the upper side from the female of 
L. lycea. On the under side the wings are pale stone-gray, with 
a black spot at the end of the cell of the primaries and a large 
white spot at the end of the cell of the secondaries. The other 
spots, which are always ringed about with white, are located 
much as in L. icarioides (see Plate XXX, Fig. 29). Expanse, 1. 1 5- 
1.20 inch. 

Early 5/^^-^5.— Unknown. 

Fulla occurs in northern California, Oregon, Washington, and 
British Columbia. 

(6) Lycsena icarioides, Boisduval (mintha, Edwards), Plate 
XXX, Fig. 29, ^ , under side (Boisduval's Blue). 

Butterfly.— 1 he insect on the upper side closely resembles the 
preceding species in both sexes. On the under side it may be 
at once distinguished from the following species by the absence 
on the margin of the hind wings of the fine black terminal line, 
and by having only one, not two rows of submarginal black 
spots. There are other marked and striking differences, and the 
merging of L. dcedalus, Behr, with this species, which has been 
advocated by some recent writers, is no doubt due to their lack 
of sufficient and accurately identified material. Expanse, 1.35 inch. 

Early 5/^^^5. — Unknown. 

This species, which is not common, is found in southern 
California. 

(7) Lycaena daedalus, Behr, Plate XXXI, Fig. 11, ^ ; Fig. 12, 
$ ; Plate XXX, Fig. 28, ? , under side (Behr's Blue). 

Butterfly.— The wings of the male on the upper side are deep 
lustrous blue, with darker borders and white fringes. The 
wings of the female are brown, margined with reddish. The 
name cechaja was applied to this sex by Dr. Behr, before it was 
known to be the female of his L. daedalus. Expanse, 1.12 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have not yet been studied. 

Dcedalus is common in southern California. 

(8) Lycaena saepiolus, Boisduval, Plate XXXI, Fig. 15, 5 ; 
Fig. 16, ? (The Greenish Blue). 

Butterfly.— The male on the upper side has the wings blue, 
shot in certain lights with brilliant green. The female on the 
same side is dusky, with greenish-blue scales at the bases of the 
wings, and often with reddish markings on the outer margin of 

260 



Genus Lycaena 

the hind wings. On the under side the wings are gray or pale 
wood-brown, with greenish-blue at their base and a profusion of 
small black spots margined with white. Now and then the 
black spots are lost, the white margins spreading inwardly and 
usurping the place of the black. Expanse, .95-1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages.— Jhtse await further study. 

The species ranges from British Columbia to Colorado. 

(9) Lycaena pheres, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 37, <$ ; Fig. 
42, ? , under side (Pheres). 

Butterfly.— Iht male is pale shining blue above, with dusky 
borders. The female is dusky, with a little blue at the base of 
the wings on the same side. Below, the spots on the fore wings 
are strongly defined; on the hind wings they are white on a pale 
stone-gray ground. Expanse, 1.20 inch. 

Early Stages.— We know no more of these than we do of 
those of the preceding species. 

Pheres has nearly the same range as scepiolus. 

(10) Lycaena xerxes, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 43, $ , under 
side (Xerxes). 

Butterfly.— The wings in both sexes are dusky above, shot 
with blue, more widely in the male than in the female. On the 
under side the wings are dark stone-color, with all the spots on 
both wings white, very rarely slightly pupiled with blackish. 
Expanse, 1.25 inch. 

Early S/^^'^5. — Unknown. 

The species is found in central California. 

(11) Lycaena antiacis, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 35, $, 
under side; Fig. }6, $ ; Fig. 41, ? (The Eyed Blue). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side the male is pale lilac-blue, the 
female dusky, heavily marked with blue at the base of the wings. 
On the under side the wings are deep, warm stone-gray. There 
is a single quite regular band of large-sized black spots on the 
fore wing beyond the middle, and a triply festooned curved band 
of similar spots on the hind wing. These spots are all margined 
with white. Expanse, 1. 15-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages.— These await description. 

The insect is found in California. 

(12) Lycaena couperi, Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 34, 5, under 
side (Couper's Blue). 

Butterfly. — The wings of the male above are pale shining blue, 

261 



Genus Lycaena 

with a narrow black border; of the female darker blue, broadly 
margined externally with dusky. On the under side the wings 
are dark brownish-gray, with the spots arranged much as in L. 
antiacis, but with those of the hind wings generally white, and 
without a dark pupil. The series on the fore wing is usually 
distinctly pupiled with black. Expanse, 1.25 inch. 

Early S/(3^^5. — Unknown. 

The species is found in Newfoundland, Labrador, Anticosti, 
and westward and northward. It is a boreal form. 

(13) Lycaena lygdamas, Doubleday, Plate XXXI, Fig. 17, 
S ; Fig. 18, ? ; Plate XXX, Fig. 50, ?, under side (The Silvery 
Blue). 

Butferfly.— The male has the upper side of the wings pale 
silvery-blue, narrowly edged with black; the wings of the female 
on the upper side are darker blue, dusky on the borders, with a 
dark spot at the end of the cell of the primaries. On the under 
side the wings are pale chocolate-brown, with a submarginal 
band of black spots, margined with white, on both wings, as 
well as a spot at the end of the cells, and one or two on the 
costa of the secondaries. Expanse, .85-1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages.— These are yet to be ascertained. 

The insect is reported from Michigan to Georgia. 

(14) Lycaena sagittigera, Felder. Plate XXXI, Fig. 19, $ ; 
Fig. 20, $ ; Plate XXX, Fig. 44, ? , under side (The Arrow-head 
Blue). 

Butterfly.— The wings in both sexes are variable pale blue, 
dusky on the margins, with white fringes checkered with dusky 
at the ends of the veins. On the under side the wings are dark 
gray, profusely spotted, the most characteristic markings being 
a white ray in the cell of the hind wings, a broad submarginal 
band of white arrow-shaped markings on both wings, with a 
black spot at the tip of each sagittate maculation and a dark 
triangular shade between the barbs. These markings are not 
shown as they should be in Plate XXX, Fig. 44. They are only 
faintly indicated. Expanse, i. 25-1. 30 inch. 

Early Stages.— These await description. 

This butterfly ranges from Oregon to Mexico, and eastward 
as far as Colorado on the mountains. 

(15) Lycsena speciosa, Henry Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 
1,6; Fig. 2, ? , under side (The Small Blue). 

2()2 



Genus Lycaena 

Butterfly.— Quite small; the male pale blue above, edged with 
dusky; the female dusky, with the inner two thirds shot with 
blue. The maculation of the under side is as represented in the 
plate. Expanse, .80 inch. 

Early S/a^'^5. — Unknown. 

Habitat, southern California. 

(16) Lycaena sonorensis, Felder, Plate XXXI, Fig. 21, $ ; 
Fig. 22, ? (The Sonora Blue). 

Bt^tterfly.— Easily distinguished from all other species of the 
genus by the red spots in the region of the median nervules on 
the upper side. Expanse, .87 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This lovely little insect is found rather abundantly in southern 
California and northern Mexico. 

(17) Lycaena podarce, Felder, Plate XXXII, Fig. 15, $ ] 
Fig. 16, ? (The Gray Blue). 

Butterfly.— The male is grayish-blue above, with dusky mar- 
gins, lighter on the disk of both the fore and hind wings. There 
are a few dark marginal crescents on the hind wings. On the 
under side the wings are very pale, profusely spotted, the spot 
at the end of the cell of the secondaries being large and whitish, 
without a pupil, the rest being black ringed about with white. 
The female is dark brown above, the fore wings having a black 
spot ringed about with yellowish at the end of the cell. Ex- 
panse, 1.05 inch. 

Early Stages.— These have never been described. 

The species is thus far known from California, Nevada, and 
Colorado. It is alpine in its habits. 

(18) Lycaena aquilo, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 9, $ ; Fig. 
10, $ , under side (The Labrador Blue). 

Butterfly.— The male is dusky bluish-gray on the upper side; 
the female somewhat darker. It is easily distinguished from 
other species by the dark-brown shades on the under side of the 
secondaries. Expanse, .80 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

It is found in Labrador and arctic America. 

(19) Lycaena rustica, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 17, 5, 
under side (The Rustic Blue). 

Butterfly.— Much like the preceding species, but a third larger, 
and brighter blue on the upper side of the wings of the male. On 

26;^ 



Genus Lycaena 

the under side the disposition of the spots and markings is pre- 
cisely as in L. aquilo, but on the secondaries the dark spots and 
shades are all replaced by white on a pale-gray ground. Ex- 
panse, .90-1.00 inch. 

Early Stages.— V^& are in complete ignorance as to these. 

The butterfly is found in British America and on the Western 
Cordilleras. 

(20) Lycaena enoptes, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 30, $ , 
under side; Fig. 51, $> (The Dotted Blue). 

Butterfly.— T\\t wings on the upper side are purplish-blue,— 
pale in the male, darker in the female,— bordered with dusky, 
more heavily in the female than in the male. The fringes are 
white, checkered with dusky at the ends of the veins. The fe- 
male sometimes has the hind wings marked on the upper side 
with red marginal spots on the inner half of the border. On the 
under side the wings are pale bluish-gray, marked with a profu- 
sion of small black spots, those on the outer margin arranged in 
two parallel lines, between which, on the hind wings, are red 
spots. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages.— Av^saimg description. 

Enoptes ranges from Washington to Arizona. 

(21) Lycaena glaucon, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 31, ?, 
under side; Fig. 39, 6 (The Colorado Blue). 

Bw//^r/ji^. — Purplish-blue, closely resembling the preceding 
species, but having the black margin of the wings broader than 
in L. enoptes, with the dark crescents of the marginal series on 
the under side showing through as darker spots in the margins 
of the hind wings. The female has a band of orange spots on 
the margins of the secondaries. The two marginal rows of 
spots on the lower side of the wings are arranged and colored as 
in the preceding species. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages.— Oi these we must again confess ignorance. 

Glaucon ranges from Washington into California, and east- 
ward to Colorado, where it is quite common in the mountain 
valleys. 

{22) Lycaena battoides, Behr, Plate XXXII, Fig. 11, 5 
(Behr's Blue). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side paler blue than the preceding 
species, with the hind margin tinged with reddish, shining through 
from below, and small crescentic dark spots. On the under side 

264 



Genus Lycsena 

the wings are smoky-gray, with all the black spots, which are 
arranged as in the preceding species, greatly enlarged and quad- 
rate, and a broad submarginal border of orange on the hind 
wingSo The female is like the male, but with more orange on 
the upper side of the hind wings. 

Early Stages. — But little is, as yet, known of these. 

The insect ranges from California and Arizona to Colorado. 

(2}) Lycsena shasta, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 23, $ ; 
Fig. 24, ? (The Shasta Blue). 

Butterfly.— The figures in the plate give a fairly good idea of 
the upper side of this species in both sexes, though the male is 
not quite so dark a blue as represented. On the under side the 
wings have the usual black spots, on a dirty-gray ground, and, 
in addition, on the hind wings there are a number of small mar- 
ginal spots surmounted by metallic-colored bluish-green scales, 
somewhat like those found in some species of the genus Thecla. 
Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages.— So far as I know, these have never been de- 
scribed. 

My specimens are all from Montana and Nevada. It is also 
reported from northern California, Oregon, and Kansas, though I 
question the latter locality. 

(24) Lycaena melissa, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 25, ^ ; 
Fig. 26, $ (The Orange-margined Blue). 

Butterfly.— Tht male on the upper side is pale blue, with a 
narrow black marginal line and white fringes. The female is 
brown or lilac-gray, with a series of orange-red crescents on the 
margins of both wings. On the under side the wings are stone- 
gray, with the usual spots, and on the secondaries the orange- 
colored marginal spots are oblong, tipped inwardly with black 
and outwardly by a series of metallic-green maculations. Expanse, 
.90-1. 1 3" inch. 

Early Stages.— V^t know very little about these. 

It is found from Kansas to Arizona, and northward to Mon- 
tana. 

(25) Lycaena scudderi, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 48, 5 ; 
Fig. 49, ? ; Plate V, Fig. 41, chrysalis (Scudder's Blue). 

Butterfly. — The commonest Eastern representative of the 
group to which the preceding four or five and the following 
three species belong. On the upper side the male cannot be dis- 

265 



Genus Lycaena 

tinguished from L. melissa; the female is darker and has only a 
few orange crescents on the outer margin of the hind wing. On 
the under side the wings are shining white, the spots are much 
reduced in size, the large orange spots found in L. melissa 
are replaced by quite small yellowish or ochreous spots, and the 
patches of metallic scales defining them externally are very 
minute. Expanse, i.oo-i. lo inch. 

Early Stages.— These are accurately described by Dr. Scudder 
in his great work, ''The Butterflies of New England," and by 
others. The caterpillar feeds upon the lupine, and probably 
other leguminous plants. 

It is widely distributed through the basin of the St. Lawrence, 
the region of the Great Lakes, and northward as far as British 
Columbia, being also found on the Catskill Mountains. I have 
found it very common at times about Saratoga, New York. 

{26) Lycsena acmon, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXXI, 
Fig. 27, 6 ; Fig. 28, ? (Acmon). 

Butterfly.— The plate gives a good representation of the male 
and the female of this pretty species, which may at a glance be 
distinguished from all its allies by the broad orange-red band on 
the hind wings, marked by small black spots. On the under side 
it is marked much as L. melissa. Expanse, .90-1.10 inch. 

Early 5/<3^^5. — Unknown. 

It is found from Arizona to Washington and Montana. 

(27) Lycaena aster, Plate XXX, Fig. 40, $ ; Fig. 46, ? ; Fig. 
47, $ , tinder side (The Aster Blue). 

Butterfly.— On the under side this species is very like enoptes 
and other allied species. The male looks like a dwarfed speci- 
men of L. scudderi. The female is dull bluish-gray above, with 
black spots on the outer margins of the wing, most distinct on 
the secondaries, and, instead of a band of orange spots before 
them, a diffuse band of blue spots, paler than the surrounding 
parts of the wing. Expanse, .95-1.00 inch. 

Early Stages.— These furnish a field for investigation. 

The insect is reported thus far only from Newfoundland, 
from which locality 1 obtained, through the purchase of the 
Mead collection, a large and interesting series. 

(28) Lycsena annetta, Mead, Plate XXXII, Fig. 13, ^ ; Fig. 14, 
$ (Annetta). 

Butterfly.— The male closely resembles the male of L. melissa 

266 



Explanation of Plate XXXII 



Lyccena speciosa, Henry Edwards, (j^. 
Lyccena spcciosa, Henry Edwards, 9 , 

under sicL'. 
Lyccena 'ha lino, Stoll, (^, wider side. 
Lyca'ua isophthaUua, Herrich-Schaf- 

fer, c^. 
Lyccena exilis, Boisduval, (J\ 
Lyccena theonus, Lucas, 9- 
Lyccena amy n tula, Boisduval, (J\ 
Lyccena amy nt III a, Boisduval, 9- 
Lyca'na aquilo, Boisduval, (^. 
Lyccena aqiiilo, Boisduval, ^, under 

side. 
Lyccena hattoides. Behr, fj^. 
LyciTna comyntas, Godart, (^, under 

side. 
Lyccena annetta , Mead, c^. 
Lyccena annetta, Mead, Q . 
Lyccena podarce, Felder, (^. 
Lyccena podarce, Felder, 9 • 
Lyccena rustica, Edwards, (^ , under 

side. 
Lyccena /ircj, .Edwards, rj*, under 
' side, 
lyccena beieronea, Boisduval, 9, 

under side. 



34- 



Thecla inelinus, Hi'ibner, -^ . 
Nat ha I is iole, Boisduval, rj\ 
Nathalis iole, Boisduval, 2. 
Euchloi' creusa, Dbl.-Hew., ^. 
Euchloe ausonides, Boisduval, (^. 
Euchloe ausonides. Boisduval, 9- 
Euchlo'e cethura , Felder, rf. 
Euchloe cethura, Felder, 9 • 
Euchloi; sara, Boisduval, rf . 
Euchloe sara, Boisduval, 9- 
Euchloe lanceolat a, Boisduval, rf. 
Euchloe sara, Boisduval, var. reakirli, 

Edwards, (^'. 
Euchloe sara, Boisduval, var. rea~ 

kirti, Edwards, 9 ■ 
Euchloe pitna, Edwards, rj". 
Euchloe' sara, Boisduval, var. j'ulia, 

Edwards, (J'. 
Euchloe' sara, Boisduval, var. stella. 

Edwards, (^ . 
Euchloe sara, Boisduval, var. si ell a, 

Edwards, 9 • 
Euchloi' genutia, Fabricius, (J'. 
Euchloi' genutia, Fabricius, 9- 
Euchloe olympia, Edwards, var. msa. 

Edwards, r^, under side. 



The Butterfly Book 



Plate XXXI I 



V 



X4*J^ ^\^y^ 






i' 

r 







mi 



Genus Lycaena 

on the upper side. The female is paler than the male, which is 
unusual in this genus, and has a *' washed-out" appearance. 
On the under side the markings are very like those found in 
L. scudderi. Expanse, 1.15 inch. 

Early 5/<2^^5.— Entirely unknown. 

The types which I possess came from Utah. 

(29) Lycaena pseudargiolus, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate 
XXXI, Fig. 6, 6 ; Fig. 7, ? ; Plate XXX, Fig. }2, $ , under side; 
Plate V, Figs. ^6, 43, 44, chrysalis (The Common Blue), 

Butterfly.— l\\\s common but most interesting insect has been 
made the subject of most exhaustive and elaborate study by Mr. 
W. H. Edwards, and the result has been to show that it is highly 
subject to variation. It illustrates the phenomena of polymor- 
phism most beautifully. The foregoing references to the plate 
cite the figures of the typical summer form. In addition to this 
form the following forms have received names : 

{a) Winter form lucia, Kirby, Plate XXXI, Fig. 1,6; Plate 

XXX, Fig. 20, $ , under side. This appears in New England 
in the early spring from overwintering chrysalids, and is charac- 
terized by the brown patch on the middle of the hind wing on 
the under side. 

{b) Winter form marginata, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 2, 

5 ; Fig. 3, $ ; Plate XXX, Fig. 19, 6, under side. This ap- 
pears at the same time as the preceding form. The 
specimens figured in the plate were taken in Man- 
itoba. This form is characterized by the dark 
margins of the wings on the under side. 

{c) Winter form violacea, Edwards, Plate 

XXXI, Fig. 5, $> . This is the common winter 
form. The spots below are distinct, but never 
fused or melted together, as in the two preceding 

r. Fig. 136.— 

^0^"1S. Neuration of Ijj;- 

{d) Form nigra, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 4, ccena pseudargi- 

^ •~^^ • ^1 J • J ' ■ J olus, enlarged. 

6 . The wings on the under side are as in viola- xypical of sub- 
cea, but are black above. It is found in West Vir- genus Cyaniris, 

, 1 • /^ 1 J Dalman. 

ginia and occurs also in Colorado. 

{e) Summer form neglecta, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 8, S ; 
Fig. 9, ? . This is smaller than the typical form pseudargiolus, 
also has the dark spots on the under side of the wings more dis- 
tinct, and the hind wings, especially in the female, paler. 

267 




Genus Lycaena 

(/) Southern form piasus, Plate XXXI, Fig. lo, $ . This 
form, which is uniformly darker blue on the upper side than the 
others, is found in Arizona. 

There are still other forms which have been named and 
described. 

Early Stages.— These have been traced through all stages with 
minutest care. The egg is delineated in this book on p. 4, Fig. 7. 
The caterpillar is slug-shaped, and feeds on the tender leaves and 
petals of a great variety of plants. 

The range of the species is immense. It extends from Alaska 
to Florida, and from Anticosti to Arizona. 

(30) Lycsena amyntula, Boisduval, Plate XXXIl, Fig. 7, $ ; 
Fig. 8, $ (The Western Tailed Blue). 

Btctter fly.— Closely resembling L. comynias, of which it may 
be only a slightly modified Western form. Until the test of 
breeding has been applied we cannot be sure of this. The fig- 
ures in the plate give a very good representation of the upper 
side of the wings of this species. 

Early Stages. — But little has been found out concerning these. 

It ranges from the eastern foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains to 

the Pacific in British America and the northern tier of Western States. 

(31) Lycaena comyntas, Godart, Plate XXXI, 

Fig. 29, S ; Fig. 30, ? ; Plate XXXII, Fig. 12, $ , 

under side; Plate V, Figs. 42, 47, 48, chrysalis 

(The Eastern Tailed Blue). 

Butterfly.— The blue of the upper side of the 
male in the plate is too dark; but the female and 
the under side of the wings are accurately deline- 
^ ated. The species is generally tailed, but speci- 
Neuration^'^ of ^^"s without tails occur. Expanse, i.oo-i. 10 inch. 
Lyccena comyn- Early Stages.— These are well known and have 
Typicarof^^he t»een fully described. The caterpillar feeds on legu- 
subgenus Ev- minous plants. 

eres, Hubner. jj^j^ delicate little species ranges from the val- 

ley of the Saskatchewan to Costa Rica, and from the Atlantic to 
the foot-hills of the Western Cordilleras. It is common in the 
Middle and Western States, flitting about roadsides and weedy 
forest paths. 

{}2) Lycsena isola, Reakirt, Plate XXX, Fig. }}, ? , under 
side; Fig. 38, ? (Reakirt's Blue). 

268 




Genus Lycaena 

Butterfly.— The male on the upper side is pale lilac-blue, with 
the outer borders and the ends of the veins narrowly dusky. The 
female is brownish-gray on the upper side, with the wings at 
their base glossed with blue. In both sexes there is a rather con- 
spicuous black spot on the margin of the hind wings between 
the first and second median nervules. The under side is accu- 
rately depicted in our plate, to which the student may refer. 
Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. — \}nkx\ov^n. 

The species occurs in Texas, Arizona, and Mexico. 

{^^) Lycaena hanno, Stoll, Plate XXXll, Fig. 3, $> , under side 
(The Florida Blue). 

Buttei'fly.— Larger than the preceding species, on the upper 
side resembling L. isola; but the blue of the male is not lilac, but 
bright purplish, and the female is much darker. On the under 
side a striking distinction is found in the absence on the fore 
wing of the postmedian band of large dark spots so conspicuous 
in L. isola. Expanse, .85 inch. 

Early Stages.— We have no information as to these. 

The insect occurs in Florida and throughout the Antilles and 
Central America. 

(34) Lycaena isophthalma, Herrich-Schiiffer, Plate XXXII, 
Fig. 4, S (The Dwarf Blue). 

Butterfly.— Light brown on the upper side in both sexes, with 
the outer margin of the hind wings set with a row of dark spots, 
which on the under side are defined by circlets of metallic scales. 
The under side is pale brown, profusely marked by light spots 
and short bands. Expanse, .75 inch. 

Early Stages.— Up to this time we have learned very little con- 
cerning them. 

The species occurs in the Gulf States and the Antilles. 

(35) Lycaena exilis, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 5, $ (The 
Pygmy Blue). 

Butterfly.— On the upper side this, which is the smallest of 
North American butterflies, very closely resembles the foregoing 
species, but may be instantly distinguished by the white spot at 
the inner angle of the fore wing and the white fringes of the 
same wing near the apex. The hind wings on the under side 
are set with a marginal series of dark spots ringed about with 
metallic scales. Expanse, .65 inch. 

269 



Genus Lycaena 

Early 5/<^^^5. — Unknown. 

The Pygmy is found in the Gulf States and throughout trop- 
ical America. 

{^6) Lycaena ammon, Lucas, Plate XXXI, Fig. 31, $ ; Plate 
XXX, Fig. 45, ? , under side (The Indian River Blue). 

Butterfly.— T\\Q male is brilliant lilac-blue on the upper 
side; the female shining violet-blue, with very dark and wide 
black borders on the fore wings and one or two conspicuous 
black eye-spots near the anal angle of the hind wings, each sur- 
mounted by a carmine crescent. The figure in Plate XXX gives 
a correct representation of the under side. Expanse, .95-1.10 
inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This beautiful little insect is not uncommon in southern Flor- 
ida, and also occurs in the Antilles and tropical America. 

(37) Lycaena marina, Reakirt, Plate XXXI, Fig. }2, $ ; 
Plate XXX, Fig. 27, ? , under side (The Marine Blue). 

Btitterjfy.— The male, on the upper side, is pale dusky-lilac, 
the dark bands of the lower side appearing faintly on the upper 
side. The female is dark brown on the upper side, with the 
wings at the base shot with bright lilac-blue; the dark bands 
on the disk in this sex are prominent, especially on the fore wings. 
The under side of the wings is accurately depicted in Plate XXX 
and therefore requires no description. Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Marina is found in Texas, Arizona, southern California, and 
southward. 

(38) Lycaena theonus, Lucas, Plate XXXII, Fig. 6, ? (The 
West Indian Blue). 

Butterfly.— J\\tm2i\Q is shining lavender-blue, this color gloss- 
ing the dark outer borders of the wings; the female is white, 
with the outer costal borders heavily blackish, the primaries shot 
with shining sky-blue toward the base. On the under side the 
wings are crossed by dark bands of spots, arranged much as in 
L. marina, but darker. The hind wings, near the anal angle, 
have conspicuous eye-spots both above and below. Expanse, 
.80 inch. 

Early S/^^^s.— Unknown. 

This lovely insect is found in the Gulf States and all over the 
hot lands of the New World. 

270 



Size 



SIZE 

Size, like wealth, is only relative. The farmer who owns a 
hundred acres appears rich to the laborer whom he employs to 
cut his wheat; but many a millionaire spends in one month as 
much as would purchase two such farms. The earth seems great 
to us, and the sun still greater; but doubtless there are suns the 
diameter of which is equal to the distance from the earth to the sun, 
in which both earth and sun would be swallowed up as mere drops 
in an ocean of fire. In the animal kingdom there are vast dispar- 
ities in size, and these disparities are revealed in the lower as well 
as in the higher classes. In the class of mammals we find tiny mice 
and great elephants ; in the insect world we find beetles which are 
microscopic in size, and, not distantly related to them, beetles as 
large as a clenched fist. The disparity between a field-mouse 
and a sulphur-bottomed whale is no greater than the disparity in 
size which exists between the smallest and the largest of the 
beetle tribe. And so it is with the lepidoptera. It would take 
several thousands of the Pygmy Blue, Lyccena exilis, to equal in 
weight one of the great bird-wing butterflies of the Australian 
tropics. The greatest disparity in size in the order of the lepidop- 
tera is not, however, shown in the butterflies, but among the moths. 
There are moths the wings of which do not cover more than 
three sixteenths of an inch in expanse, and there are moths with 
great bulky bodies and wings spreading from eight to nine inches. 
It would require ten thousand of the former to equal in weight 
one of the latter, and the disproportion in size is as great as that 
which exists between a shrew and a hippopotamus, or between 
a minnow and a basking-shark. 

It is said that, taking the sulphur-bottomed whale as the 
representative of the most colossal development of flesh and 
blood now existing on land or in the sea, and then with the 
microscope reaching down into the realm of protozoan life, the 
common blow-fly will be ascertained to occupy the middle point 
on the descending scale. Man is, therefore, not only mentally, 
but even physically, a great creature, though he stands some- 
times amazed at what he regards as the huge proportions of other 
creatures belonging to the vertebrates. 



271 



FAMILY IV 
PAPILIONID^ (THE SWALLOWTAILS AND ALLIES) 

The butterflies of this family in both sexes are provided with 
six ambulatory feet. The caterpillars are elongate, and in the 
genera Papilio and Ornithoptera have osmateria, or protrusive 
scent-organs, used for purposes of defense. 

The chrysalids in all the genera are more or less elongate, at- 
tached at the anal extremity, and held in place by a girdle of silk, 
but they never lie appressed to the surface upon which pupation 
takes place, as is true in the Erycinidce and Lyccenidce. 

SUBFAMILY PIERIN^ (THE SULPHURS AND WHITES) 

*' Fly, white butterflies, out to sea, 
Frail pale wings for the winds to try; 
Small- white wings that we scarce can see 

Fly. 
Here and there may a chance-caught eye 
Note, in a score of you, twain or three 
Brighter or darker of tinge or dye; 
Some fly light as a laugh of glee, 
Some fly soft as a long, low sigh: 
All to the haven where each would be, — 
Fly." Swinburne. 

Butterfly, — For the most part medium-sized or small butter- 
flies, white or yellow in color, with dark marginal markings. In 
many genera the subcostal vein of the fore wing has five, or even in 
some cases six nervules, and the upper radial is lacking in this wing. 

Early Stages. — The eggs are spindle-shaped, marked with 
vertical ridges and cross-lines. The caterpillars are cylindrical, 
relatively long, generally green in color, longitudinally striped with 
darker or paler lines. The chrysalids are generally more or less 
pointed at the head, with the wing-cases in many of the genera 
greatly developed on the ventral side, forming a deep, keel- 
shaped projection upon this surface. 

272 



■Explanation of Plate XXXllI 

CjIoP^iIu-' ,g^nthv, Boisduval, r/ . - '/,'.\-,j; 
CalopsUia cuhule, Lmnsus, d', uu- o. n ;^;Ht ^ 



^7f;- sidi 



(lev side' 
4. Catopsiliaphilca. Linnsus, rf' 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXXIII. 



5» 




PVRIGMTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1 



Genus Dismorphia 

This subfamily is very large, and is enormously developed in 
the tropics of both hemispheres. Some of the genera are very 
widely distributed in temperate regions, especially the genera P/m5 
and Colias. 




Genus DISMORPHIA, Hubner 

" I saw him run after a gilded butterfly; and when he caught it, he let it go 
again; and after it again; and over and over he comes, and up again; catched it 
again." Shakespeare, Coriolanus. 

Butterfly. — The butterflies are medium sized, varying much in 
the form of wing, in some species greatly resembling other Pierince 
in outline, but more frequently resembling the Ithomiid and 
Heliconiid butterflies, which they mimic. Some of them rep- 
resent transitional forms between the 
type commonly represented in the genus 
Pieris and the forms found in the two 
above-mentioned protected groups. The 
eyes are not prominent. The palpi are 
quite small. The basal joint is long, 
the middle joint oval, and the third joint 
small, oval, or slightly club-shaped. The 
antennae are long, thin, terminating in a 
gradually enlarged spindle-shaped club; 
the fore wings being sometimes oval, 
more frequently elongated, twice, or even 
three times, as long as broad, especially in the male sex; the apex 
pointed, falcate, or rounded. The cell is long and narrow. The 
first subcostal vein varies as to location, rising either before or after 
the end of the cell, and, in numerous cases, coalescing with the 
costal vein, as is shown in the cut. 

Early Stages. — Of the early stages of these interesting insects 
we have no satisfactory knowledge. 

The species of the genus belong exclusively to the tropical 
regions of the New World. There are about a hundred species 
which have already been named and described, and undoubtedly 
there are many more which remain to be discovered. These in- 
sects can always be distinguished from the protected genera 
which they mimic by the possession of six well-developed am- 
bulatory feet in both sexes, the protected genera being possessed 
of only four feet adapted to walking. 

273 



Fig. 138. — Neuration of the 
genus Dismorphia. 



Genus Neophasia 

(i) Dismorphia melite, Linnaeus, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 17, ^ \ 
Fig. 18, ? (The Mime). 

Butterfly. — The figures in the plate make a description of the 
upper side unnecessary. On the under side the wings of the 
male are shining white, except the costa, which is evenly dull 
ochreous from the base to the apex. The hind wings are ochre- 
ous, mottled with pale brown. The female, on the under side, 
has the fore wings very pale yellow, with the black spots of the 
upper side reproduced; the hind wings are deeper yellow, mot- 
tled with pale-brown spots and crossed by a moderately broad 
transverse pale-brown band of the same color. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species is credited to our fauna on the authority of Reakirt. 
It is abundant in Mexico. It mimics certain forms of Ithomiince. 



Genus NEOPHASIA, Behr 

" It was an hour of universal joy. 
The lark was up and at the gate of heaven, 
Singing, as sure to enter when he came; 
The butterfly was basking in my path, 
His radiant wings unfolded." 

Rogers. 

Butterfly. — Medium sized, white in color, more nearly related 
in the structure of its wings to the European genus Aporia^ than 
to any other of the American pieridine genera. The upper radial 
is lacking, and the subcostal is provided with five 
branches, the first emitted well before the end of 
the cell; the second likewise emitted before the 
end of the cell and terminating at the apex; the 
third, fourth, and fifth rising from a common stalk 
at the outer upper angle of the cell. 

Early Stages. — The egg is flask-shaped, fluted 
on the sides, recalling the shape of the "pearl- 
top " lamp-chimney. The caterpillar, in its mature 
form, is about an inch long. The body is cylindri- 
rati'(inof\he~g^nus C''^' terminating in two short anal tails. The color 
Neophasia. is dark green, with a broad white band on each side, 

and a narrow band of white on the back. The feet are black, and 
the prolegs greenish-yellow. The chrysalis is dark green, striped 

274 




Genus Tachyris 

with white, resembling the chrysalids of the genus Colias, but 
somewhat more slender. The caterpillar feeds upon conifers. But 
one species is known. 

(i) Neophasia menapia, Felder, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 7, $> 
(The Pine White). 

Butterfly, — The insect on the under side sometimes has the 
outer margin of the secondaries marked with spots of bright pink- 
ish-red, resembling in this style of coloration certain species of 
the genus Delias of the Indo-Malayan fauna. 

Early Stages. — These have been thoroughly described by Ed- 
wards in his third volume. The caterpillar infests the pine-trees 
and firs of the northern Pacific States. The larva lets itself down 
by a silken thread, often a hundred feet in length, and pupates on 
the ferns and shrubbery at the foot of the trees. It sometimes 
works great damage to the pine woods. 

Genus TACHYRIS, Wallace 

" The virtuoso thus, at noon, 
Broiling beneath a July sun, 
The gilded butterfly pursues 
O'er hedge and ditch, through gaps and mews; 
And, after many a vain essay 
To captivate the tempting prey. 
Gives him at length the lucky pat, 
And has him safe beneath his hat; 
Then lifts it gently from the ground; 
But, ah! 't is lost as soon as found. 
Culprit his liberty regains. 
Flits out of sight, and mocks his pains." 

COWPER. 

This genus, which includes about seventy species, may be 
distinguished from all other genera belonging to the Pierince by the 
two stiff brush-like clusters of hairs which are found in the male 
sex attached to the abdominal clasps. All of the species belong- 
ing to the genus are found in the Old World, with exception 
of the species described in this book, which has a wide range 
throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New 
World. The peculiarities of neuration are well shown in the 
accompanying cut, in which the hind wing has been somewhat 
unduly magnified in proportion to the fore wing. 

Early Stages. — The life-history of our species has not been 
thoroughly studied, but we have ascertained enough of the early 

275 




Genus Pieris 

Stages of various species found in the tropics of the Old World 
to know that there is a very close relationship between this genus 
and that which follows in our classification. 

(i) Tachyris ilaire, Godart, Plate 
XXXV, Fig. 4> S ; Fig. 5, ? (The Florida 
White). 

Butterfly, — The hind wings of the male 
on the underside, which is not shown in 
the plate, are very pale saffron. The under 
side of the wings in the female is pearly- 
white, marked with bright orange-yellow 
at the base of the primaries. A melanic 
form of the female sometimes occurs in 
which the wings are almost wholly dull 
blackish on both sides. 

Early Stages. — We know, as yet, but 
little of these. 

The insect is universally abundant in 
Fig. i4o.-Neuration of ^j^g tropics of America, and occurs in 

the genus Tachyris. Hind ^ ' 

wingrelatively enlarged. southern Florida. 

Genus PIERIS, Schrank 
(The Whites) 

"And there, like a dream in a swoon, I swear 
I saw Pan lying, — his limbs in the dew 
And the shade, and his face in the dazzle and glare 
Of the glad sunshine; while everywhere. 

Over, across, and around him blew 
Filmy dragon-flies hither and there. 
And little white butterflies, two and two, 
In eddies of odorous air." 

James Whitcomb Riley. 

Butterfly. — Medium-sized butterflies, white in color, marked 
in many species on both the upper and under sides with dark 
brown. The antennae are distinctly clubbed, moderate in length. 
The palpi are short, delicate, compressed, with the terminal joint 
quite short and pointed. The subcostal vein of the primaries has 
four branches, the first subcostal arising before the end of the cell, 
the second at its upper outer angle, and the third and fourth from 
a common stem emitted at the same point. The outer margin of 

276 



Genus Pieris 




Fig. 141. — Neuration 
of the genus Pieris. 



the primaries is straight, the outer margin of the secondaries more 
or less evenly rounded. 

Egg. — The Qgg is spindle-shaped, with vertical raised ridges. 

Caterpillar.— ^\ong?itQ, the head hemispherical, very slightly, 
if at all, larger in diameter than the body. The caterpillars feed 
upon cruciferous plants. 

Chrysalis. — Attached by the anal extremity, and held in place 
by a silk girdle; slightly concave on the ventral side; convex on 
the dorsal side, with a distinct or pointed 
hump-like projection on the thorax. At the 
point where the thoracic and abdominal seg- 
ments unite in some species there is in addi- 
tion a distinct keel-shaped eminence, and at 
the head the chrysalis is furnished with a short 
conical projection. 

(i) Pieris monuste, Linnaeus, Plate 
XXXV, Fig. I, 5 ; Fig. 2, ? (The Great South- 
ern White). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings, 
depicted in the plate, requires no comment. 
On the under side the black marginal mark- 
ings of the primaries reappear as pale-brown markings. The hind 
wing is pale yellow or grayish-saffron, crossed by an ill-defined 
pale-brown transverse band of spots, and has the veins marked 
with pale brown, and interspersed between them pale-brown rays 
on the interspaces. 

Early Stages. — What we know of these is derived principally 
from Abbot through Boisduval, and there is opportunity here 
for investigation. 

The species has a wide range through tropical America, and 
is not uncommon in the Gulf States. 

(2) Pieris beckeri, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 8, ^ ; Fig. 
9, ? (Becker's White). 

Butterfly. — This species, through the green markings of the 
under side of the hind wings, concentrated in broad blotches on 
the disk, recalls somewhat the species of the genus Euchloe, and 
by these markings it may easily be discriminated from all other 
allied species. 

Early Stages. — These have been in part described by Edwards 
in the second volume of " The Butterflies of North America." 

277 



Genus Pieris 

The species ranges from Oregon to central California, and 
eastward to Colorado. 

(3) Pieris occidentalis, Reakirt, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 13, $ 
(The Western White). 

Butterfly. — Not unlike the preceding species on the upper 
side, but easily distinguished by the markings of the under side 
of the wings, which are not concentrated in blotches, but extend 
as broad longitudinal rays on either side of the veins from the base 
to the outer margin. 

Early Stages. — These require further investigation. We do 
not, as yet, know much about them. 

The species has a wide range in the mountain States of the 
West, where it replaces the Eastern P. protodice. 

(4) Pieris protodice, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXIV, 
Fig. 10, 6 ; Fig. 11, ? ; Plate II, Fig. 7, larva; Plate V, Figs. 66, 
67, chrysalis (see also p. 12, Fig. 26) (The Common White). 

Butterfly. — Allied to the foregoing species, especially to P. 
occidentalis; but it may always be quickly distinguished by the 
pure, immaculate white color of the hind wings of the male on 
the under side, and by the fact that in the female the hind wings 
are more lightly marked along the veins by gray-green. 

Winter form vernalis, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 18, ^. 
What has been said of the typical or summer form does not hold 
true of this winter form, which emerges from chrysalids which 
have withstood the cold from autumn until spring. The butter- 
flies emerging from these are generally dwarfed in size, and in 
the males have the dark spots on the upper side of the wings al- 
most obsolete or greatly reduced, and the dark markings along the 
veins on the under side well developed, as in P. occidentalis. 
The females, on the contrary, show little reduction in the size 
and intensity of any of the spots, but rather a deepening of color, 
except in occasional instances. 

Early Stages. — The life-history of this insect has often been 
described. The caterpillar feeds upon cruciferous plants, like 
many of its congeners. 

It ranges from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, from 
Canada to the Gulf States. 

(5) Pieris sisymbri, Boisduval, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 12, $> 
(The California White). 

Butterfly, — Smaller in size than the preceding species, with 

278 



Genus Pieris 

the veins of the fore wing black, contrasting sharply with the 
white ground-color. All the spots are smaller and more reg- 
ular, especially those on the outer margin of the fore wing, giving 
the edge an evenly checkered appearance. On the under side the 
hind wings have the veins somewhat widely bordered with gray, 
interrupted about the middle of the wing by the divergence of 
the lines on either side of the veins in such a way as to produce 
the effect of a series of arrow-points with their barbs directed 
toward the base. The female is like the male, with the markings 
a little heavier. A yellow varietal form is sometimes found. 

Early Stages. — The life-history is given and illustrated by Ed- 
wards in his second volume. The caterpillar, which is green, 
banded with black, feeds upon the Cruciferce. 

(6) Pieris napi, Esper, Plate II, Figs. 8, 9, larva; Plate V, 
Figs. 57, 6}, 64, chrysalis (The Mustard White). 

Butterfly. — This is a Protean species, of which there exist 
many forms, the result of climatic and local influences. Even the 
larva and chrysalis show in different regions slight microscopic 
differences, for the influences which affect the imago are opera- 
tive also in the early stages of development. The typical form 
which is found in Europe is rarely found in North America, though 
I have specimens from the northern parts of the Pacific coast re- 
gion which are absolutely indistinguishable from European speci- 
mens in color and markings. I give a few of the well-marked forms 
or varieties found in North America to which names have been given. 

(a) Winterformoleracea-hiemalis, Harris, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 
16, $ (see also p. 5, Fig. 9, and p. 13, Fig. 27). The wings are white 
above in both sexes. Below the fore wings are tipped with pale 
yellow, and the entire hind wing is yellow. The veins at the apex 
of the fore wings and on the hind wings are margined with dusky. 

(b) Aberrant form virginiensis, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 
14, $ . The wings are white above, slightly tipped at the apex 
of the fore wings with blackish. Below the wings are white, 
faintly, but broadly, margined with pale dusky. 

{c) Form pallida, Scudder, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 15, 9. In this 
form the wings are white above and below, with a small black 
spot on the fore wing of the female above, and hardly any trace 
of dark shading along the veins on the under side. 

(d) Alpine or arctic form bryoniae, Ochsenheimer, Plate 
XXXIV, Fig. 17, ?. In this form, which is found in Alaska, 

279 



Instinct 

Siberia, and the Alps of Europe, the veins above and below are 
strongly bordered with blackish, and the ground-color of the 
hind wings and the apex of the fore wings on the under side are 
distinctly bright yellow. 

(e) Newfoundland variety acadica, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, 
Fig. 19, ? . This form is larger than the others, and in markings 
intermediate between pallida and hryonia\ The under side in 
both sexes and the upper side in the female are distinctly yellowish. 

Early Stages. — These are well known and have often been 
described, but some of the varietal forms need further study. 

The species ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from 
Alaska to the northern limits of the Gulf States. 

(7) Pieris rapae, Linnaeus, Plate XXXV, Fig. 3, ? ; Plate II, 
Figs. II, 12, larva; Plate V, Figs. 58, 65, chrysalis (The Cab- 
bage-butterfly). 

Butterfly. — This common species, which is a recent importa- 
tion from Europe, scarcely needs any description. It is flimiliar to 
every one. The story of its introduction and the way in which 
it has spread over the continent has been well told by Dr. Scud- 
der in the second volume of "The Butterflies of New England," 
p. 1 175. The insect reached Quebec about i860. How it came 
no man knows; perhaps in a lot of cabbages imported from 
abroad ; maybe a fertile female was brought over as a stowaway. 
At all events, it came. Estimates show that a single female of this 
species might be the progenitor in a few generations of millions. 
In 1863 the butterfly was already common about Quebec, and was 
spreading rapidly. By the year 1881 it had spread over the eastern 
half of the continent, the advancing line of colonization reaching 
from Hudson Bay to southern Texas. In 1886 it reached Denver, 
as in 1884 it had reached the head waters of the Missouri, and it 
now possesses the cabbage-fields from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
to the incalculable damage of all who provide the raw material for 
sauer-kraut. The injury annually done by the caterpillar is esti- 
mated to amount to hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

INSTINCT 

Two city fathers were standing in the market-place beside a 
pile of cabbages. A naturalist, who was their friend, came by. 
As he approached, a cabbage-butterfly, fluttering about the place, 

280 



Explanation of Plate XXXIV 

1 EucNoc cethura,¥t\dtx,VAy. worn- n. Fi\-ris prolocitc.'. \io\sd.-Lec. 9 ■ 

so,n\ Edwards, d'- ' ''■ P"'''' "'"'^'^- «°'^^^'y^^'' ^ 

^ EuchlolUreus^. DbL-Hew,, ?, uu- .'.. Pwris occickniahs, Reakirt, ,:f 

, . ^.^-^y . 14. Picn's iu'r<^iiiiL'iisis, Edwards, (J'. 

, £.l-Lr!7.xo;//.V.., Bcsduval, J', .^. P/^n. »,p>. Esper. var. /)a///cy.r. 

.///r/.;- sui.: Scudder. ^ . 

4 /^;,r/'/o^ ^.r;v, Boisduval, var. //ora, .0. P/V..V ,ap, . Esp.r. v^r. oUracea-bi^- 

Wright, ,^. '"''^■'■^■- •^^''■•■•'- ^ '• , . 

5 /:/u/'/cv N.r.., Boisduval. var, flora, .7. /^"'r/N ;/.//>/. Esper, var. hrvonnv, 

Wricrht 9 Ochsenheimer, k. 
o £,/r/'/(^- .s.7nr. Boisduval, var. ////m, 18. P/Vm />;'o/ory;a', Boisd.-Lec, var. 

Edwards Q , inider side. r.'n/a/;^, Edwards, rj^. 

7. .V.o/>/n7.s-,;r";;,.;/.7/),.7, Felder, ^. . 10. P;n.> luipi. Esper. var. .Tar.y/c-^. Ed- 

S. P/Vr/.- Z^c'c:A'.r/, Edwards, rf^ wards, Q . 

P/.'r/5 /n^c/c.';-/. Edwards, ?. 20. AVu-o.^oyz/.r (r.s/.f.-, Godart, rf. 

;o Pwrhprotodice, Boisd.-Lec, ^. 2.. /Cnco,c;o;/M /I's/rfr, Godart, ?. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXXIV. 







- « ^ 



« 



t; 



:■ t ■ 



* 



-f 




/ 



-'^HBIi 



r 




COPYRIG^rrED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 



Genus Nathalis 

lit on the straw hat of one of the dignitaries. The naturalist, ac- 
costing him, said: "Friend, do you know what rests upon your 
head?" *'No," said he. '*A butterfly." ''Well," said he, 
" that brings good luck." ** Yes," replied the naturalist; *'and 
the insect reveals to me the wonderful instinct with which nature 
has provided it." " How is that ?" quoth the city father. " It is 
a cabbage-butterfly that rests upon your head." 

Genus NATHALIS, Boisduval 

" The butterflies, gay triflers 
Who in the sunlight sport." 

Heine. * 

Butterfly. — The butterfly is very small, yellow, margined with 
black. The upper radial vein in the fore wing is wanting. The 
subcostal has four nervules, the third and fourth 
rising from a common stalk emitted from the 
upper outer corner ofthe cell, the first and second 
from before the end ofthe cell. The precostal 
vein on the hind wing is reduced to a small 
swelling beyond the base. The palpi are slen- 
der; thethird joint long and curved; the second 
joint oval; the third fine, spindle-shaped, and 
pointed. The antennae are rather short, with a 
somewhat thick and abruptly developed club. p,Q^ ^T^Neura- 

Early Stages. — Very little is known of these, tion ofthe genus Na- 

Three species belong to this genus, which ^ "' ^" ^"^^^ 
is confined to the subtropical regions of the New World, one 
species only invading the region of which this volume treats. 

(i) Nathalis iole, Boisduval, Plate XXXll, Fig. 21, a ; Fig. 22, 
? (The Dwarf Yellow). 

Butterfly. — This little species, which cannot be mistaken, and 
which requires no description, as the plate conveys more infor- 
mation concerning it than could be given in mere words, ranges 
from southern Illinois and Missouri to Arizona and southern Cali- 
fornia. Its life-history has not yet been described. Expanse, i. 00- 
1.25 inch. 

The identification of this species with N, feliciay Poey, which 
is found in Cuba, is doubtfully correct. The two species are 
very closely allied, but, nevertheless, distinct from each other. 

281 





Genus Euchloe 



Genus EUCHLOE, Hubner 

(Anthocharis of authors) 

(The Orange-tips) 

" When daffodils begin to peer, 

With, heigh! the doxy over the dale, 
Why, then comes in the sweet o' the year; 
For the red blood reigns in the winter's pale." 

Shakespeare. 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, white in color, with the apical 
region of the primaries dark brown, marked with spots and bands 
of yellowish-orange or crimson. On the under side 
the wings are generally more or less profusely mot- 
tled with green spots and strii^. 

Egg. — Spindle-shaped (see p. 4, Fig. 6), laterally 
marked with raised vertical ridges, between which 
are finer cross-lines. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar, in its mature stage, 
r, is relatively lons^, with the head small. 

Fig. 14-;.— -^ ^ 

Nouration of Chrvsalis. — With the head relatively enormously 
the genus £•//- projecting; wing-cases compressed, and uniting to 
form a conspicuous keel-shaped projection, the 
highest point of which lies at the juncture of the two ends of the 
silk girdle where they are attached to the supporting surface. 

There are numerous species of this genus, and all are exceed- 
ingly pretty. 

^(i) Euchloe sara, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 28, $ ; Fig. 
29, $ (Sara). 

Butterfly. — The wings on the upper side in both sexes are 
shown in the figures above cited. On the under side the hind 
wings are marked with dark irregular patches of greenish-brown 
scales loosely scattered over the surface, and having a "mossy" 
appearance. 

There are several forms which are regarded by recent writers 
as varieties and may probably be such. Of these we give the 
following: 

{a) Variety reakirti, Edwards. Plate XXXII, Fig. 31, 5 ; Fig. 
}2, ? (Reakirt's Orange-tip) = flora, Wright, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 
4, 6 ; Fig. s, ? . This form hardly differs at all from the form 

2S2 



Genus Euchloe 

sara, except in being smaller, and having the margins of the hind 
wings marked with dark spots at the ends of the veins. 

{b) Variety Stella, Edwards, Plate XXXIl, Fig. 35, 6 ; Fig. 
}6, ? (Stella). The females of this form are prevalently yellow- 
ish on the upper side of the wings; otherwise they are marked 
exactly as the preceding variety. 

{c) Variety julia, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 34, $> ; Plate 
XXXIV, Fig. 6, $ , under side (Julia). The only distinction in 
this form is the fact that the black bar dividing the red apical patch 
from the white on the remainder of the wing is broken, or tends 
to diminution at its middle. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species, in all its forms, belongs to the mountain States 
of the Pacific coast. Flora, Wright, is regarded by Beutenmuller, 
who has given us the latest revision of the genus, as identical with 
sara. It comes nearer the variety reakirti than any other form^ as 
will be seen by an examination of the plates which give figures of 
the types. Expanse, i. 25-1. 75 inch. 

(2) Euchloe ausonides, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 24, 6 ; 
Fig. 25, ? ; Plate XXXIV, Fig. 3, 6 , under side (Ausonides). 

Butterfly. — On the underside the fore wings are greenish; the 
hind wings are marked with three irregular green bands, the 
outer one forking into six or seven branches toward the outer 
and inner margins. Expanse, i. 65-1. 90 inch. 

Early Stages. — The larva and chrysalis are described by Ed- 
wards in "The Butterflies of North America," vol. ii. The cater- 
pillar is pale whitish-green, with dark-green longitudinal stripes 
on the side and back. It feeds on cruciferous plants. 

Ausonides ranges from Arizona to Alaska, and eastward to 
Colorado. 

(3) Euchloe creusa, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXXII, 
Fig. 2}, $ ; Plate XXXIV, Fig. 2, ? , under side (Creusa). 

Butterfly. — Similar to the preceding species, but smaller, the 
white more lustrous on the under side, and the green markings 
on the under side of the wings heavier. Expanse, i. 20-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know very little of these. 

The species is reported from California, Colorado, and Alberta. 
I possess a singular varietal form or aberration from Arizona, in 
which the black spot on the upper side of the primaries fills the 
outer half of the cell. 

283 







Z& B 



27^ 2 : tor:-- -:-:.! :-- ;_ __. ;_:-.._... r. ; " iTIo- 

BwtUrityi^ — T'nis deiiciic jnlc r7T.s=ct, tor liiie ;*'r^T:TT7T*rs£SQa of 
wfe&dL t&se ptsfigs wiH abumfertlT sarre^ lias besi f€ganJeil as 
nffcffng' wk tw0 ladeSai feonsy cioe cif wfaiclfi kss 
7^s£ Use JMlrfeiifflHe colecSiir Monrnoo^ 
famygSFd bf tfis ddts* gmefaliffiffi of 
Tlfie Tarklal imai is ci»EacSaizisd fsf l&e besivisr 
at lfie QEKier side nf 1^ wiogs^ Fx|yaasg,. 1.2^-1.40 



liiJfciMfi. of tise gesKB^ is jdMaw aa tiie ^pper side in lioiii 
Tfee red of t&e qpfier side anyaiB co tfee fcywer sida. Tie 
wio^ 2ce hhi iuli mGgfced witii sofid ^naen liaodiw 

~ T :iHis fir koovn baie cnne imai Affmwa. 

1 _ : - : t it- -ria, FsdifkEoSe PlUe XXXII, fi^ 37, 5 ; 
r^ *. f ; Pfaie DL ¥s^ > £iyv»/ Pfa^ V, fig. 79^ OtysmUi; 
~ . - ±. iSS fflie Fiaic^ On^e-Eip). 

1^. — TMs spedes is leadBy lecogMged bf flie fe it lwly 
^ksie % of tbe iife wings^ The lisi: fvood jppean ia eari^ 
spfiig^ ftissiDefe^liRiodediatlieNiiidKmSSalss,lMi 
brooded m Ihe wcstem jiogtioBs of Moglh Camiwii^ whete I 
tdteoitqfDileabBDdaBll^lileiEilliejalnBBL EzpoBK^ i.jo-1.30 



fijf^fcr:— - 3^017 is wdkiiowBL The 






Genus Catopsilia 

far as is known, in the regions of the Rocky Mountains and on the 
Pacific coast. 

(8) Euchloe lanceolata, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 30, 
$ (Boisduval's Marble). 

Butterfly. — The figure gives a correct idea of the upper sur- 
face of the male. The female on the upper side is marked with 
light-black spots on the outer margin near the apex. On the 
under side in both sexes the apex of the primaries and the entire 
surface of the secondaries, except a small spot on the costa, are 
profusely sprinkled with small brown scales. The veins of the hind 
wing are brown. Expanse, 1.65-1.95 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar, which feeds upon Titrritis, is 
green, shaded on the sides with pale blue, striped laterally with 
white, and covered with transverse rows of minute black points, 
each bearing a short black bristle. We know nothing of the 
other stages. 

The species ranges from northern California to Alaska. 



Genus CATOPSILIA, Hiibner 
(The Great Sulphurs) 

" A golden butterfly, upon whose wings 

There must be surely character'd strange things, 

Onward it flew, . . . then high it soar'd, 
And downward suddenly began to dip, 
As if, athirst with so much toil, 't would sip 
The crystal spout-head; so it did, with touch 
Most delicate, as though afraid to smutch 
Even with mealy gold the waters clear." 

Keats, Endymion. 

Butterfly. — Large butterflies, brilliant lernon-yellow or orange- 
yellow, marked with a few darker spots and with a narrow band 
of brown, especially in the female sex, on the outer margin of the 
primaries. They are very quick and vigorous in flight, more so 
than is the case in any of the preceding genera. 

Egg. — The eggs are spindle-shaped, flat at the base, and acutely 
pointed, with a few longitudinal ribs and a multitude of delicate 
cross-lines. 

Caterpillar, — The caterpillar is relatively long, with the head 

28s 



! 



Genus Catopsilia 




small; the segments somewhat moniliform, resembling beads 
strung together, the surface covered with a multitude of minute 
papillse ranged in transverse rows. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is strongly concave on the dorsal side, 
with the head greatly produced as a long, pointed, conical projec- 
tion; the wing-cases are compressed and 
form a very wide, keel-shaped projection 
on the ventral side. This peculiar forma- 
tion of the v/ing-cases reaches its greatest 
development in this genus. 

The butterflies of this genus are mainly 
tropical. Four or five species, however, 
are found in the warmer parts of the United 
States, and one of them ranges north as far 
as northern New Jersey, and has been occa- 
sionally taken even in northern Illinois. 

(i) Catopsilia eubule, Linnaeus, Plate 
XXXIII, Fig. 2, $> ; Fig. 3, 6 , under side; 
Plate II, Figs. 2, 4, larva; Plate V, Figs. 60- 
62, chrysalis (The Cloudless Sulphur). 
Butterfly. — This splendid and vigorous 
butterfly is found from New England and Wisconsin to Patagonia, 
being very abundant in the tropics, where it congregates in great 
swarms upon moist places by the side of streams. It haunts in 
great numbers the orange-groves of the South, and is very fond 
of flowers. It is rare on the northern limits of its range, though 
quite common on the coast of New Jersey. Expanse, 2. 50 inches. 
The caterpillar feeds on leguminous plants, but especially upon the 
different species of Cassia. 

(2) Catopsilia philea, Linnaeus, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 4, 5 (The 
Red-barred Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — This is another noble species of this fine genus, 
which includes some of the showiest insects of the subfamily. 
It may be readily recognized by the bar of deep orange crossing the 
cell of the primaries, and by the orange tint on the outer margin 
of the hind wings. Expanse, 3.00-3.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — But little is as yet known of these. The larva 
feeds on the same kinds ofplants as the larva of C eubule. It occurs 
in Texas, and is said to have also been found in Illinois as a strag- 
gler. It is abundant in Mexico, Central America, and southward. 

286 



Fig. 144.— Neuration of 
the genus Catopsilia. 



Genus Kricogonia 

(3) Catopsilia agarithe, Boisduval, Plate XXXIII, Fig. i, $ 
(The Large Orange Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — About the same size as C. eubule, but deep orange 
on both sides of the wings. The wings of the female are bordered 
somewhat heavily with brown, and are duller in color than those 
of the male. Expanse, 2. 50-2.75 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar, which resembles that of eubule, 
feeds upon various species of Cassia. The chrysalis is also much 
like that of eubule. We need, however, fuller information than 
that which we possess, drawn, for the most part, from the pages 
of authors who wrote in the last century. 

The species occurs in the hot parts of the Gulf States, and is 
common throughout tropical America. 



Genus KRICOGONIA, Reakirt 

Butterfly. — Medium sized, bright yellow on the upper and 
lower sides, with some dark markings, especially in the male. 
The primaries in the male are generally quite 
strongly falcate. 

Early Stages. — Nothing has, as yet, been sat- 
isfactorily ascertained in relation to these. 

The genus is not large, and is confined to 
the tropical regions of the New World, being 
represented in our fauna in the vicinity of the 
city of Brownsville, in Texas. 

(i) Kricogonia lyside,Godart (form terissa, 
Lucas), Plate XXXI V, Fig. 20, 5 ; Fig. 21, ? (Ly- 

side). Fig- I45-— Neu- 

Biitterfly. — This insect, which may easily be ^Kricogonia^.^^^^^^ 
distinguished from all its allies by its peculiar 
markings, is found in Florida and Texas, and is widely spread over 
the Antilles and tropical America. We know nothing of its life- 
history. A number of closely allied forms, reckoned as species, 
are known from the Antilles and Central America. They are so 
closely related to each other that it is believed that they are possibly 
only varieties or local races. We cannot, however, be sure of this 
until the test of breeding has been applied. Expanse, 1.90-2. 10 
inches. 

287 




Genus Meganostoma 



Genus MEGANOSTOMA, Reakirt 
(The Dog-face Butterflies) 

" Let me smell the wild white rose, 
Smell the woodbine and the may; 
Mark, upon a sunny day, 
Sated from their blossoms rise, 
Honey-bees and butterflies." 

Jean Ingelow. 

Butterfly, — Closely resembling those of the following genus, 
Colias, from which they may be readily distinguished by the 
more acutely pointed apex of the fore wings and by the remark- 
able coloration of these wings in the male sex, the dark outer bor- 
ders being disposed upon the lighter ground- 
color so as to present the appearance of a rude 
outline of the head of a dog, whence these 
butterflies have sometimes been called the 
''dog-face butterflies." 

Egg. — Fusiform, strongly pointed at the 
apex, broader at the base, the sides marked 
with a few delicate ridges, between which are 
numerous cross-lines. 

Caterpillar. — Elongate, cylindrical, the head 
relatively small, striped on either side by a whit- 
ish lateral line, each segment having a transverse 
darker line. They feed upon leguminous plants. 
Chrysalis. — Pointed at the head, convex on the abdominal seg- 
ments on the dorsal side, with a decided hump on the thorax. 
The wing-covers unite to form a moderately deep carinate, or keel- 
shaped, projection on the ventral side, not, however, nearly as 
large as in the genus Catopsilia. 

But two species of the genus are found within our fauna, one 
widely distributed throughout the Southern and Southwestern 
States, the other confined to the Pacific coast. 

(i) Meganostoma eurydice, Boisduval, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 
1,6; Fig. 2, ? (The Californian Dog-face). 

Butterfly. — The splendid purplish iridescence ofthe fore wings 
of the male is only faintly indicated in the plate. This beautiful 

288 




Fig. 146. — Neura- 
tion of the genus 
Meganostoma. 



HXPLANATION OF Pi. ATE XXXV 

Pieris iiioiiiisli', Liniueus, (J^. q. Colia> 

PiLris iiioinisli', Liniueus, V- "J- Colui>^ ii'l^'i'ior, Scuddey, (J' . 

Picris i\7pir, Limueus, 9- ''■ (.o! i\is iiiUTioi , S.:i\d(\tr, ^^' . 

7\ichrris iUiii-i-. Godart, ^'. 12. Coliiis .brvsoiiu'Jjs, Henry Kdwards, 

Tachyris ilaiiw Godart, 9-~ ff'- 

Coliiis iilrxaiidra, Edwards, rj'. n. Colias cbn'soiiu'Lis. Henry Hdwards, 

7. ('.oliiis jli'xaiicira, \idwc\yds, Q. ?• 

S. Coliijs sciiclderi, Reakirt, rf . 14. Colias pclidnc, Boisdiival, ^. 
It. (A^lias I'ripbvic, Edwards, r^. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XXXV. 




U)^ 



( f ) c 




"^f> 




^ 





COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, ' 



Genus Colias 

insect is peculiar to the Pacific coast, and there is a wide difference 
in appearance between the sexes. Expanse, 1.80-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages.— ^\\& caterpillar feeds upon Amorpha calif or- 
nica. The life-history has been accurately described, and the va- 
rious stages depicted, by Edwards. 

(2) Meganostoma csesonia, Stoll, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 3, $> ; 
Fig. 4, ? (The Southern Dog-face). 

Butterfly.— Tht sexes are much alike in this species, which 
ranges widely over the Southern States, and is found even in south- 
ern Illinois and sometimes still farther north. Expanse, 2.2^ inches. 

Early Stages.— ^\\Qse have been fully described by various 
authors, most carefully by Edwards. 



Genus COLIAS, Fabricius 
(The Sulphurs) 

" Above the arching jimson-weeds flare twos 
And twos of sallow-yellow butterflies, 
Like blooms of lorn primroses blowing loose, 
When autumn winds arise." 

James Whitcomb Riley. 

5^//^r^^.— Medium-sized butterflies, yellow or orange in 
color, with black borders upon the wings. In many species this 
border is heavier in the female than in the male. 

£^^,_The tgg is spindle-shaped, thickest at the middle, taper- 
ing at the apex and at the base, generally attached by an enlarged 
disk-like expansion to the point on which it is 
laid. The upper extremity is rounded ; the sides 
are marked by small vertical ridges, between 
which are delicate cross-lines. 

Caterpillar.— l\\t caterpillars strongly re- 
semble in appearance those of the preceding 
genus, from which, superficially, they cannot 
be distinguished by any anatomical peculiar- 
ities. They feed upon Leguminosce, and espe- 
cially upon clover {Trifolium). 

Chrysalis.— The chrysalids do not generally 
differ in appearance from the chrysalids of the 
genus Meganostoma, though the wing-cases do 

289 




Fig. 147. — Neu- 
ration of the genus 
Colias. 



Genus Colias 

not form as high a keel-shaped projection from the ventral side 
as in that genus. 

This genus is very extensive, being represented throughout 
the temperate regions of both hemispheres, and also occurring in 
the cooler portions of South America, especially along the ranges 
of the Andes. One species is found in temperate South Africa. 
The brightly colored butterflies, which are sometimes found con- 
gregating in immense numbers in moist places, are familiar ob- 
jects, and swarm upon the clover-fields and by the roadside in the 
summer months throughout the United States. 

(i) Colias meadi, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 5, $ ; Fig. 
6, ? (Mead's Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — The wings on the upper side are orange, greenish 
on the under side. The discal spot on the lower side is centered 
with green. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — The life-history has been written by Edwards, 
and may be found in the pages of the " Canadian Entomologist," 
vol. xxi, p. 41. The larva feeds on clover. 

The species is alpine in its habits, and is found in Colorado 
from nine to twelve thousand feet above sea-level. 

(2) Colias elis, Strecker, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 13, 6 ; Fig. 14, 
$ (Strecker's Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — This species is discriminated from the preceding 
principally by the narrower black margins on the wings of the 
male and the more abundant yellow maculation of the borders in 
the female. Expanse, i. 55-1.90 inch. 

Early Stages. — Closely resembling those of the preceding spe- 
cies, of which it may be only a varietal form. 

The habitat of the species is on the lofty peaks of the Western 
Cordilleras. 

(3) Colias eurytheme, Boisduval, Plate XL VIII, Fig. 18, ? ; 
Plate XXXIII, Fig. 5, <^ , under side; Plate II, Fig. i, larva; Plate 
V, Fig. 53, chrysalis (Eurytheme). 

Butterfly. — This species has been made in recent years the 
subject of exhaustive study, and has been discovered to be 
strongly polymorphic — that is to say, liable to great variation. 
Not only does albinism assert itself in the production of white 
forms, but there are many seasonal and climatic forms. We are 
not yet through with our studies, and there is doubtless much 
more to be ascertained. The figures cited above represent the 

290 



Genus Colias 

typical form of the species. We have given, in addition to these, 
the following forms: 

(a) Winter form ariadne, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 7, $ ; 
Fig. 8, ? . This form, emerging from chrysalids which have 
overwintered, is like the type in having the fore wings tinged 
with orange. Expanse, 1.75 inch. 

(b) Winter form keewaydin, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 9, 
$ ; Fig. 10, $ . This is a larger form, more deeply flushed with 
orange, though not quite as deeply as shown in the plate. Ex- 
panse, 1.85 inch. 

(c) Summer form eriphyle, Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 15, 6 ; 
Plate XLIII, Fig. 3, $ , tinder side. This summer form differs from 
typical C. eiirytheme in being yellow and not laved with orange. 
Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on clover, as do most of 
the species of the genus. 

The range of eurytheme is very wide. It extends from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Canada to the far South, though 
rare in the lower parts of Florida and Texas in the hot lands. 

(4) Colias philodice, Godart, Plate I (Frontispiece), Fig. 4, 
6 ; Fig. 5, ? ; Plate 11, Fig. 10, larva; Plate V, Figs. 54, 55, 
chrysalis (The Common Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — We are all familiar with this species, the *' puddle 
butterfly " of our childhood, which sits in swarms on moist 
places by the wayside, and makes the clover-fields gay with the 
flash of yellow wings in summer. There are many aberrational 
forms, albinos and negroes, white forms and dark forms, dwarfed 
forms and large forms, but in the main the species is remarkably 
constant, and seasonal forms and distinctly local races do not 
abound as in the case of the preceding species. Expanse, ^ , 
1. 23-1. 80 inch; ?, 1.60-2.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — The food-plant is clover. The eggs are pale 
yellow, changing, after being laid, to crimson. The caterpillar 
is slender, green, striped longitudinally with paler green. The 
chrysalis is pale green. 

The species ranges from New England to Florida, and west- 
ward to the Rocky Mountains. 

(5) Colias chrysomelas, Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 
12, S ; Fig. 13, ? (The Gold-and-black Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — Larger than C. philodice. The male on the upper 

291 



Genus Colias 

side is bright lemon-yellow, with broad black margins on both 
wings. The female is paler, with the black margin of the hind 
wing lacking or very faintly indicated, and the margin of the 
fore wing much broken up by yellow spots. On the under side 
the wings of the male are dusky-orange, pale yellow on the disk 
of the primaries; the wings of the female on this side are pale 
yellow. Expanse, <$, 2. 00-2. 10 inches; ?, 2.25-2.30 inches. 

Early Stages. — Undescribed. 

The home of this species is on the Coast Range of northern 
California. 

(6) Colias alexandra, Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 6, <$ ; Fig. 
7, ? (The Alexandra Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — Larger than C. philodice. The male is pale canary- 
yellow, with much narrower black borders than the preceding 
species. The female is pale yellow or white, without black bor- 
ders, or, at most, faint traces of them at the apex of the pri- 
maries. On the under side the wings are silvery-gray, yellow 
only at the base and on the inner margin of the primaries. The 
discal spot on the hind wings is white. Expanse, $> , 1.85 inch; 
? , 2.10-2. }o inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar is uniformly yellowish-green, 
with a white band on each side, broken with orange-red dashes 
running through it. The chrysalis, which resembles that of C 
philodice in form, is yellowish-green, darkest on the dorsal side, 
and adorned with three small red dots on the ventral side of the 
abdomen near the wing-cases. The caterpillar eats Astragalus, 
Thermopsis, and white clover. Expanse, $> , 1.90-2. 15 inches; 
? , 2.00-2.30 inches. 

The species is found in Colorado and the mountain regions 
to the north and west of that State. 

(7) Colias interior, Scudder, Plate XXXV, Fig. 10, 6 ; Fig. 1 1, 
? (The Pink-edged Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side closely resembles C. 
philodice, but is smaller, the fringes of the wings rose-colored. 
The female is pale yellow above, more frequently white, with the 
tips of the fore wings lightly marked with blackish. On the 
under side the fore wings at the apex and the entire surface of 
the hind wings are rusty orange-yellow. The discal spot on the 
hind wings is silvery, bordered with rosy-red. Expanse, $ , 1.30- 
1.75 inch; ?, 1.60-2.00 inches. 

292 



Genus Colias 

Early Stages. — Little is as yet known of these. 

The species was first found by Professor Louis Agassiz on the 
north shore of Lake Superior. It ranges through a rather narrow 
belt of country, through Quebec, Ontario, and westward to the 
Rocky Mountains north of the valley of the St. Lawrence and the 
Great Lakes. 

(8) Colias scudderi, Reakirt, Plate XXXV, Fig. 8, $ ; Fig. 9, 
? (Scudder's Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is colored like C. philo- 
dice, but the black borders are much wider. The fringes are 
rosy. The female is generally white, — very rarely slightly yel- 
low, — with very pale dark borders, or often without any trace 
of black on the outer margin of the wings. On the under side 
the apex of the fore wings and the entire surface of the hind 
wings are greenish-gray. The discal spot of the secondaries is well 
silvered and margined with pale red. Expanse, 1.80-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — We know but little of these, except that the 
caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the huckleberry and the willow. 

Scudder's Sulphur is found in Colorado, Utah, Montana, and 
British Columbia. 

(9) Colias pelidne, Boisduval, Plate XXXV, Fig. 14, $ ; 
Plate XXXVl, Fig. 15, 6 ; Fig. 16, ? (The Labrador Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is pale yellow, with a 
greenish tinge on the hind wings ; the black borders are narrow ; the 
fringes are pink. The female on the upper side is white, with very 
little or no black on the outer borders, the black marking being con- 
fined to the apex of the fore wings. On the under side the wings are 
much as in C. interior, and it is possible that the two forms are 
varieties of one and the same species. Expanse, i. 60-1. 85 inch. 

Early Stages. — Little is known of these. 

Pelidne is rather abundant in Labrador at the proper season, 
and ranges thence westward and northward in boreal America. 

(10) Colias nastes, Boisduval, Plate XXXVl, Fig. 11, 6 ; 
Fig. 12, $ (The Arctic Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — Easily recognized in both sexes by the pale-green- 
ish tint of the wings and the tendency of the outer border of the 
fore wings of the male to become divided, like those of the female, 
by a band of pale spots. Expanse, i. 50-1. 65 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This is an arctic species, which is found in Labrador, Green- 

293 



Genus Terias 

land, the far North in British America and .Alaska, and on the 
summits of the Rocky Mountains in British Columbia. 

(ii) Colias behri, Edwards, Plate XXXVl, Fig. 17, $> (Behr's 
Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — This very rare little species maybe easily recognized 
by the dark-greenish tint of the upper side of the wings and the 
light spot on the upper side of the hind wings. The female has 
the outer borders dusky like the male, the dusky shade running in- 
ward on the lines of the veins and nervules. Expanse, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know little of these. 

The insect has hitherto been taken only at considerable eleva- 
tions among the Western Sierras, and the peaks and lofty mea- 
dows about the Yosemite Valley have been until recently the 
classic locality for the species. 

There are a number of other species of the genus Colias, and 
numerous varieties which have been named and described from 
the western and northwestern portions of our region; but it re- 
quires almost as much skill to distinguish them as is required to 
discriminate between the different species of willows, asters, and 
goldenrods, among plants, and we do not think it worth while 
to burden the student with an account of these, and of the con- 
troversies which are being waged about them. If any reader of 
this book becomes entangled in perplexities concerning the species 
of Colias, the writer will be glad to try to aid him to correct con- 
clusions by personal conference or correspondence. 



Genus TERIAS, Swainson 
(The Small Sulphurs) 

" Hurt no living thing : 
Ladybird, nor butterfly, 
Nor moth with dusty wing, 
Nor cricket chirping cheerily, 
Nor grasshopper so light of leap, 
Nor dancing gnat, nor beetle fat, 
Nor harmless worms that creep." 
Christina Rossetti. 

Butterfly. — Small butterflies, bright orange or yellow, mar- 
gined with black. They are more delicate in structure and have 
thinner wings than most of the genera belonging to the subfamily 

294 



I 



HXIM.ANATION OK Pl.ATH XXXVI 



McgiUiosionm I'liiydici, Buisduval,(3;' , 
Mi'!(aiiosfoiim rtirydicc, Boisduval, S, 
McgJiiosioniLi ccvsoiiiiJ, Stoll, (J'. 
MigiJuoslojim CtrsoiiiiT, Stoll, 'i . 
Col I as nieadi, Edwards, (5''.. 
Coli\is meadi, Edwards, 9 • 
(a)Ii\is ariadih-. Edwards, cj'. 
Co/ias aricidiw, Edwards, 9 • 
CoZ/.r.s keezccivdiii, Edwards, r^ . 



M). C('//t7,N /ci'i'-u't/r^///, Edwards, ^^ . 

1 1. Col ids iiasli's, Boisduval, (^. 

12. C()/m.s' ;/<^5/t^/Boisduval, 9- 
I •;. Coliijs I'/is. Strecker, (J\ 

14. Gi//J.w//.N-. Strecker, 9. 

1^. Colicrs pt'Jidue, Boisduval (/j/w? ^/or- 

ciisis. Scudder), (^ . 
ux Colias pcJidth', Boisduval (lahriulor- 

iiisis, Scudder), 9 • 



17. Colitis hchn , Edwards, ff' 



The Butterfly Book. 




( 

r 




/ 




* \ 



1 



( T ) 



I • 




t 

( T ) 




^--^17 '^ii^ 



HTED Br //. J. HOLLAND, 1^,;,. 




Genus Terias 

of the Pierince. The outer margin of the wings is generally straight 
or slightly rounded, though in a few species the apex is somewhat 
acuminate. The outer margin of the hind wings 
is generally rounded, though in a few species 
it is acuminate. 

Egg. — Strongly spindle-shaped, pointed and 
rounded at thebase and at theapex, much swol- 
len at the middle, its sides marked by numerous 
broad but slightly raised vertical ridges. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillars are small, 
relatively long, cylindrical, with the head quite 
small, the thoracic segments somewhat larger 
than the others, giving the anterior portion of fig. 148.— Neura- 
the body a slightly humped appearance. They tion of the genus Te- 
feed upon leguminous plants. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is compressed laterally, with the 
head pointed and the wing-cases forming a deep, keel-shaped 
projection on the ventral side, more pronounced than in any other 
genus except Catopsilia. 

There are an immense number of species belonging to this 
genus scattered through the tropical and subtropical regions of 
both hemispheres. Many of the species are dimorphic or poly- 
morphic, and much confusion has arisen, especially in relation to 
the Oriental species, on account of the great tendency to the pro- 
duction of seasonal varieties, many of which are strikingly differ- 
ent from one another. 

(i) Terias gundlachia, Poey, Plate XXXVIl, Fig. i, $ 
(Gundlach's Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — This species is easily recognized by the orange- 
yellow tint of the upper side of the wings and the sharply 
pointed hind wings. Expanse, 1.80 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know nothing of these. 

The species is found in Texas, Arizona, Mexico, and Cuba. 

(2) Terias proterpia, Fabricius, Plate XXXVIl, Fig. 2, $ 
(Proterpia). 

Butterfly. — Even deeper orange than the preceding species. 
The hind wings are, however, less pointed; the veins and ner- 
vules are black at their ends, and the costal margin of the fore 
wings is evenly bordered with black, which does not run down 
on the outer margin as in T. gundlachia. Expanse, i. 50-1. 75 inch. 

295 



Genus Terias 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Proterpia is found in Texas, Arizona, and Mexico. 

(3) Terias nicippe, Cramer, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 3, $ ; Fig. 
4, ? ; Fig. 5, var. flava, ^ ; Fig. 6, ? , under side; Plate II, Fig. 
6, /^ri^a; Plate V, Figs. 51, 52, chrysalis (H\c\^^€). 

Butterfly. — The plate gives so full a presentation of this com- 
mon species as to make a lengthy description unnecessary. It is 
subject to considerable variation. I have specimens of many 
varying shades of orange and yellow, and a few albino females. 
The orange form depicted in Plate XXXVII, Figs. 3 and 4, is 
typical. The ioxm flava is not uncommon. Expanse, 1.50-2.00 
inches. 

Early Stages. — These are not as well known as they should 
be in view of the excessive abundance of the insect in long-set- 
tled parts of the country. The caterpillar feeds upon Cassia in 
preference to all other plants, but will eat other leguminosae. 

Nicippe is very rare in New England, but is common south 
of latitude 40° as far as the Rocky Mountains, and ranges over 
Cuba, Mexico, and Guatemala, into Venezuela and even Brazil. 
It fairly swarms at times in the Carolinas, Tennessee, Kentucky, 
and southern Indiana and Illinois. I have encountered clouds 
of it on the wing near Jeffersonville, Indiana, and thence north 
along the lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad as far as Seymour. 
It is not common in western Pennsylvania, but in former years 
was taken rather frequently about Pittsburgh. 

(4) Terias mexicana, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 7, 6 ; Fig. 8, ? , 
under side (The Mexican Yellow). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from all other species in our 
fauna by the pointed hind wings, margined on the outer border 
with black, and by the heavy black border of the fore wings, 
deeply excised inwardly, recalling the fore wing of the species 
of thQ genus Meganostoma. Expanse, 6, 1.75 inch; $,1.85 inch. 

Early Stages. — We do not, as yet, know much about these. 

T. mexicana is very common in Arizona, and occurs also in 
Texas. It is abundant in Mexico. 

(5) Terias damaris, Felder, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 9, $> ; Fig. 
10, 6 , under side (Damaris). 

Butterfly. — Allied to the preceding species, but readily distin- 
guished from it by the less deeply excised outer border of the fore 
wing, by the fact that the black outer margin of the secondaries 

296 



Genus Terias 

extends inwardly beyond the angulated point of the wing, and 
by the different color and style of the markings of the lower side. 
Expanse, 1.35-1.65 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Damans occurs in Arizona, and thence ranges south into 
Venezuela. 

(6) Terias westwoodi, Boisduval, Plate XXX Vll, Fig. 11, 6 
(Westwood's Yellow). 

Butterfly. — Pale yellow or orange-yellow, with a narrow 
black border on the fore wings, beginning on the costa beyond 
the middle, and not quite reaching the inner angle. On the 
under side the wings are pale yellow, immaculate, or at the apex 
of the fore wing and the outer angle of the hind wing broadly 
marked with very pale reddish-brown. Expanse, i .75-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Westwood's Yellow occurs in Texas and Arizona, but is not 
common. It is abundant farther south. 

(7) Terias lisa, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 
13, 6 ; Plate II, Fig. 3, larva; Plate V, Fig. 56, chrysalis (The 
Little Sulphur). 

Butterfly. — Allied to the three following species, from which 
it may at once be distinguished by the absence of the black bar 
on the inner margin of the fore wings and by the profusely 
mottled surface of the under side of the hind wings. It is subject 
to considerable variation, albino females and melanic males being 
sometimes found, as well as dwarfed specimens of very small 
size. Expanse, i. 25-1. 60 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have not been thoroughly studied and 
described, in spite of the fact that the insect is very common in 
many easily accessible localities. The caterpillar feeds on Cassia 
and on clover. 

T. lisa ranges from New England south and west as far as the 
foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains, and into Mexico and Honduras. 
It is found in the Antilles and Bermuda. An interesting account 
of the appearance of a vast swarm of these butterflies in the 
Bermudas is given by Jones in " Psyche," vol. i, p. 121 : 

''Early in the morning of the first day of October last year 
(1874), several persons living on the north side of the main isl- 
and perceived, as they thought, a cloud coming over from the 
northwest, which drew nearer and nearer to the shore, on reach- 

297 



Genus Terias 

ing which it divided into two parts, one of which went eastward, 
and the other westward, gradually falling upon the land. They 
were not long in ascertaining that what they had taken for a cloud 
was an immense concourse of small yellow butterflies {Terias 
lisa, Boisduval), which flitted about all the open grassy patches 
and cultivated grounds in a lazy manner, as if fatigued after their 
long voyage over the deep. Fishermen out near the reefs, some 
few miles to the north of the island, very early that morning, 
stated that numbers of these insects fell upon their boats, literally 
covering them. They did not stay long upon the islands, how- 
ever, only a few days, but during that time thousands must have 
fallen victims to the vigorous appetite of the bluebird {Sialia sia- 
lis, Baird) and blackbird (Mimus carolinensis, Gray), which were 
continually preying upon them." 

As the nearest point of land is Cape Hatteras, about six hun- 
dred miles distant, it is seen that, weak and feeble as this little 
creature appears, it must possess, when aided by favoring winds, 
great power of sustained flight. 

(8)' Terias elathea, Cramer, Plate XXX Vll, Fig. 12, 6 (Elathea). 

Butterfly. — Distinguished from its near ally, T. delta, by the 
fact that the ground-color of the hind wings is white. The fe- 
male in this, as in the allied species, is without the black bar on 
the inner margin of the primaries. Expanse, i. 25-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

ElatJjea is found in Florida, Mexico, and the Antilles. 

(9) Terias delia, Cramer, Plate XXX VII, Fig. 14, 6 (Delia). 

Butterfly. — Almost exactly like the preceding species, but hav- 
ing the upper side of the hind wings yellow. On the under side 
the fore wing at the tip and the entire hind wing are red. Ex- 
panse, 1. 25-1. 50 inch. 

Early Stages. — But little is known of them. The caterpillar 
feeds on Cassia. 

Delia occurs commonly in the Gulf States. 

(10) Terias jucunda, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXVII, 
Fig. 15, (5 ; Fig. 16, 6 , under side (The Fairy Yellow). 

Butterfly. — Distinguished from the preceding species by the 
dark marginal band surrounding the hind wing and the pale under 
surface. Expanse, i. 60-1. 75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This little species is found in the Gulf States. 

298 



t 



\ 



Explanation of Pi.ati-; XXXVII 



1. I'erias giDidlacbia , Pocy, /{ . o. 

2. Terias proli'i'pit.7 . Fnbricius, r;". lo. 
;. Tcrias iiicippc, Crainor. (-'. 

4. 7\'n\is iticippt', Cvdmvy. L. \\. 
^. Tcrias iiicippi. (j'iniUT, \ar. lhri\'i . 12. 

Strecker, r^\ \ ■\. 

{->. Terii.is )iicippi\ (j-nmcr, C, uiiclrr 14, 

si-dc. i^. 

7. Tfrias t>u-xi\\uur. BoisJiival. i^\ 10. 

5. leritis DwxicJiia, Hoisdmal. f^", //;/- 

r^<'/' sidi\ 1 7. 
i(S. DisiHoipl.ua incliU 



dcriiurris. Fekler, (J^. 
dijniiiris, Felder, rj^, under 

■iCiSluoodi, Boisdiival, (^'. 
del I hill, CnxmcY, rj^. 
lisn, Roisd.-Lec, (^'. 
drli'j, Crahier. r7'. 
jiiciiiidj, Boisd.-Lec, (J^. 
jiiciiiida, Boisd.-l.ec, rj^, iin- 

Sidc. 



Toui 
Toia 

Sid 

Tnuh 
Trrij 
Ti'riii 
Tnia 
'I'cyiii 
Tcria 

del 

Disiiioipbij iiulitc, Liniueus, r^^ 
, Linn.Tus. v . 



The Butterfly Book. 




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Red Rain 



RED RAIN 

"The lepidopterous insects in general, soon after they emerge 
from the pupa state, and commonly during their first flight, dis- 
charge some drops of a red-colored fluid, more or less intense in 
different species, which, in some instances, where their num- 
bers have been considerable, have produced the appearance of 
a 'shower of blood,' as this natural phenomenon is sometimes 
called. 

** Showers of blood have been recorded by historians and 
poets as preternatural— have been considered in the light of prod- 
igies, and regarded, where they have happened, as fearful prog- 
nostics of impending evil. 

** There are two passages in Homer, which, however poetical, 
are applicable to a rain of this kind; and among the prodigies 
which took place after the death of the great dictator, Ovid par- 
ticularly mentions a shower of blood: 

" ' Saspe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris, 
Saepe inter nimbos guttas cecidere cruentas.' 

" (' With threatening signs the lowering skies were fill'd. 
And sanguine drops from murky clouds distilled.') 

"Among the numerous prodigies reported by Livy to have 
happened in the year 214 b. c, it is instanced that at Mantua a 
stagnating piece of water, caused by the overflowing of the river 
Mincius, appeared as of blood; and in the cattle-market at Rome 
a shower of blood fell in the Istrian Street. After mentioning 
several other remarkable phenomena that happened during that 
year, Livy concludes by saying that these prodigies were expi- 
ated, conformably to the answers of the aruspices, by victims of 
the greater kinds, and supplication was ordered to be performed 
to all the deities who had shrines at Rome. Again, it is stated by 
Livy that many alarming prodigies were seen at Rome in the 
year 181 b. c, and others reported from abroad; among which 
was a shower of blood which fell in the courts of the temples of 
Vulcan and Concord. After mentioning that the image of Juno 
Sospita shed tears, and that a pestilence broke out in the country, 
this writer adds that these prodigies, and the mortality which 

299 



Red Rain 

prevailed, alarmed the Senate so much that, they ordered the 
consuls to sacrifice to such gods as their judgment should direct 
victims of the larger kinds, and that the decemvirs should consult 
their books. Pursuant to their direction, a supplication for one 
day was proclaimed to be performed at every shrine in Rome; 
and they advised, besides, and the Senate voted, and the consul 
proclaimed, that there should be a supplication and public worship 
for three days throughout all Italy. In the year 169 b. c, Livy 
also mentions that a shower of blood fell in the middle of the day. 
The decemvirs were again called upon to consult their books, 
and again were sacrifices offered to the deities. The account, 
also, of Livy, of the bloody sweat on some of the statues of the 
gods, must be referred to the same phenomenon, as the predilec- 
tion of those ages to marvel, says Thomas Browne, and the want 
of accurate investigation in the cases recorded, as well as the rare 
occurrence of these atmospherical depositions in our own times, 
inclines us to include them among the blood-red drops deposited 
by insects. 

"In Stov/'s ' Annales of England ' we have two accounts of 
showers of blood, and from an edition printed in London in 
1592, we make our quotations: * Rivallus, sonne of Cunedagius, 
succeeded his father, in whose time (in the year 766 b. c.) it 
rained bloud three dayes: after which tempest ensued a great 
multitude of venemous flies, which slew much people, and then 
a great mortalitie throughout this lande, caused almost desolation 
of the same.' The second account is as follows: 'In the time 
of Brithricus (a. d. 786) it rayned blood, which foiling on men's 
clothes, appeared like crosses.' 

*' Hollingshed, Grafton, and Fabyan have also recorded these 
instances in their respective chronicles of England. 

''A remarkable instance of bloody rain is introduced into the 
very interesting Icelandic ghost-story of Thorgunna. It appears 
that in the year of our Lord 1009 a woman called Thorgunna 
came from the Hebrides to Iceland, where she stayed at the house 
ofThorodd; and during the hay season a shower of blood fell, 
but only, singularly, on that portion of the hay she had not piled 
up as her share, which so appalled her that she betook herself to 
her bed, and soon afterward died. She left, to finish the story, a 
remarkable will, which, from not being executed, was the cause 
of several violent deaths, the appearance of ghosts, and, finally, a 

300 



Red Rain 

legal action of ejectment against the ghosts, which, it need hardly 
be said, drove them effectually away. 

"In 1017 a shower of blood fell in Aquitaine; and Sleidan re- 
lates that in the year 1553 a vast multitude of butterflies swarmed 
through a great part of Germany, and sprinkled plants, leaves, 
buildings, clothes, and men with bloody drops, as if it had 
rained blood. We learn also from Bateman's * Doome ' that 
these 'drops of bloude upon hearbes and trees' in 1553 were 
deemed among the forewarnings of the deaths of Charles and 
Philip, dukes of Brunswick. 

'Mn Frankfort, in the year 1296, among other prodigies, some 
spots of blood led to a massacre of the Jews, in which ten thou- 
sand of these unhappy descendants of Abraham lost their lives. 

" In the beginning of July, 1608, an extensive shower of blood 
took place at Aix, in France, which threw the people of that place 
into the utmost consternation, and, which is a much more im- 
portant fact, led to the first satisfactory and philosophical expla- 
nation of this phenomenon, but too late, alas! to save the Jews of 
Frankfort. This explanation was given by M. Peiresc, a cele- 
brated philosopher of that place, and is thus referred to by his 
biographer, Gassendi: 'Nothing in the whole year 1608 did 
more please him than that he observed and philosophized about, 
the bloody rain, which was commonly reported to have fallen 
about the beginning of July; great drops thereof were plainly to 
be seen, both in the city itself, upon the walls of the church-yard 
of the church, which is near the city wall, and upon the city walls 
themselves; also upon the walls of villages, hamlets, and towns, 
for some miles round about; for in the first place, he went him- 
self to see those wherewith the stones were coloured, and did what 
he could to come to speak with those husbandmen, who, beyond 
Lambesk, were reported to have been affrighted at the falling of 
said rain, that they left their work, and ran as fast as their legs 
could carry them into the adjacent houses. Whereupon, he found 
that it was a fable that was reported, touching those husbandmen. 
Nor was he pleased that naturalists should refer this kind of rain 
to vapours drawn up out of red earth aloft in the air, which con- 
gealing afterwards into liquor, fall down in this form; because 
such vapours as are drawne aloft by heat, ascend without colour, 
as we may know by the alone example of red roses, out of which 
the vapours that arise by heat are congealed into transparent 

301 



Red Rain 

water. He was less pleased with the common- people, and some 
divines, who judged that it was the work of the devils and 
witches who had killed innocent young children; for this he 
counted a mere conjecture, possibly also injurious to the good- 
ness and providence of God. 

** 'In the meanwhile an accident happened, out of which he 
conceived he had collected the true cause thereof. For, some 
months before, he shut up in a box a certain palmer-worm which 
he had found, rare for its bigness and form; which, when he had 
forgotten, he heard a buzzing in the box, and when he opened it, 
found the palmer-worm, having cast its coat, to be turned into 
a beautiful Butterfly, which presently flew away, leaving in the 
bottom of the box a red drop as broad as an ordinary sous or 
shilling; and because this happened about the beginning of the 
same month and about the same time an incredible multitude 
of Butterflies were observed flying in the air, he was therefore of 
opinion that such kind of Butterflies resting on the walls had 
there shed such like drops, and of the same bigness. Where- 
upon, he went the second time, and found, by experience, that 
those drops were not to be found on the house-tops, nor upon 
the round sides of the stones which stuck out, as it would have 
happened, if blood had fallen from the sky, but rather where the 
stones were somewhat hollowed, and in holes, where such small 
creatures might shroud and nestle themselves. Moreover, the 
walls which were so spotted, were not in the middle of towns, 
but they were such as bordered upon the fields, nor were they 
on the highest parts, but only so moderately high as Butterflies 
are commonly wont to fly. 

" 'Thus, therefore, he interpreted that which Gregory of Tours 
relates touching a bloody rain seen at Paris in divers places, in 
the days of Childebert, and on a certain house in the territory of 
Senlis; also that which is storied, touching raining of blood about 
the end of June, in the days of King Robert; so that the blood 
which fell upon flesh, garments or stones could not be washed 
out, but that which fell on wood might; for it was the same 
season of Butterflies, and experience hath taught us, that no water 
will wash these spots out of the stones, while they are fresh and 
new. When he had said these and such like things to various, 
a great company of auditors being present, it was agreed that 
they should go together and search out the matter, and as they 

302 



txpi.ANATiON OF Plate XXXVIII 

I. Papilio :{olicaoH, Boisduval, (^ . 2. Papilio daiiuus, Boisduval, rj\ 

5. Pi^pilio pihimniis, Boisduval, (^\ 

(The figures in this plate are reduced, being only two thirds of the natural size.) 



The Butterfly Booic 



Plate XXXVIII. 




W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



I 



Red Rain 

went up and down, here and there, through the fields, they found 
many drops upon stones and rocks; but they were only on the 
hollow and under parts of the stones, but not upon those which 
lay most open to the skies.' 

"This memorable shower of blood was produced by the l^a- 
nessa urticce or F. polychloros, most probably, since these spe- 
cies of butterflies are said to have been uncommonly plentiful at 
the time when, and in the particular district where, the phenom- 
enon was observed." 

Frank Cowan, Curious History of Insects. 



FOR A DESIGN OF A BUTTERFLY RESTING ON A SKULL 

" Creature of air and light, 
Emblem of that which may not fade or die, 

Wilt thou not speed thy flight, 
To chase the south wind through the glowing sky ? 

What lures thee thus to stay, 

With Silence and Decay, 
Fix'd on the wreck of cold Mortality ? 

" The thoughts once chamber'd there 
Have gather'd up their treasures, and are gone — 

Will the dust tell us where 
They that have burst the prison-house are flown ? 
Rise, nursling of the day, 
If thou wouldst trace their way- 
Earth hath no voice to make the secret known. 

" Who seeks the vanish'd bird 
By the forsaken nest and broken shell ? — 

Far thence he sings unheard, 
Yet free and joyous in the woods to dwell. 
Thou of the sunshine born, 
Take the bright wings of morn ! 
Thy hope calls heavenward from yon ruin'd cell." 

Mrs. Hemans. 



303 



SUBFAMILY PAPILIONINy^ 

Butterfly. — Generally large, and often with the hind wings 
adorned by tail-like projections. The most characteristic struc- 
tural feature of the group is the absence of the internal vein of 
the hind wings. The submedian vein occupies the position usu- 
ally held in other subfamilies by the internal. 

Early Stages. — In that portion of the group which includes 
the genus Parnassius and its allies, the caterpillars are not, so far 
as is known, provided with scent-organs, and pupation takes 
place upon the ground, or among loosely scattered leaves, which 
are interwoven, at the time of pupation, with a few strands of 
silk. The genus Papilio and its allies have large, fleshy, more or 
less cylindrical caterpillars, possessed of osmateria, or offensive 
scent-organs, and a general resemblance runs through the chrysa- 
lids of all species, which are attached by a button of silk at the 
anal extremity and supported in the middle by a silk girdle. 

Genus PARNASSIUS, Latreille 
(The Parnassians) 

' " Some to the sun their insect wings unfold, 

Waft on the breeze, or sink in clouds of gold; 
Transparent forms, too fine for mortal sight, 
Their fluid bodies half dissolv'd in light." 

Pope. 

Butterfly. — Of medium size, with more or less diaphanous 
wings, generally white or yellow in color, marked with black 
spots and round pink or yellow spots, margined with black. 
The head is relatively small, thickly clothed with hairs. The an- 
tennae are short and straight, having a gradually thickened club. 
The palpi are very thin, straight, and clothed with long hairs. 

304 



Genus Parnassius 




Fig. 149. — Neuration of the 
genus Parnassius. 



The wings are generally translucent on the margin, with a rounded 

apex. The upper radial is lacking. The subcostal is five-branched, 

the third, fourth, and fifth nervules being 

emitted from a common stalk which 

springs from the upper outer angle of the 

cell. The first subcostal nervule rises 

well before the end of the cell ; the second 

from the same point from which the stalk 

which bears the other three nervules 

springs. The cell of the hind wing is 

evenly rounded at its outer extremity. 

The inner margin of the hind wing is 

more or less excavated. 

Early Stages. — The egg is turban- 
shaped, flattened, profusely covered 
with small elevations, giving it a sha- 
greened appearance. The caterpillars 
have very small heads. They are flat- 
tened, having a somewhat leech-like appearance; they are black 
or dark brown in color, marked with numerous light spots. The 
chrysalis is short, rounded at the head, and pupation takes place 
on the surface of the ground, among leaves and litter, a few loose 
threads of silk being spun about the spot in which transformation 
occurs. 

The butterflies of this genus are classified with the Papilioni- 
nce, because of the fact that the internal vein of the hind wings is 
always wanting, a characteristic of all papilionine genera. 

(i) Parnassius clodius, Menetries, Plate XXXIX, Figs. 7, 9, 
6 ; Figs. 8, 10, $ (Clodius). 

Butterfly. — The species may be distinguished from the follow- 
ing by the uniformly larger size and the more translucent outer 
margins of the fore wings in the male. Expanse, 5, 2.50-2.75 
inches; $, 2.50-3.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — These await study. The tgg and young larva 
were described by W. H. Edwards in the "Canadian Entomolo- 
gist," vol. xi, p. 142, but we have no account of the later stages. 
The caterpillar feeds on Sedum and Saxifraga. 

Clodius is found upon the mountains of California in spring 
and early summer. It is, like all its congeners, an alpine or boreal 
species. 

305 



Genus Papilio 

(2) Parnassius smintheus, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate 
XXXIX, Fig. 3, $ ; Fig. 4, ? ; var. behri, Edwards, Fig. i, a ; 
Fig. 2, ? ; var. hermodur, Henry Edwards, Fig. 6, $ ; mate of 
hermodur, Fig. 5, 5 (Smintheus). 

Butterfly. — This very beautiful insect is greatly subject to va- 
riation, and the plate shows a few of the more striking forms, 
of which the dark female, named hermodur by the late Henry 
Edwards, is one of the most beautiful. Expanse, S, 2.00-2.50 
inches; ?, 2.25-3.00 inches. 

Smintheus is found at proper elevations upon the mountains 
from Colorado to California, and from New Mexico to Montana. 
The life-history is most exquisitely delineated by Edwards in 
*' The Butterflies of North America," vol. iii. 

The caterpillar feeds on Sedum and Saxifraga. 



Genus PAPILIO, Linnaeus 
(The Swallowtails) 

" The butterfly the ancient Grecians made 
The soul's fair emblem, and its only name — 
But of the soul, escaped the slavish trade 
Of mortal life! For in this earthly frame 
Ours is the reptile's lot — much toil, much blame, — 
Manifold motions making little speed. 
And to deform and kill the things whereon we feed." 

Coleridge. 

Butterfly. — Generally large, frequently with the hind wings 
tailed. A figure of the neuration characteristic of this genus is 
given on p. 20, Fig. 38. From this it will be seen that the in- 
ternal vein of the hind wing is lacking, the submedian vein oc- 
cupying the space which is commonly occupied by the internal 
vein. The median vein of the fore wing is connected with the 
submedian by a short vein, from the point of union of which with 
the submedian there proceeds a short internal vein in this wing. 
There is great diversity of form in the wings of this genus, some 
species even mimicking the species of the Euploeince and Heliconi- 
idce very closely, and being entirely without tails. In all cases, 
however, in spite of obvious diversities in color and in form, 
there is substantial anatomical agreement in the structure or the 
wings; and the caterpillars and chrysalids reveal very strongly 

306 



Explanation of Plate XXXIX 



1. Parnassius smintheus, DbL-Hew., 

var. behri, Edwards, (^. 

2. Parnassius smiutbeus, Dbl.-Hew.. 

var. behri, Edwards, 9 • 
^. Pi-irnassius sniiutheiis,D'b\.-Hev/ . ,(J\ 

4. Parnassius smiutbeus, DbL-Hew., $. 

5. Parnassius smiutbeus, DbL-Hew. 

(j^, mate of 9 bermodur. 



0. Parnassius sniintheus, DbL-Hew., 
var. bermodur, $ , Henry Edwards. 

7. Parnassius clodius, Menetries, c^J' 
ihaldur, Edwards). 

S. Parnassius clodius, Menetries, $ 
(baldur, Edwards). 

Q. Parnassius clodius, Menetries, (^. 
10. Parnassius clodius, fA6n6t.\\es, 9. 



The Butterfly Book. 




Plate XXXIX. 










KJ 



X I 



f\ 



a T © 




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^^^^^ 



COPYRIGHTED By W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



i 



Genus Papilio 

marked affinities throughout the whole vast assemblage of spe- 
cies, which at the present time includes about five hundred dis- 
tinct forms. 

Early Stages.— The eggs are somewhat globular, flattened at 
the base, and smooth. The caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, 
fleshy, thicker in the anterior portion of the body than in the 
posterior portion, and are always provided with osmateria, or 
protrusive scent-organs, which, when the larva is alarmed, are 
thrust forth, and emit a musky odor, not highly disagreeable to 
the human nostrils, but evidently intended to deter other creatures 
from attacking them. The chrysalids are always attached by a 
button of silk at the anal extremity, and held in place by a girdle 
of silk about the middle. The chrysalids are, however, never 
closely appressed to the surface upon which pupation takes 
place. 

There are about twenty-seven species of this genus found 
within the limits of boreal America. Our fauna is therefore much 
richer in these magnificently colored and showy butterflies than 
is the fauna of all Europe, in which but three species are known 
from the Dardanelles to the North Cape and Gibraltar. The ge- 
nus is wonderfully developed in the tropics both of the New and 
the Old World, and has always been a favorite with collectors, 
containing many of the largest as well as the handsomest insects 
of the order. 

(i) Papilio ajax, Linnaeus, Plate II, Fig. 14, larva; Plate VI, 
Figs. II, 12, chrysalis (Ajax). 

Butterfly. — This insect, which is one of the most beautiful 
in our fauna, has been the subject of attentive study in recent 
years, and is now known to be seasonally polymorphic. We 
have given in Plate XLIV figures of several of the forms. 

{a) Winter form walshi ; Edwards, Plate XLIV, Fig. 4, 6 . 
In this form, which emerges from chrysalids which have been 
exposed to the cold of the winter, the black bands of the wings 
are narrower and a trifle paler than in the other forms, the tails 
of the hind wing tipped with white, and the crimson spot on 
the inner margin near the anal angle forming a conspicuous bent 
bar. A variety of this form, with a more or less distinct crimson 
line parallel to the inner margin on the upper side of the hind 
wing, has been named Papilio ajax, var. abbotti, by Edwards. 

Another winter form, for which I propose the name floriden- 

307 



Genus Papilio 

sis, is represented in Plate XLIV, Fig. 2, by a" male specimen. It 
is characterized by the great breadth and intensity of the black 
bands on the upper side of the wings, which are quite as broad 
as in the summer form marcellus. I find this form prevalent in 
the spring of the year on the St. Johns River, in Florida. Ex- 
panse, 2.50-2.75 inches. 

{b) Winter form telamonides, Felder, Plate XLIV, Fig. i, ^. 
In this form the tails of the hind wings are somewhat longer 
than in walshi, and are not simply tipped, but bordered on either 
side for half their length with white, and the red spots near the 
anal angle do not coalesce to form a crimson bar, but are sepa- 
rate. The black transverse bands on the upper side are wider 
than in walshi. Expanse, 2.75-3.00 inches. 

{c) Summer form marcellus, Boisduval, Plate XLIV, Fig. 
3, 5 . In this form, which represents the second generation emerg- 
ing in the summer and fall from chrysalids produced from eggs 
oi walshi, floridensis, and telamonides, the tails of the hind wings 
are greatly lengthened, being fully twice as long as in walshi, the 
black bands are greatly widened, and there is but a single small 
spot of crimson (sometimes none) above the anal angle of the 
secondaries. Expanse, 3.00-3.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These are well known. The caterpillar feeds 
on the leaves of the papaw {Asimina triloba), and wherever 
this plant is found the butterfly is generally common. 

Ajax ranges from southern New England, where it is very 
rare, west and south over the entire country to the foot-hills of 
the Rocky Mountains. It is very common in the lower Appa- 
lachian region, and in southern Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee is especially abundant. 

(2) Papilio eurymedon, Boisduval, Plate XLIV, Fig. 5, $ 
(Eurymedon). 

Butterfly. — This beautiful insect belongs to the same group 
as the four succeeding species. In the style of the markings it 
recalls P. turnus, but the ground-color is always pale whitish- 
yellow or white, the tails of the hind wings are more slender, 
and the white marginal spots on the under side of the fore wings 
are fused together, forming a continuous band. There are other 
differences, but these, with the help of the plate, will suffice for 
the ready identification of the species. Expanse, 3.50-4.00 
inches. 

308 



Genus Papilio 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar resembles that of P. tiirnus, 
but may be distinguished by its paler color and the much smaller 
spots composing the longitudinal series on the back and sides, 
and by the different color of the head. It feeds upon a variety 
of plants, and is especially partial to Rhamnus calif ornicus. 

The species ranges from Mexico to Alaska, and eastward as 
far as Colorado. It is abundant in the valleys of the Coast Range, 
and I have found it very common in the canon of the Fraser 
River, in British Columbia, in the month of June. 

(3) Papilio rutuluSjBoisduval, Plate XLV, Fig. i, 5 (Rutulus). 
Butterfly. — The insect very closely resembles the following 

species in color and markings, but the female is never dimorphic 
as in P. turnus, and the marginal spots on the under side of the 
fore wings run together, forming a continuous band, as in eury- 
medon, and are not separate as in P. turnus. By these marks it 
may always be distinguished. Expanse, 6, 3.50-4.00 inches; 
?, 3.7S-4.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been described with accuracy by 
W. H. Edwards in the second volume of his great work. The 
caterpillar differs from that of P. turnus in many minute par- 
ticulars. It feeds on alder and willow. It is the representative 
on the Pacific coast of its Eastern congener, the common Tiger 
Swallowtail. 

(4) Papilio turnus, Linnaeus, Plate XLIII, Fig. i, 5 ; Fig. 2, 
dimorphic form glaucus, Linnseus, ? ; Plate II, Figs. 15, 26, 28, 
larva; Plate VI, Figs. 1-4, chrysalis (The Tiger Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — The " lordly Turnus " is one of the most beautiful 
insects of the Carolinian fauna. The plate shows the figures 
about one third smaller than in life, but they are sufficient for the 
immediate identification of the species. The species is dimorphic 
in the female sex in the southern portions of the territory which 
it occupies. The black form of the female was regarded for a 
long while as a distinct species, until by the test of breeding it was 
ascertained that some eggs laid by yellow females produced black 
females, and that, conversely, eggs laid by black females often 
produced yellow females. In Canada and northward and west- 
ward in northern latitudes the dark dimorphic female does not 
occur. A small yellow dwarfed form is common about Sitka, 
whence I have obtained numerous specimens. Expanse, 5 , 
3.00-4.00 inches; ?, 3.50-5.00 inches. 

309 



Genus Papilio 

Early Stages. — The egg is outlined on p. 4, Fig. 3. It is green 
or bluish-green, quite smooth, with a few reddish spots in some 
specimens. The caterpillar feeds on a great variety of plants, but 
has a peculiar preference for the leaves of various species of wild 
cherry (Cerasus). The chrysalis is accurately portrayed in Plate 
VI, Figs. 1-4. 

The metropolis of this species seems to be the wooded forests 
of the Appalachian ranges at comparatively low levels. It abounds 
in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Virginias, the Carolinas, Ken- 
tucky, and Tennessee. I have often found as many as a dozen of 
these magnificent butterflies congregated on a moist spot on the 
banks of the Monongahela. At Berkeley Springs, in West Vir- 
ginia, I counted, one summer day, forty specimens hovering over 
the weeds and flowers in a small deserted field. The move- 
ments of the butterfly on the wing are bold and rapid. Its flight 
is dashing. Now aloft to the tops of the highest trees, now down 
in the shadows of the undergrowth, hither and thither it goes, 
often settling for a moment on some attractive flower, or staying 
its flight to quench its thirst on the sandy edge of a brook, and 
then away again over the fields and into the forests. In New 
England it is not very abundant, and in the Gulf States, while 
numerous, is still less common than about the head waters of the 
Ohio. 

(5) Papilio daunus, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 2, S 
(Daunus). 

Butterfly. — This magnificent species, which is even larger 
than turnus (the figures in the plate are greatly reduced), re- 
sembles the preceding species in color and markings, but may at 
once be distinguished by the two tails on the hind wing and 
the projection of the lobe at the anal angle of this wing. It is 
found among the eastern valleys of the Rocky Mountain ranges, 
and descends into Mexico. In Arizona it is quite common. Ex- 
panse, 4.00-5.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have not yet been thoroughly studied, 
but what we know of them shows that the species is allied very 
closely to its immediate congeners, and the caterpillar feeds upon 
the same plants, principally Rosacece. 

(6) Papilio pilumnus, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 3, ^ 
(Pilumnus). 

Butterfly, — Resembling the preceding species, but smaller, 

310 



HXIM.ANATION OF Pl.ATK XL 



1. Pi.ipilio jstnias, (Janier, rf. •;. FapHio holhiuii, Edwards, f. 

2. Papilio hairdi. Hdwards, ^f . 4. Piipilio briicei. Edwards, -f . 

5. Pjpilio hrt'vic\7iicii7. S:nmdey>, ^' . 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XL. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLL 



Genus Papilio 

having the bands and black margins of the wings decidedly 
broader, and the lobe of the anal angle of the hind wing so much 
lengthened as to give the wing the appearance of being furnished 
with three tails. Expanse, 3.80-4.30 inches. 

Early Stages. — All we know of these is derived from the 
brief account given by Schaus in *' Papilio," vol. iv, p. 100. Mr. 
Schaus says that the larva ** feeds on laurel." 

The insect is Mexican, and only occasionally occurs in Ari- 
zona. 

(7) Papilio thoas, Linnseus, Plate XLIl, Fig. 4, ^ (Thoas). 
Butterfly. — This species is readily distinguished from its near 

ally, P. cresphontes, by the greater and more uniform breadth of 
the median band of yellow spots traversing both the fore and the 
hind wing, and by the almost total absence of the curved sub- 
marginal series of spots on the primaries. There are other points 
of difference, but these are so marked as to make the determina- 
tion of the species easy. 

Early Stages. — These have never been fully described, but we 
know that the caterpillar feeds upon the leaves of the lemon, the 
orange, and other plants of the citrus group. 

P. thoas is not common within the limits of the United States, 
where it is generally replaced by the following species; but it 
occasionally occurs in the hot lands of the extreme southern por- 
tion of Texas. 

(8) Papilio cresphontes, Cramer, Plate XLll, Fig. 5, $ ; 
Plate 11, Fig. 16, larva; Plate VI, Figs. 8-10, chrysalis (The Giant 
Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — The principal points of difference between this 
and the preceding species, its closest ally, have already been 
pointed out, and are brought into view upon the plate. 

Early Stages. — These are quite well known. The caterpillar 
feeds upon Ptelea, Xanthoxylon, and various species of Citrus. It 
is very common in the orange-groves of Florida, where the peo- 
ple call the caterpillar the ''orange-puppy," and complain at times 
of the ravages perpetrated by it upon their trees. It appears to 
have been gradually spreading northward, and in quite recent 
years has appeared at points in the Northern States where before 
it had never been observed. It has been recently taken in On- 
tario. It has become rather abundant in the vicinity of the city 
of Pittsburgh, where no observer had seen it prior to the year 



Genus Papilio 

1894. It is one of the largest and most showy species of the genus 
found within our faunal limits. 

(9) Papilio aliaska, Scudder, Plate XLI, Fig. i, $ (The Alas- 
kan Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — This interesting form of the species, known to 
entomologists as Papilio machaon, Linnaeus, and to every Eng- 
lish school-boy as **the Swallowtail," represents a colonization 
from the Asiatic mainland of this insect, which is the sole repre- 
sentative of the genus on English soil. It differs from the Eng- 
lish butterfly by having more yellow on the upper side of the 
wings, and by having the tails of the secondaries much shorter. 

Early Stages. — Undoubtedly these are very much like those of 
the forms found in Europe and Asia, and the caterpillar must 
be sought upon umbelliferous plants. 

Thus far this insect has been received only from Alaska, and 
is still rare in collections. 

(10) Papilio zolicaon, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIll, Fig. i, $> 
(Zolicaon). 

Butterfly. — This species is somewhat nearly related to the pre- 
ceding, but may at once be distinguished from it by the broader 
black borders of the wings, the deeper black on the upper side, 
and the longer tails of the secondaries. The figure given in the 
plate is only two thirds of the natural size. 

Early Stages. — These have been fully described by Edwards, 
and are shown to be much like those of P. asterias. The cater- 
pillar, like that of the last-mentioned species, feeds upon the 
Umbelliferce. 

Zolicaon ranges southward from Vancouver's Island to Ari- 
zona, and eastward to Colorado. It is more abundant in the 
valleys and foot-hills than on the sierras. 

(11) Papilio nitra, Edwards, Plate XLI, Fig. 2, 5 (Nitra). 
Butterfly. — This insect, which is still very rare in collections, 

is very nearly related to the preceding species, it having, no 
doubt, with the succeeding species, sprung from the same origi- 
nal stock as :{olicaon and aliaska. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The insect occurs in Montana and the portions of British 
America adjacent on the north. 

(12) Papilio indra, Reakirt, Plate XLI, Fig. 3, ? (Indra). 
Butterfly. — Easily distinguished by the short tails of thesecon- 

312 



Genus Papilio 

daries, and the narrow bands of yellow spots on the wings 
closely resembling those found in the same location on the wings 
of P. astertas, $. Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches. 

Early Stages. — These still await description. 

Indira occurs on the mountains of Colorado, Nevada, and 
California. 

(13) Papilio brevicauda, Saunders, Plate XL, Fig. 5, ? (The 
Newfoundland Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — There are two varieties of this species — one with 
bright-yellow spots, one with the spots more or less deeply 
marked with orange-yellow on the upper sides of the wing. 
The latter variety is represented in the plate. The form with the 
yellow spots is common on the island of Anticosti; the other 
occurs quite abundantly in Newfoundland. Expanse, 2.75-3.00 
inches. 

Early Stages. — Both the caterpillar and the chrysalis show a 
very strong likeness to those of P. asterias. The larva feeds on 
umbelliferous plants. 

The range of the species is confined to the extreme northeast- 
ern part of our faunal territory. 

(14) Papilio bairdi, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 2, 5 (Baird's 
Butterfly). 

Butterfly. — This form, the male of which is represented in the 
plate, is the Western representative of P. asterias, and is charac- 
terized in general by the fact that the size is larger than that of 
asterias, and the postmedian band of yellow spots is broader. The 
female is generally darker and larger than that sex in asterias. 
Expanse, 3.25-3.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — Not unlike those of P. asterias. The cater- 
pillar feeds upon Umbelliferce. 

The seat of this species or form is Arizona, whence it ranges 
northward. 

(15) Papilio brucei, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 4, $> (Bruce's 
Butterfly). 

Butterfly. — This species, which is thought to be the result of 
a union between P. oregonia and P. bairdi, is found in Colorado. 
Oregonia is, unfortunately, not represented in our plates. It flies 
in Oregon and Washington, where P. bairdi is not found. In 
Colorado and adjacent regions meeting with the form bairdi, which 
ranges northward from Arizona, hybridization has occurred, and 

3U 



Genus Papilio 

we have a fixed form breeding either toward hairdi or oregonia. 
To this form, characterized by more yellow on the bands of the 
wings than in P, hairdi, and less than in oregonia, Mr. Edwards 
has applied the name P. brucei, in honor of Mr. Bruce of Lock- 
port, New York, who has done much to elucidate the problems 
connected with the species. Expanse, 3.25-3.60 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been fully described by Edwards. 
They are much like those of asterias, and the food-plants belong 
to the same class. 

Bruce's Butterfly is found quite abundantly in Colorado. 

(16) Papilio hollandi, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 3, $ (Hol- 
land's Butterfly). 

Butterfly. — This species or form, which belongs to the Aste- 
rias-group, in the breadth of the yellow spots on the upper side 
of the wings holds a place intermediate between P. hairdi 
and P. ^olicaon, between which it has been suggested that it 
may be a hybrid, which has become fixed, and therefore a spe- 
cies. It is characterized by the fact that the abdomen is always 
striped laterally with yellow or is wholly yellow. Expanse, 3.25- 
3.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — We know as yet but little of these. 

The insect occurs in Arizona and northward to Colorado. 

(17) Papilio asterias, Fabricius, Plate XL, Fig. i, ^ ; Plate 
II, Figs. 17, 24, 27, larva; Plate VI, Figs. 13, 18, 19, chrysalis 
(The Common Eastern Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — The male is well represented in the plate. The 
female lacks the bright-yellow band of postmedian spots on the 
primaries, or they are but faintly indicated. The species is sub- 
ject to considerable variation in size and the intensity of the 
markings. A very remarkable aberration in which the yellow 
spots cover almost the entire outer half of the wings has been 
found on several occasions, and was named Papilio calverleyi 
by Grote. The female of this form from the type in the author's 
collection is represented in Plate XLI, Fig. 6. Expanse, 2.75- 
^.2^ inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on the Umhelliferce, and 
is common on parsley and parsnips in gardens. In the South 
I have found that it had a special liking for fennel, and a few 
plants in the kitchen-garden always yielded me in my boyhood 
an abundant supply of the larvae. 

314 



Explanation of Plath XLI 

, PapUio „uuhaou,Umn^u,, v:ir. .///- 4- PapUio pohdanurs, Linnaeus, J'. 

.,./..,, Scudder, J. - ^^'/'^■/'^ ^'-^'■^"•^' l^''^*^^^^'^' ^'- , 

-, />.;.;7,o ;////-., Edwards, :f. 6. P^/)///c, .r./.r/... Cramer, vnr. cv/t.';- 
1 P.r/>///o /mV/v, Reakirt, *. /f/;. Grote, $. 



I 



The Butterfly Book. 



'late XLI 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAN 



Genus Papilio 

P. asterias ranges all over the Atlantic States and the valley of 
the Mississippi. 

(i8) Papilio troilus, Linnaeus, Plate XLI, Fig. 5, $ ; Plate 
II, Figs. 18, 19, 22, larva; Plate VI, Figs. 5-7, chrysalis (The 
Spice-bush Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is accurately depicted 
in the plate. The female has less bluish-green on the upper side 
of the hind wings. Expanse, 3.75-4.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar lives upon the leaves of the 
common spicewood and sassafras, and draws the edges of a 
leaf together, thus forming a nest in which it lies hidden. 

The insect is found throughout the Atlantic States and in the 
Mississippi Valley. 

(19) Papilio palamedes, Drury, Plate XLII, Fig. i, ? (Pala- 
medes). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings is very accurately 
depicted in the figure just cited. On the under side the predomi- 
nant tint is bright yellow. Expanse, 3.50-4.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — These are described by Scudder in the third 
volume of his work on *'The Butterflies of New England." The 
caterpillar feeds on Magnolia glauca, and on plants belonging to 
the order Lauracece. 

The insect ranges from southern Virginia, near the coast, to 
the extreme southern end of Florida, and westward to southern 
Missouri and eastern Texas. 

(20) Papilio philenor, Linnseus, Plate XLII, Fig. 2, S ; Plate 
II, Figs. 13, 20, 21, larva; Plate VI, Figs. 14, 17, 20, chrysalis 
(The Pipe-vine Swallowtail). 

Butterfly. — The figures in the plates obviate the necessity for 
describing this familiar but most beautiful insect, the glossy 
blue-green of which flashes all summer long in the sunlight about 
the verandas over which the Aristolochia spreads the shade of 
its great cordate leaves. Expanse, 3.75-4.25 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds upon the leaves oi Aris- 
tolochia sipho (the Dutchman's-pipe) and Aristolochia serpentaria, 
which abound in the forest lands of the Appalachian region. 

Philenor is always abundant during the summer months in 
the Middle Atlantic States, and ranges from Massachusetts to 
Arizona, into southern California and southward into Mexico. 
It is double-brooded in western Pennsylvania, and the writer 

315 



The Caterpillar and the Ant 

has found females ovipositing as late as October. The caterpil- 
lars are familiar objects about houses on which the Aristolochia 
is grown as an ornamental vine. 

(21) Papilio polydamas, Linnaeus, Plate XLI, Fig. 4, $ 
(Polydamas). 

Butterfly.— Esisily distinguished by the absence of tails on the 
hind margin of the secondaries. The butterfly recalls the preced- 
ing species by the color of the wings on the upper side. On the 
under side the fore wings are marked as on the upper side; the 
hind wings have a marginal row of large red spots. Expanse, 
3.00-3.50 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar is dark brown, and in many 
points resembles that of P. philenor in outline, but the segments 
are spotted with ocellate yellow and red spots. It feeds on 
various species of Aristolochia. The chrysalis resembles that of 
P. philenor. 

This lovely insect represents in the United States a great 
group of butterflies closely allied to it, which are natives of the 
tropics of the New World. It occurs in southern Florida and 
Texas, and thence ranges southward over Cuba, Mexico, and 
Central America. 



THE CATERPILLAR AND THE ANT 

" A pensy Ant, right trig and clean, 
Came ae day whidding o'er the green, 
Where, to advance her pride, she saw 
A Caterpillar, moving slaw. 
' Good ev'n t' ye, Mistress Ant,' said he; 
' How 's a' at hame? I 'mblyth to s' ye.' 
The saucy Ant view'd him wi' scorn, 
Nor wad civilities return; 
But gecking up her head, quoth she, 
' Poor animal ! I pity thee; 
Wha scarce can claim to be a creature, 
But some experiment 0' Nature, 
Whase silly shape displeased her eye, 
And thus unfmish'd was flung bye. 
For me, I 'm made wi' better grace, 
Wi' active limbs and lively face; 
And cleverly can move wi' ease 
Frae place to place where'er I please; 

^16 



Explanation of Pi-atI' XLII 



1. Papilio paUmiecli-s, Dnny, ?. 

2. PcipUio philenor, LinncTus, ^. 



1. Papilio c res pboii It's, Cramer, J', 
4. Papilio tboas, l.innacus, {'. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLII. 




r.OPYR.GHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



The Caterpillar and the Ant 



Can foot a minuet or jig, 
And snoov 't like ony whirly-gig; 
Wiiich gars my jo aft grip my hand, 
Till his heart pitty-pattys, and — 
But laigh my qualities I bring, 
To stand up clashing wi' a thing, 
A creeping thing the like o' thee. 
Not worthy o' a farewell t' ye,' 
The airy Ant syne turned awa, 
And left him wi' a proud gaffa. 
The Caterpillar was struck dumb, 
And never answered her a mum: 
The humble reptile fand some pain, 
Thus to be banter'd wi' disdain. 

But tent neist time the Ant came by, 
The worm was grown a Butterfly; 
Transparent were his wings and fair, 
Which bare him flight'ring through the air. 
Upon a flower he stapt his flight. 
And thinking on his former slight. 
Thus to the Ant himself addrest: 
' Pray, Madam, will ye please to rest? 
And notice what I now advise: 
Inferiors ne'er too much despise, 
For fortune may gie sic a turn. 
To raise aboon ye what ye scorn: 
For instance, now I spread my wing 
In air, while you 're a creeping thing.' " 

Allan Ramsay. 




^EKi«Ui5ctel. 



317 



FAMILY V 
HESPERIIDy^ (THE SKIPPERS) 

" Bedouins of the pathless air."— H. H. 

Butterfly. — The butterflies belonging to this family are gen- 
erally quite small, with stout bodies, the thorax strongly devel- 
oped in order to accommodate the muscles of flight. They are 
exceedingly rapid in their movements. Both sexes possess six feet 
adapted to walking, and the tibiae of the hind feet, with few ex- 
ceptions, have spurs. The lower radial vein of the hind wing in 
many of the genera is lacking, or is merely indicated by a fold in 
the wing. There is great variety in the form as well as in the 
coloration of the wings. 

Egg. — The eggs, so far as we are acquainted with them, may 
be said to be, almost without exception, more or less hemispher- 
ical, with the flat section of the hemisphere serving as the base. 
They are sometimes smooth, but not infrequently ornamented 
with raised longitudinal ridges and cross-lines, the ornamentation 
in some cases being very beautiful and curious. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, tapering 
forward and backward from the middle, and generally possess 
large globular heads. They commonly undergo transformation 
into chrysalids which have an anal hook, or cremaster, in a loose 
cocoon woven of a few strands of silk. 

This family, the study of which presents more difficulties than 
are presented by any other family of butterflies, is not very well 
developed in the Palsearctic Region, but finds its most enormous 
development in the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. It is also 
very strongly developed in the Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian 
Regions. There are, at the present time, in the neighborhood 
of two thousand species belonging to this family which have been 
named and described. 



HXPLANATION OK Pl.ATH XLIII 

1. Pjpilio tui mis. Limutus, q^. ^. ColtJs oiphvU, ELlwaids, = Coti^}: 

2. Pi.jpilio til runs. LiniKtus, (.iiinorphic l.higoii, Edwards, (j^, inidcr side. 

^. , oLuiciis. Linn>eiis. C' 4. Pyi iimcis JictLinta . I.innipus. ,^. 

^. Hpjyoyrcjis titviiis. Fabricius, (^. 

(Tile tiguios in this plate are reduced, being only three fourths ot'the natural si/e.) 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLIII. 




SUBFAMILY PYRRHOPYGIN.^ 

" Seeing only what is fair, 
Sipping only what is sweet." 

Emerson. 

This subfamily is composed of closely related genera which are 
found only in the New World. They may be easily recognized 
by the large blunt club of the antennae. The cell of the fore wing is 
always very long, being two thirds the length of the costa; the 
lower radial vein usually rises from the end of the cell, a little above 
the third median nervule, and at a considerable 
remove from the upper radial. 
They are said when at rest to ex- 
tend all their wings horizontally. 
But one genus belonging to this 
subfamily is represented within the 
limits of the United States. 

Fig. 150.— Genus PYRRHOPYGE, 
Head and an- tj^k^^.,. 

Unn.oiPyrrho- Hubner ^^^^ ,5,_Neura- 

SeTe^rf J5^//^r/?r.— The ueuratlou is as tion of the genus 

represented in the cut, and need 
not, therefore, be described at length. The club of the antennae 
is thickened, usually bluntly pointed and bent into a hook. 

(i) Pyrrhopyge araxes, Hewitson, Plate XLV, Fig. 9, 5 
(Araxes). 

Butterfly. — Easily recognized from the figure in the plate. 
The hind wings are prevalently yellow on the under side. It is 
wholly unlike any other species found within the faunal limits 
with which this book deals. The wings expand about two inches. 
We have no knowledge whatever of the life-history of the insect. 
It occurs in southern Texas occasionally, but is quite common in 
Mexico and more southern countries. 

319 





SUBFAMILY HESPERIIN^ (THE HESPERIDS) 

" Twine ye in an airy round, 

Brush the dew and print. the lea; 
Skip and gambol, hop and bound." 

Drake, The Culprit Fay. 

This subfamily falls into two groups : 

Group A. — In this group the cell of the fore wing is always 
more than two thirds the length of the costa; the lower radial 
vein lies approximately equidistant between the third median 
nervule and the upper radial. The hind wing is frequently pro- 
duced at the extremity of the submedian vein into a long tail or 
tooth-like projection. The fore wing is usually furnished in the 
male sex with a costal fold, but is never marked with a discal 
stigma, or bunch of raised scales. The antennae always terminate 
in a fme point and are usually bent into a hook. The butterflies 
when at rest, for the most part, hold their wings erect, though 
some of them hold them extended horizontally. 

Group B. — In this group the cell of the fore wing is less than 
two thirds the length of the costa, and the lower radial is always 
emitted from the end of the cell near the upper angle, much nearer 
to the upper radial than to the third median. The hind wings are 
often somewhat lobed at the anal angle, but never produced as 
in the first group. The antennae are very seldom hooked. 

Genus EUDAMUS, Swainson 

Butterfly.— 'Xht antennae terminate in a fme point bent into a 
hook at the thickest part of the club. The cell of the fore wing 
is very long. The discocellulars are inwardly oblique and on the 
same straight line, the upper discocellulars being reduced to a mere 
point. The lower radial is equidistant between the upper radial 

320 




Genus Eudamus 

and the third median nervule. The hind wing is without the 
lower radial and is always produced into a long tail. 

Egg. — The egg is more nearly globular than is true in most of 
the genera, but is strongly flattened at the base and is marked 
with a number of transverse longitudinal ridges, 
somewhat widely separated, between which are 
finer cross-lines. The micropyle at the summit is 
deeply depressed. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is cylindrical, taper- 
ing rapidly from the middle forwcird and backward. 
The head is much larger than the neck and is dis- 
tinctly bilobed. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is provided with a 
somewhat hooked cremaster, is rounded at the head, 
humped over the thorax, and marked on the dorsal 
side of the abdominal segments with a few small 
conical projections. The chrysalis is formed be- 
tween leaves loosely drawn together with a few p^^ is2— Neu- 

Strands of silk. ration of the genus 

This genus is confined to the tropics of the New ^«^^""'^- 
World, and is represented in the extreme southern portions of 
the United States by the species figured in our plate — E. proteus. 

(i) Eudamus proteus, Linnseus, Plate XLV, Fig. 6, $ ; Plate 
11, Fig. 34, larva; Plate VI, Fig. 23, chrysalis (The Long-tailed 
Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings is brown, glossed 
with green at the base of both wings. The spots on the pri- 
maries of both sexes are alike, and are well represented in the 
plate. On the under side the wings are pale brown; the pri- 
maries are marked as on the upper side; the secondaries have the 
anal portion and the tail dark brown; in addition they are crossed 
by a short dark band at the end of the cell, and another similar 
but longer postmedian band, which does not quite reach the costa 
and loses itself below in the dark shade which covers the anal por- 
tion of the wing. About the middle of the costa of the hind wings 
are two small subquadrate black spots. Expanse, i. 60-1. 75 inch. 

Early Stages. — The plates give us representations based upon 
Abbot's drawings of the mature caterpillar and the chrysalis. The 
student who desires to know more may consult the pages of 
Scudder's "Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds 

321 



Genus Plestia 

upon leguminous plants, especially upon the Wistaria and various 
species of Clitoria (Buttertly-pea). It makes a rude nest for 
itself by drawing two of the leaves together with strands of silk. 
The species is tropical and is found all over the tropics and 
subtropical regions of the New World, but ranges northward 
along the Atlantic sea-coast, being occasionally found as far north 
as New York City, where it has been taken in Central Park. 




Genus PLESTIA, Mabille 

Butterfly. — The club of the antennce is flattened, sickle-shaped, 
terminating in a fine point. The male has a costal fold upon the 
fore wing. The lower radial is nearer to the upper radial than 
to the third median nervule. The hind 
wing is produced into a short tail. The 
fifth vein is wanting. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 
This genus is peculiar to Mexico and 
Central America. But one species is found 
within our limits, and is confined to Ari- 
zona. 

(i) Plestia dorus, Edwards, Plate 
XLV, Fig. II, S (The Short-tailed Ari- 
zona Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side is accurately depicted in the plate. 
On the under side the wings are hoary. The spots of the upper 
side reappear, the lower spots of the primaries being partially 
lost in the broad honey-yellow tint which covers the inner mar- 
gin of that wing. The secondaries are crossed by obscure dark- 
brown basal, median, and postmedian bands, portions of which 
are annular, or composed of ring-like spots. The anal angle is 
clouded with dark brown. Expanse, i. 50-1.60 inch. 
Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species has been taken in considerable numbers in Ari- 
zona, and ranges thence southward into Mexico. 



Fig. 153. — Genus Plcstij. 
Antenna, magnified 2 diam- 
eters. Neuration. 



Genus EPARGYREUS, Hubner 

Butterfly. — The antennae have the club stout, gradually thick- 
ened, tapering to a fine point, and abruptly bent into a hook. 

322 



JJ 



Explanation of Plate XLIV 



Papiiio ajax, Linnaeus, var. telamo- 

nides, Felder, (J*. 
Papiiio ajax, Linnaeus, var. Jloriden- 

sis, Holland, (^. (This is the dark 

form found in Florida in the early 

spring.) 



Papiiio ajax, Linnaeus, var. marcel- 

liis, Boisduval, r^. 
Papiiio ajax, Linnaeus, var. walshi, 

Papiiio eurymcdon, Boisduval, (^. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLIV. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W J HOLLAND, 1898, 




Genus Epargyreus 

The palpi are profusely covered with thick scales, in which the 
third joint is almost entirely concealed. The fore wing of the 
male is furnished with a costal fold ; the hind wing is prominently 
toothed at the extremity of the submedian vein. 

Egg. — The Qgg is elevated, hemispherical; 
that is to say, it is flattened at the base, rounded 
above, its height being almost equal to the width. 
It is marked by about ten narrow, greatly ele- 
vated longitudinal ridges, which sometimes fork 
below the summit, and between which are a 
multitude of fine cross-lines. The micropyle is 
greatly depressed. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar closely resembles fig. 154,— Neu- 
the caterpillar of the genus Eudamus, but the ration of the genus 

1 1 • 11-111 Epargyreus. 

head is not as strongly bilobed. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis likewise resembles the chrysalis of 
the genus Eudamus ; the cremaster, however, is not as strongly 
hooked as in that genus. 

(i) Epargyreus tityrus, Fabricius, Plate XLIII, Fig. 5, <$ ; 
Plate II, Figs. 30, 31, }^, larva ; Plate VI, Figs. 22, 25, 26, chrysa- 
lis (The Silver-spotted Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This very common and beautiful insect may easily 
be recognized from the figure in the plate. The broad, irregular 
silvery spot on the under side of the hind wings distinguishes it 
at a glance from all other related species in our fauna. Expanse, 
1.75-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — These have been accurately described by sev- 
eral authors, and a very full account of them is contained in 
*'The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds upon 
leguminous plants, and is especially common upon the Wistaria, 
which is grown about verandas, and on the common locust 
{Robinia pseudacacia). The caterpillar makes a nest for itself in 
the same manner as Eudamus proieus. Pupation generally takes 
place among fallen leaves or rubbish at the foot of the trees upon 
which the caterpillar has fed. 

This butterfly has a wide range, extending to the Gulf, 
south of a line passing from Quebec to Vancouver, and ranging 
still farther south as far as the Isthmus of Panama. It is single- 
brooded in the North, and double- or triple-brooded in the South. 

323 




Genus Thorybes 



Genus THORYBES, Scudder 
(The Dusky-wings) 

Butterfly. — The club of the antennae is not very heavy, hooked, 
the hooked portion about as long as the rest of the club. The 
palpi are directed forward, with the second joint heavily scaled, 
and the third joint very small. The fore wing 
may be with or without the costal fold in the male 
sex. The cut gives a correct idea of the neuration. 
The hind wing is evenly rounded on the outer 
margin, sometimes slightly angled at the extrem- 
ity of the submedian vein. 

Egg. — The Qgg is subglobular, somewhat flat- 
tened at the base and on top, marked with numer- 
FiG. 1 55-— ous fine and not much elevated longitudinal ridges. 

Neuration of the t-, . , ^, r x- ^i 

genus Thorybes. ^^^ micropyle covers the upper surface of the tgg 
and is not depressed. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar somewhat resembles that of the 
genus Epargvreus, but is relatively shorter, the head proportion- 
ately larger and more globular. The neck is greatly strangulated. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is somewhat curved in outline, with 
a strongly hooked cremaster and a prominent projection on the 
back of the thoracic region. 

(i) Thorybes pylades, Scudder, Plate XLVlll, Fig. 6, ? ; 
Plate II, Figs. 25, 29, larva; Plate VI, Fig. 28, chrysalis (The 
Northern Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — The upper side is represented correctly in Plate 
XLVlll. On the under side the wings are dark brown, shading 
into hoary-gray on the outer margins. The hind wings are 
crossed by irregular basal, median, and postmedian brown bands 
of darker spots, shaded with deeper brown internally. The 
translucent spots of the upper side reappear on the lower side of 
the fore wings. Expanse, 1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are elaborately described in the pages of 
Dr. Scudder's great work. The caterpillar feeds on clover, Les- 
pede^a, and Desmodium. 

This insect is found throughout the United States and Canada, 
but is not as yet reported from the central masses of the Rocky 

324 



Genus Achalarus 

Mountain region. It probably, however, occurs there also in 
suitable locations. It is very common in New England. 

(2) Thorybes bathyllus, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLVIII, 
Fig. 5, ? ; Plate II, Fig. }2, larva; Plate VI, Fig. 24, chrysalis 
(The Southern Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from the preceding species by 
the much larger size of the translucent spots on the fore wings. 
Expanse, 1.40-1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — The habits of the larva are very similar to those 
of the preceding species, and the caterpillar feeds on herbaceous 
leguminosse. 

It ranges from the Connecticut Valley, where it is rare, south- 
ward along the coast and through the Mississippi Valley as far 
south and west as Texas. 

(3) Thorybes aemilia, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 39, ^ (Mrs. 
Owen's Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — This little species, which may readily be identified 
by the figure of the type given in the plate, is as yet quite rare in 
collections. We know nothing of the early stages. The types 
were taken at Fort Klamath, in Oregon. Dr. Skinner named it 
in honor of the estimable wife of Professor Owen of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, the discoverer of the species. Expanse, 1.20 
inch. 

(4) Thorybes epigena, Butler, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 13, 6 
(Butler's Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Readily distinguished by its large size, the con- 
spicuous white fringes of the hind wings on the upper side, and 
the broad white marginal band of these wings on the under side. 
Expanse, 2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This insect is common in Arizona and Mexico. 



Genus ACHALARUS, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennae and palpi are as in the preceding 
genus. The neuration is represented in the cut. The hind wing 
is slightly lobed at the anal angle; the fore wing may or may not 
be provided with a costal fold. 

(i) Achalarus lycidas, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLV, Fig. 10, 

325 




Genus Hesperia 

? , under side ; Plate II, Fig. 2}, larva ; Plate VI, Fig. 2\, chrys- 
alis (The Hoary-edge). 

Butterfly. — The general appearance of the upper side of the 
wings strongly recalls E. tityrus, but the hoary edge of the secon- 
daries and the absence of the broad median silvery 
spot found in tityrus at once serve to discriminate 
the two forms. Expanse, i. 65-1. 95 inch. 

Early Stages. — What is known of them may 
be ascertained by consulting the pages of "The 
Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar is 
found on the leaves of Desmodium (Beggar's-lice). 
The insect is rare in southern New England, 
and ranges thence southward and westward to 
Neura'tion o^f the Texas, being scarce in the Mississippi Valley north 
genus Achala- of Kentucky, and apparently not ranging west 
'''^'' of Missouri. 

(2) Achalarus cellus, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLV, 
Fig. 12, 6 (The Golden-banded Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The figure in the plate will enable the instant iden- 
tification of this beautiful species, which, on the under side, has 
the hind wings banded much as in E. proteiis. Expanse, 2.00 
inches. 

Early Stages. — What little we know of these is based mainly 
upon the observations of Abbot, and there is an opportunity here 
for some young naturalist to render a good service to science by 
rearing the insect through all stages from the Qgg. The habits 
of the larva are not greatly different from those of allied species. 

A. cellus is found in the Virginias, and thence southward and 
westward to Arizona and Mexico. It is common in the Carolinas. 



Genus HESPERIA, Fabricius 

Butterfly. — The antennae are relatively short; the club is stout 
and blunt at the tip. The palpi are bent upward, with the third 
joint buried in the scales covering the second joint. The hind 
wing is usually evenly rounded. In all the American species the 
male is provided with a costal fold. The neuration is represented 
in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, ribbed. 

^26 




Genus Hesperia 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar is much like those which have 
been previously described, but is relatively much smaller. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis has a somewhat blunt and not very 
distinctly developed cremaster. 

(i) Hesperia domicella, Erichson, Plate XLVlI, Fig. 19, $, 
(Erichson's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Allied to the following species, from which it is 
easily discriminated by the broad, solid white bands on both the 
fore and the hind wings. Expanse, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

H. domicella is found in Arizona, Mexico, 
and southward. 

(2) Hesperia montivaga, Reakirt, Plate 
XL VII, Fig. 18, <^ ; Plate VI, Fig. 35, chrys- 
alis (The Checkered Skipper). 

Butierfly.-lht upper side is correctly ^^ '^^'euTa^br An! 
delineated in the plate. The under side of tenna, magnified 3 diam- 
the fore wings is much paler than the upper ^^^^^' 
side, but with all the spots and markings of that side reproduced. 
The hind wings are creamy-white, crossed by median, postme- 
dian, and marginal irregular bands of ochreous, somewhat annular 
spots. There is a triangular black spot at the anal angle of the 
secondaries. Expanse, 1. 15 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know little of these. The caterpillar 
probably feeds on malvaceous plants, as do most of the species 
of the genus. 

The insect ranges from the Middle States to Arizona, and 
westward to the Rocky Mountains. 

(3) Hesperia centaurese, Rambur, Plate XLVII, Fig. 13, $> 
(The Grizzled Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side may easily be recognized by the 
help of the figure in the plate. On the under side the wings are 
darker than in the preceding species; the spots of the primaries 
reappear on this side, the submarginal curved row of spots coa- 
lescing to form a narrow white band, the white spot at the end 
of the cell flowing around the dark spot, which it only partly in- 
closes on the upper side, and forming an eye-like spot. The 
hind wings are brown, scaled with green, and crossed by basal, 
median, and marginal bands of quadrate spots. The fringes are 
whitish, checkered with gray. Expanse, 1.15 inch. 

327 



Genus Hesperia 

Early Stages. — These await description. 

This species, which originally was believed to be confined to 
Scandinavia and Lapland in Europe, and to eastern Labrador in 
this country, is now known to have a wide range in North 
America, extending from Labrador to the Carolinas on the Appa- 
lachian ranges, and occurring on the Rocky Mountains from Brit- 
ish Columbia to southern Colorado. 

(4) Hesperia csespitalis, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 14, 
? (The Two-banded Skipper). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side strongly resembling the pre- 
ceding species, but the inner row of white spots on the hind 
wings is more complete. On the under side the fore wings are 
black, crossed by a double row of white spots, as on the upper 
side, these spots standing out conspicuously on the dark ground. 
The hind wings on the under side are more or less ferruginous, 
with the white spots more or less conspicuous. The fringes are 
checkered white and gray. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. — But little is known concerning these. 

The species occurs in California, Oregon, and Nevada. 

(5) Hesperia xanthus, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 15, $ 
(The Xanthus Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Resembling the preceding species, but easily dis- 
tinguished by the larger size of all the spots on the upper side 
of the wing and the paler under side, the secondaries being 
marked somewhat as in H. montivaga. Expanse, i.oo inch. 

Early Stages. — Hitherto undescribed. 

The species has thus far been received only from southern Colo- 
rado, but undoubtedly will be found elsewhere in that portion of 
the land. 

(6) Hesperia scriptura, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 12, ? 
(The Small Checkered Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Quite small. The hind wings on the upper side 
are almost entirely dark gray, the only white mark being a spot 
or two at the end of the cell. The fore wings are marked on this 
side as in the two foregoing species. On the under side the 
fore wings are blackish toward the base, with the costa, the 
apex, and the outer margin narrowly whitish. The hind wings 
below are pale, with an incomplete median band of white spots 
and broad white fringes, which are not checkered with darker 
color as in the preceding species. Expanse, .85 inch. 

328 



Genus Systasea 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is southern Colorado, New Mexico, 
and Arizona. 

(7) Hesperia nessus, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 17, 6 
(Nessus). 

Butterfly. — This singularly marked little species, which prob- 
ably might be separated from this genus on account of the slen- 
der and prolonged palpi, and no doubt would be by some of the 
hair-splitting makers of genera, 1 am content to leave where it 
has been placed by recent writers. It can be readily recognized 
by the figure in the plate, as there is nothing else like it in our 
fauna. Expanse, .80 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Nessus occurs in Texas and Arizona. 

There are a few other species of this genus found within the 
limits of the United States, but enough have been represented 
to give a clear conception of the characteristics of the group, 
which is widely distributed throughout the world. 



Genus SYSTASEA, Butler 

Butterfly. — The palpi are porrect, the third joint projecting 
forward, the second joint densely scaled below. The antennae 
are slender, the club moderately stout, somewhat bluntly pointed, 
bent, not hooked. The hind wings are somewhat 
crenulate, and deeply excised opposite the end of the 
cell. The fifth vein is lacking. In the fore wing the 
lower radial arises from a point nearer the upper 
radial than the third median nervule. The fore wings 
are crossed about the middle by translucent spots or 
bands. 

Early Stages. — The early stages are unknown. 

(i) Systasea zampa, Edwards, Plate XLVI, , /'^ 158.^ 

_. ^ ' .„ . Neuration of 

Fig. I, $ (Zampa). the genus Sys- 

Butterfly. — The wings on the upper side are ochre- ^^^^^• 
ous, mottled and clouded with dark brown. The primaries are 
marked about the middle and before the apex by translucent 
transverse linear spots. In addition there are a number of pale 
opaque spots on the primaries. The secondaries are traversed by 

329 





Genus Pholisora -^ 

a pale submarginal whitish line. The under side of the wings is 
pale, with the light markings of the upper side indistinctly sepa- 
rated. Expanse, 1. 10-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This interesting little species occurs in Arizona and northern 
Mexico. 

Genus PHOLISORA, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The palpi are porrect, the second joint loosely 
scaled, the third joint slender and conspicuous. The antennae 
have the club gradually thickened, the tip blunt. The fore wing 
is relatively narrow, provided with a costal fold in the 
case of the male. The cut gives a correct idea of the 
neuration. 

Egg. — The Qgg is curiously formed, much flattened 
at the base, marked on the side with longitudinal 
_ ridges and cross-lines, these ridges developing alter- 
Neuration of nately at their apical extremities into thickened, more 
the genus q^ jg^g rugose elevations, the ridges pointing inwardly 
and surrounding the deeply depressed micropyle. 
Caterpillar. — Slender, with the head broad, rounded; the 
body stout, thickest in the middle, tapering toward either end, 
and somewhat flattened below. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is slender, very slightly convex on 
the ventral side, somewhat concave on the dorsal side behind 
the thorax. The wing-cases are relatively smaller than in the 
preceding genera. 

(i) Pholisora catuUus, Fabricius, Plate XLV, Fig. 4, $> ; 
Plate VI, Figs. 29, ^6, 41, chrysalis (The Sooty-wing). 

Butterfly. — Black on both sides of the wings, with a faint 
marginal series and a conspicuous submarginal series of light 
spots on the primaries in the male sex on the upper side, and, in 
addition to these, in the female sex, a faint marginal series on the 
secondaries. On the under side only the upper spots of the sub- 
marginal series of the primaries reappear. Expanse, .80-1.13 
inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on **lamb's-quarter " 
(Chenopodium album) and the Amarantacece. It forms a case for 
itself by folding the leaf along the midrib and stitching the edges 

330 



Hxpi.ANAflON OF PlATK XLV 

!. Paptlto niliilu>. Y^imduvA. ^''. 7. 71.\riuios bri;o. Holsd.-l.ec, 9- 

2. Pholisora alphriis. Edwards, r7' . S. Tbaimos clltiis, Edwards, (J^..- 

■^. Calpoch's ilhlui-s. Cramer. C . t,. Pvnbopvgc jyjxcs, Hewitsori, .^.: 

4. Pbolisorj Cell III! us. Eabricius. ^?. K>. Acbalanis Jycidas, Smith and Ab- 

=,. ll.mimos iifrjuiiis, Un^^^t^y, ^- ^ot. ^:^ , under side. 

6. £//i/j /////>■ /i7c)/<'//N, Linnaeus, +. 11. /^/<'>7/j <^o;;/.s-, Edwards, --J. 
\2. Acbalarus ccllus, Boisd.-l.ec, rj^ 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLV. 




^yPIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 1898. 



Genus Pholisora 

together with a few threaas of silk. It lies concealed during the 
day and feeds at night. A minute account of all its peculiarities 
is given by Scudder in ''The Butterflies of New England," vol. 
ii, p. 1 5 19. 

The insect ranges over the whole of temperate North America. 

(2) Pholisora hayhursti, Edwards, Plate XLVlll, Fig. 16, ? 
(Hayhurst's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from the preceding species 
by the somewhat crenulate shape of the outer margin of the hind 
wings, the white color of the under side of the abdomen, and 
the different arrangement of the white spots on the fore wings, as 
well as by the dark bands which cross both the fore and the 
hind wings on the upper side. Expanse, .90-1.15 inch. 

Early Stages. — Our information as to these is incomplete. 

The species ranges from the latitude of southern Pennsylvania 
westward and southward to the Gulf, as far as the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

(3) Pholisora libya, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 14, 6 (The 
Mohave Sooty-wing). 

Butterfly. — Easily distinguished from the two preceding spe- 
cies by the white fringes of the wings and by the markings of 
the under side. . The primaries on the lower side are dark, tipped 
at the apex with light gray, and in the female having the costa 
and the outer margin broadly edged with light gray. The hind 
wings are pale gray of varying shades, miarked with a number 
of large circular white spots on the disk and a marginal series of 
small white spots. Expanse, $> , .80-1.25 inch; ?, 1.15-1.40 
inch. 

Early Stages. — These await full description. 

This species is found from Nevada to Arizona, and is appa- 
rently very common in the Mohave Desert. 

(4) Pholisora alpheus, Edwards, Plate XLV, Fig. 2, $> (Al- 
pheus). 

Butterfly. — This little species is nearer P. hayhursti than any 
of the others we have described, but may at once be recognized 
and discriminated by the checkered margins and white tip of the 
fore wing and the linear shape of the spots composing the sub- 
marginal and median bands on the upper side of this wing. The 
hind wings on the under side are marked with a number of light 
spots arranged in marginal and median bands. 

33^ 



Genus Thanaos 




Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Alpheus occurs in Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico. 

There are four other species of the genus found in our fauna. 



Genus THANAOS, Boisduval 
(The Dusky-wings) 

Butterfly.— The antennae have a moderately large club, curved, 

bluntly pointed. The palpi are porrect, the third joint almost 

concealed in the dense hairy vestiture of the second joint. The 

neuration of the wings is represented in the cut. 

The fore wing in the case of the male always has a 

costal fold. The butterflies comprised in this genus 

are all, without exception, dark in color, in a few 

species having bright spots upon the hind wings. 

The genus reaches its largest development in 

North America. The discrimination of the various 

species is somewhat difficult. 

Fig. i6o.— Egg. —The egg is somewhat like the egg in the 

Neuration of the genus Achalarus, but the micropyle at the upper 

genus Thanaos. ^ r .u • i 4.- i i j .. j i 

end of the egg is relatively larger and not as deeply 
depressed below the surface. The sides are ornamented, as in 
Achalarus, by raised vertical ridges, between which are numerous 
cross-ridges ; in a few cases the vertical ridges are beaded, or marked 
by a series of minute globose prominences, upon the edge. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillars are cylindrical, tapering from 
the middle forward and backward, marked with lateral and dor- 
sal stripes, with the neck less strangulated than in the preceding 
genera. 

Chrysalis. — Not greatly differing in outline from the chrysalis 
of the preceding genera, in most species having the outline of the 
dorsum straight on the abdominal segments, with the thoracic 
segments forming a slight hump or elevation ; convex on the ven- 
tral side, the cremaster being usually well developed. 

(i) Thanaos brizo, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLV, Fig. 
7, ? ; Plate VI, Fig. 38, chrysalis (The Sleepy Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — The band of postmedian spots on the fore wing 
is composed of annular dark markings, is regular, crosses the 
wing from the costa to the hind margin, and is reproduced on 

33^ 



Genus Thanaos 

the under side as a series of pale-yellowish spots more or less 
distinct. The hind wings have a double series of faint yellow 
spots; these as well as the marginal spots of the primaries are 
very distinct on the under side. Expanse, 1.25-1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on oaks, Galactia, and 
possibly Baptisia. The life-history has been only partially ascer- 
tained, in spite of the fact that the insect has a wide range and is 
not uncommon. 

Bri:(^o occurs from the Atlantic to the Pacific, ranging from the 
latitude of New England to that of Arizona. 

(2) Thanaos icelus, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 17, <5 ; Plate 
VI, Fig. 27, chrysalis (The Dreamy Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Prevalently smaller in size than the preceding spe- 
cies. The under side of the wings is paler than the upper side, 
and the outer third of both the primaries and secondaries is 
marked with a profusion of small indistinct yellow spots, which 
do not form well-defmed bands as in the preceding species. On 
the upper side of the fore wing the median area is generally 
marked by a broad band of pale gray, but this is not invariably 
the case. Expanse, i. 00-1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by Scudder. The 
caterpillar feeds on a variety of plants, as the aspen, oaks, and 
witch-hazel. 

Icelus ranges across the continent from Nova Scotia to Oregon, 
and south to Florida and Arizona. 

(3) Thanaos somnus, Lintner, Plate XLVllI, Fig. 2, 6 (The 
Dark Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — A little larger than the preceding species, espe- 
cially in the female sex. The male is generally quite dark, the 
banding of the fore wing on the upper side obscured^ The hind 
wings have a row of light marginal and submarginal spots, more 
distinct on the under side than on the upper. The female gen- 
erally is light gray on the upper side of the wings, with broad 
median and submarginal bands of dark brown, tending to fuse or 
coalesce at a point near the origin of the first median nervule. 
Expanse, $> , 1.25 inch; ?, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — But little is known of these. 

All of the specimens I have ever seen camefrom southern Florida. 

(4) Thanaos lucilius, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 10, $> ; 
Plate VI, Figs. 30-32, chrysalis (Lucilius' Dusky-wing). 

333 



Genus Thanaos 

Butterfly. — This species may be distinguished from T. pacu- 
vius, a near ally, by the more mottled surface of the secondaries, 
which in pacuvius are almost solidly black ; and from T. martialis, 
another close ally, by the absence of the purplish-gray cast pecu- 
liar to both sides of the wings of the latter species, and the less 
regular arrangement of the bands of spots on the upper side of 
the fore wings. The plate does not show these delicate but con- 
stant marks of difference as well as might be desired. Expanse, 
1. 20-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages.— Dv. Scudder has fully described these. The 
caterpillar feeds on the columbine {Aquilegia canadensis). 

Lucilius ranges from New England to Georgia, is common in 
western Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and extends westward 
at least as far as the Rocky Mountains. 

(5) Thanaos persius, Scudder, Plate XLVllI, Fig. i, 6 ; 
Plate VI, Fig. 34, chrysalis (Persius' Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly.— J \\\s> is a very variable species, some specimens 
being light and others dark in color. There is scarcely any posi- 
tive clue to the specific identity of the insect except that which is 
derived from the study of the genital armature of the male, which 
is a microscopic research capable of being performed only by an 
expert in such matters. The student may be pardoned if, in at- 
tempting to classify the species of this genus, and the present 
species in particular, he should grow weary, and quote a few bib- 
lical expressions relating to Beelzebub, the "god of flies." Ex- 
panse, 1. 20-1. 45 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on willows. Scudder has 
with patient care described its life-history. 

The insect ranges from New England southward, and inland 
across the continent to the Pacific. 

(6) Thanaos afranius, Lintner, Plate XLV, Fig. 5, 5 (Afra- 
nius' Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly.— Closely related to the preceding species. The hind 
wings on the upper side in the male sex are almost solid black, 
the fringes paler. On the under side there is a double row of light 
spots along the margin of the hind wing in both sexes. The 
female is generally paler in color on the upper side than the male. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

All the specimens I have seen come from Arizona, where the 
thing is apparently common. 

334 



Genus Thanaos 

(7) Thanaos martialis, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 4, $ ; 
Plate VI, Fig. 37, chrysalis (Martial's Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly.— The upper side of the wings is paler than in most 
species, and has a distinctly purplish-gray cast. The fore wings 
are crossed by irregular bands of dark spots. The hind wings 
on the outer half are profusely mottled with small pale spots. 
All the light spots are repeated on the under side of both wings, 
and are more distinct on this side than on the upper. Expanse, 
1. 2=5-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are partly known. The caterpillar feeds 
on Indigofera and Amarantus. 

The species ranges from Massachusetts to Georgia, and west- 
ward to Missouri and New Mexico. 

(8) Thanaos juvenalis, Fabricius, Plate XLVlll, Fig. 11, $ ; 
Plate VI, Fig. }}, chrysalis (Juvenal's Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Larger than the preceding species. The wings 
have a number of translucent spots arranged as a transverse 
series beyond the middle of the wing. They are far more dis- 
tinct and larger in the female than in the male. The under side 
of the wings is paler than the upper side, and profusely but 
indistinctly marked with light spots. Expanse, i. 35-1. 60 inch. 

Early Stages. — For a full knowledge of these the reader may 
consult the pages of "The Butterflies of New England." The 
caterpillar feeds on oaks and leguminous plants of various 
species. 

This insect ranges from Quebec to Florida, and westward 
as far as Arizona, where it appears to be common. 

(9) Thanaos petronius, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 7, $ (Pe- 
tronius' Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Allied in size to the preceding species, but the 
translucent spots of the transverse band are not, as in that 
species, continued toward the inner margin, but terminate at 
the first median nervule. The outer third of the primaries is 
pale, the inner two thirds very dark. The under side of the 
wings of the male is uniformly dusky, slightly, if at all, marked 
with lighter spots. The under side of the wings of the female 
is less distinctly marked with light spots than is the case in 
allied species. Expanse, i. 50-1.75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species has thus far been found only in Florida. 

33'y 



Genus Thanaos 

(10) Thanaos horatius, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 15, S 
(Horace's Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Smaller than T. juvenalts, which it resembles in 
the long transverse series of translucent spots. It is, however, 
paler on the upper side of the wings, and more profusely 
mottled on the hind wing both above and below, though there 
is considerable variation in this regard. Expanse, 1.65 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar probably feeds on the Legu- 
minosce. We know very little about the life-history of the species. 

The butterfly ranges from Massachusetts to Texas. 

(11) Thanaos nsevius, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 3, ? 
(Nsevius' Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — This insect is closely allied to T. petronius, but 
the translucent spots on the fore wing are smaller, and there is 
generally a light spot near the costa before the three subapical 
translucent spots. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is the region of the Indian River, 
in Florida. 

(12) Thanaos pacuvius, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 9, ? 
(Pacuvius' Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Small, with the fore wings on the upper side 
rather regularly banded with dark brown upon a lighter ground. 
The hind wings are almost solid black above, with the fringes 
toward the anal angle pure white. Expanse, i.i 5-1.30 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

This species occurs in Colorado, Mexico, and Arizona. 

(13) Thanaos clitus, Edwards, Plate XLV, Fig. 8, $> (Clitus). 
Butterfly. — Larger than the preceding species. The hind 

wings are solidly deep black, fringed broadly with pure white. 
The fore wings of the male are dark, of the female lighter. Ex- 
panse, 1. 60-1. 75 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is Arizona and New Mexico. 

(14) Thanaos funeralis, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 12, $ 
(The Funereal Dusky-wing). 

Butterfly. — Closely allied to the preceding species, of which 
it may be only a smaller varietal form. Expanse, 1.35 inch. 
Early Stages. — Unknown. 
Funeralis occurs in western Texas and Arizona. 

33(> 



Collections and Collectors 

The genus Thanaos is one of the most difficult genera to work 
out in the present state of our knowledge of the subject. The 
species are not only obscurely marked, but they vary in the most 
extraordinary manner. Except by a microscopic examination of 
the genital armature, which can be carried on only when the 
student possesses considerable anatomical knowledge and an 
abundance of material, there is no way of reaching a satisfactory 
determination in many cases. 



COLLECTIONS AND COLLECTORS 

In almost every community there is to be found some one 
who is interested in insects, and who has formed a collection. 
The commonest form of a collection is exceedingly primitive and 
unscientific, in which a few local species are pinned together in 
a glass-covered box or receptacle, which is then framed and hung 
upon the wall. Almost every village bar-room contains some 
such monstrous assemblage of insects, skewered on pins, in 
more or less frightful attitudes. As evidencing an innate interest 
in the beauties of natural objects, these things are interesting, but 
show a want of information which, as has been already pointed 
out, is largely due to a lack of literature relating to the subject in 
this country. In many of the schools of the land small collections, 
arranged more scientifically, have been made, and some of the col- 
lections contained in the high schools of our larger towns and 
cities are creditable to the zeal of teachers and of pupils. There 
is no reason why every school of importance should not, in the 
lapse of time, secure large and accurately named collections, not 
only of the insects, but of the other animals, as well as the plants 
and minerals of the region in which it is located. Every high 
school should have a room set apart for the use of those students 
who are interested in the study of natural history, and they ought 
to be encouraged to bring together collections which should be 
properly arranged and preserved. The expense is not great, and 
the practical value of the training which such studies impart to 
the minds of young people is inestimable. 

The great systematic collections in entomology in the United 
States are for the most part in the hands of the museums and 
universities of the country. The entomological collections of the 

337 



Collections and Collectors 

United States government at Washington are large and rich in 
interesting material. The collections possessed by Harvard Col- 
lege and the Boston Society of Natural History are extensive; so 
are also the collections of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, and those 
of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. The collection in the 
latter institution is altogether the largest and most perfect collec- 
tion of the butterflies of North America in existence, and covers 
also very largely the butterflies of the world, there being about 
twelve thousand species of butterflies represented, including rep- 
resentatives of all known genera. 

The formation of great collections has always had a charm 
for those who have possessed the knowledge, the time, and the 
means to form them ; and the ranks of those who are engaged in 
the study of butterflies include many of the most famous natural- 
ists, among them not a few of noble rank. One of the most en- 
thusiastic collectors in Europe at the present time is the Grand 
Duke Nicholas of Russia. The Nestor among German collectors 
is Dr. Staudinger of Dresden. In France M. Charles Oberthur of 
Rennes is the possessor of the largest and most perfect collection 
on French soil. In England there are a number of magnificent 
collections, aside from the great collection contained in the British 
Natural History Museum. These are in the possession of Lord 
Walsingham, the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Mr. F. D. Godman, 
Mr. Herbert Druce, Mr. H. J. Elwes, and others, all of whom 
hold high rank in the dc-main of scientific research. 

There are many men who make the collecting -of natural-his- 
tory specimens a business. They are among the most intrepid 
and indefatigable explorers of the present time. The late Henry 
W. Bates and Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace were in early life leaders 
in this work, and we are indebted to their researches for a know- 
ledge of thousands of species. Two of the most successful col- 
lectors who have followed in their footsteps are Mr. Herbert H. 
Smith and Mr. William Doherty, both of them Americans; Mr. 
Smith one of the most enthusiastic and successful explorers in 
South and Central America, Mr. Doherty the most diligent ex- 
plorer of the Indo-Malayan Region. The story of the travels and 
adventures of these two men is a tale full of romantic interest, 
which, alas! has been by neither of them fully told. 

338 



I 



f 



HXIM.ANATION OK Pl.ATH XL VI 



SvsLiSi\i ;,iiiipj, \:A\\A\\\>, {' . 
Hrviiiiis iiuiiiilohj , Sc udder, (^^\ 
En'iiins iiuiiiilohj , Scudder, V- 
Alalopcdi's hiiron, Hdvvaids. ,-f''. 
^Urloptuii's l.uiiou, Hdwards, V • 
/i try tone vitelliiis, Smith and Ah- 

bci. ,:r'. 

AIn'toiii. iitiLnir, Hdwards, q'. 
.■^Irvloih- iiu-Ljiu', Htlwards, ^v • 
Lcii'Dui hi J mm. Sciidd\?r, (J". 

10. /.('/'('/^/J /'/j//y/c?, Scudder, V. 

11. Hrvnins oltoi'. Hdwards, (5''. 
J 2. /:"/r;/;//.N (i//()<". Hdwards, ^\ 

Hrvin/is SLjssiJcits, Harris, r?'. 

14. PhvcLiiuTssj vicifor, Edwards, (/'. 

1^. Phvc\iiuissLi vicitor, Edwards, i. 

10. /.imoihoii-s poiflijc. Edwards, 'c'\ 

17. /./';;/(n/'()/'('.v' /i()////ji-, Edwards, 5^. 

iS. Hfh-pbiLi phvlcvns. Drury, (^. 

U). Hrlt'pbiLi phvhriis, Drury, 9- 

20. .-^/n'/cw/i' /i)'.N-.-c//.\-, Edwards, ?. 



2S. 
20. 



40. 



Lull Oil.h) Its piilaikii, Hdwards, J'. 
7'hi'iiiiliciis iiii's/ic. Scudder, (jf^. 
Tbviiiclicus iiii'slic, Scudder, 9. 
Ahyloiii cIclatCiiiu-, Hdwards, rj*. 
Ahvlonr (ii'LTH'jri-. Hdwards, 9- 
Hr I'll HIS iiionisoin . Hdwards, rj^. 
F.n'iniis iiiornsoiii , Hdwards, 9- 
'/'bviiw liens ivhi,!, Hoisduval, (^. 
Tbviiiclicus crtiij. Boisduval, 9 
l.iiiiocborcs iimiurtcraqtu, Scud- 
der. V • 
Hiipbvcs iiictcicoiiict , Harris, ^-j'. 
Hiipbvcs -cciini. Hdwards, (-f . 
I.cioclcci cii/ciui, Edwards, 9- 
Prciics ocoLi. Edwards, •(;f^. 
Oli,iioruj iimciilcitci, Edwards, (^ . 
J.crciiKT cciroliim , Skinner, r^. 
PbvCiiiiiisSii J a ran i, SkJnner, --(V 
Pbvccjiijssii boicardi, Skinner, ^\ 
Tboiybcs criiiiliii. Skinner, r^'. 
IJiiiocborcs vcbl, Skinner, -f . 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLVI. 








I 36 






COPYRIGHTED BY W. J HOLLAND, 1898. 



SUBFAMILY PAMPHILIN^ 

" Into the sunshine, 
Full of light, 
Leaping and flashing 
From morn till night." 

Russell. 

The Pamphilince found in our fauna fall into two groups. 

Group A. — The antennae are not greatly hooked and gener- 
ally sharply pointed; the palpi have the third joint short and 
inconspicuous; the cell of the fore wing is always less than two 
thirds the length of the costa; the lower radial is somewhat nearer 
to the third median nervule than to the upper radial. The hind 
wing is often lobed. The lower radial in the hind wing is gen- 
erally lacking. The male never has a costal fold on the fore 
wings, and but rarely is provided with a discal stigma. 

But three genera belonging to this section of this subfamily 
are found in our fauna, namely, the genera Amblyscirtes, Pam- 
phila, and Oar ism a. 

Group R— The antennae are sometimes curved, but never 
hooked, the palpi having the third joint minute, sometimes hori- 
zontally porrected. The cell of the fore wing is less than two 
thirds the length of the costa. The lower radial arises much 
nearer to the third median nervule than to the upper radial. The 
hind wing is elongated, but never tailed. The male is never 
provided on the fore wing with a costal fold, but is in many 
genera furnished with a discal stigma on the fore wing. When in 
a state of rest the majority of the species elevate their fore wings and 
depress their hind wings, an attitude which is peculiar to the insects 
of this group. 

Genus AMBLYSCIRTES, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennae are short, with a moderately thick 
club, crooked at the end; the third joint of the palpi is bluntly 

339 




Genus Amblyscirtes 

conical, short, and erect. The costa of the fore wing is straight, 
slightly curved inwardly before the apex. The neuration is 
represented in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical. 

Caterpillar. — Not differing materially in its 
characteristics from the caterpillars of other hes- 
perid genera. 

Chrysalis. — Somewhat slender, with the dorsal 

and ventral outlines straighter than in any of the 

preceding genera, and the dorsum very slightly 

P _ elevated in the region of the thoracic segments. 

Neuration oir the (i) Amblyscirtes vialis, Edwards, Plate 

Tines ^"'^^^' XLWU, Fig. 5, $ ; Plate VI, Fig. 40, chrysalis (The 

Roadside Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This little species, an exceptionally bright example 

of which is represented in the plate, may be known by the 

dark color of the upper surface, almost uniformly brown, with a 

few subapical light spots at the costa. In the specimen that is 

figured these light spots are continued across the wing as a curved 

band, but this is not usual. The wings on the under side in both 

sexes are very much as on the upper side, save that both wings 

on the outer third are lightly laved with gray. Expanse, i.oo 

inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described with minute accu- 
racy by Dr. Scudder. 

The Roadside Skipper ranges from Montreal to Florida, and 
westward as far as Nevada and Texas. It is not a common spe- 
cies in the valley of the Mississippi; it seems to be far more 
common in southern New England and in Colorado. At all 
events, 1 have obtained more specimens from these localities than 
from any others. 

(2) Amblyscirtes samoset, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 6, $ ; 
Plate VI, Fig. 45, chrysalis (Pepper-and-salt Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This little species on the upper side has the 
ground-color as in the preceding species; the fringes on both 
wings are pale gray. There are three small subapical spots on 
the fore wing, three somewhat larger spots, one on either side of 
the second median nervule and the third near the inner margin, 
and two very minute spots at the end of the cell. On the under 
side the wings are pale gray, the white spots of the upper side 

340 



Genus Amblyscirtes 

of the fore wing reappearing. The hind wing is in addition 
marked by a semicircular median band of white spots, a small 
spot at the end of the cell, and another conspicuous white spot 
about the middle of the costa. Expanse, i.oo-i. lo inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar apparently feeds upon grasses. 
We know as yet very little of the life-history of the insect. 

It is found in Maine, New Hampshire, along the summits of 
the Appalachian mountain-ranges as far south as West Virginia, 
and is reported to be common in Wisconsin and Michigan. 

(3) Amblyscirtes aenus, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 7, ? 
(The Bronze Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This obscure little species has the upper side of 
the wings somewhat tawny. The markings, which are similar 
to those in A. samoset, are not white, but yellow. The wings 
on the under side are darker than in samoset. The spots of the 
fore wing are the same, but the spots on the under side of the 
hind wing are different, and form a zigzag postmedian transverse 
band, with a single small spot at the end of the cell, and another 
of the same size beyond the middle of the costa. Expanse, i.oo- 
1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are unknown. 

The species occurs in western Texas and Arizona. 

(4) Amblyscirtes simius, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 8, ^ 
(Simius). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is correctly figured in 
the plate. The wings on the under side are quite pale; the spots 
of the fore wing reappear on the under side, and the fore wing is 
blackish at the base; the hind wing has the angle at the base 
broadly white, with a broad white blotch at the end of the cell, 
and a semicircular curved band of obscure spots traversing the 
middle of the wing. Expanse, ^, .90 inch; ?, 1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species was originally described from Colorado. 

(5) Amblyscirtes textor, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 16, 5, 
under side (The Woven- winged Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This little species, the under side of which is accu- 
rately delineated in the plate, needs no description to charac- 
terize it, as its peculiar markings serve at once to distinguish it 
from all other species. Expanse, i. 25-1. 45 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

341 




Genus Pamphila 

This little insect ranges from North Carolina southward to 
Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. 



Genus PAMPHILA, Fabricius 

Butterfly. — The antennae are very short, less than half the 
length of the costa. The club is stout, elongate, and blunt at its 
extremity; the palpi are porrect, densely clothed with scales, 
concealing the third joint, which is minute, slender, 
and bluntly conical. The body is long, slender, and 
somewhat produced beyond the hind margin of the 
secondaries. The neuration of the wings is repre- 
sented in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, vertically ribbed, the inter- 
spaces uniformly marked with little pitted depres- 

FlG 162.— gJQpjg^ 

Neuration of ^^ , , . • , • 

the genus P^w- Caterpillar. — The body is cyhndrical, slender, 

P^^^^^' tapering forward and backward ; the neck less stran- 

gulated than in many of the genera. The body is somewhat hairy ; 
the spiracles on the sides open from minute subconical elevations. 

Chrysalis. — Not materially differing in outline and structure 
from the chrysalids of other genera which have already been de- 
scribed. 

Only a single species belonging to the genus is found in 
North America. 

(i) Pamphila mandan, Edwards, Plate XLXII, Fig. i, S 
(The Arctic Skipper). 

Butterfly. — No description of this interesting little insect is 
necessary, as the figure in the plate will enable the student at 
once to distinguish it. It is wholly unlike any other species. 
Expanse, i.io inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by Dr. Scudder and 
Mr. Fletcher. The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

The insect ranges from southern Labrador as far south as the 
White Mountains and the Adirondacks, thence westward, follow- 
ing a line north of the Great Lakes to Vancouver's Island and 
Alaska. It ranges southward along the summits of the Western 
Cordilleras as far as northern California. 



342 




Genus Oarisma 



Genus OARISMA, Scudder 

Butterfly. — Closely related to the preceding genus. The an- 
tennae are very short; the club is long, cylindrical, bluntly 
rounded at the apex, not curved. The palpi are stout, the apical 
joint very slender, elongated, and porrect. The 
head is broad; the body is long and slender, 
projecting somewhat beyond the posterior 
margin of the secondaries. The neuration of 
the wings is represented in the cut. 

Early Stages. — So far as known to me the 
life-history of no butterfly of this genus has 
yet been ascertained. 

(i) Oarisma garita, Reakirt, Plate XLVII, 
Fig. }, $ (Garita). 

Butterfly. — This obscure little insect is light pio. 163.— Neura- 
fulvous on the upper side, with the costa of tion of the genus O^- 
the hind wing somewhat broadly marked with 
leaden gray; on the under side the fore wings are brighter ful- 
vous, with the inner margin laved with dark gray. The hind 
wings are paler fulvous, inclining to gray, with the inner margin 
brighter fulvous. Expanse, .75-1.00 inch. 

Early Stages.— We know little of these. The species is found 
in southern Colorado, ranging thence westward and southward to 
Arizona. 

(2) Oarisma powesheik, Parker, Plate XLVll, Fig. 4, $ 
(Powesheik). 

Butterfly. — This species may be distinguished from its ally 
garita by its larger size, the darker color of the upper side of the 
wings, and the red markings on the costa of the fore wings. On 
the under side the fore wings are black, edged on the costa and 
outer margin for a short distance below the apex with light 
fulvous. The hind wings are dusky, with the veins and nervules 
white, standing forth conspicuously upon the darker ground-color. 
Expanse, i. 00-1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

Powesheik occurs in Wisconsin, and ranges thence westward 
to Nebraska, northward to Dakota, and southward as far as 
Colorado. 

343 



Exchanges 



EXCHANGES 



One of the best ways of adding to a collection is by the method 
known as exchanging. A collector in one part of the country 
may find species which are rare, or altogether unknown, in an- 
other part of the country. By a system of exchanges with 
other collectors he is able to supply the gaps which may exist in 
his collection. No one, however, cares to effect exchanges with 
collectors who are careless or slovenly in the preparation of their 
specimens, or inaccurate in naming them. A collector who con- 
templates' making an exchange should, as the first step, prepare 
double lists, in one of which he gives the names and the number 
of specimens of either sex of the butterflies which he is able to offer 
in exchange; in the other he sets forth the things which he 
desires to obtain. The first list is said to be a list of ''offerta "; 
the second is a list of ''desiderata." As an illustration of the 
manner in which such lists may be conveniently arranged, I give 
the following: 

OFFERTA 

Papilio turnus, d^ 31 ? 4- 

Dimorphic var. glaucus, 9 6- 
Colias alexandra, cJ^ 41 ? 6- 

DESIDERATA 

Papilio nitra, ?. 

Papilio brevicauda, orange-spotted var. 

The collector who receives these lists of offerta and desiderata 
will be able to decide what his correspondent has which he de- 
sires, and what there may be in his own collection which the 
correspondent wishes that he can offer in exchange; and the 
process of exchange is thus immediately facilitated. 

Persons who exchange insects with others should always be 
extremely careful as to the manner of packing the specimens, 
and the directions given in the introductory portion of this book 
should be very carefully followed. Too much care cannot be taken 
in preventing damage to specimens in transit. 

Genus ANCYLOXYPHA, Felder 

Butterfly. — Very small, the antennae very short, the club 
straight, bluntly pointed. The palpi have the third joint long, 

344 




Genus Ancyloxypha 

slender, and suberect. The neuration of the wings is shown in 
the cut. The abdomen is slender, extending beyond the hind 
margin of the secondaries. The fore wings are with- 
out a discal stigma. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, marked with lozenge- 
shaped cells; yellow when laid, later marked with 
orange-red patches. 

Caterpillar. — The entire life-history has not yet 
been ascertained. The caterpillars live upon marsh Neuration^ d" 
grasses; they construct for themselves a nest by the genus ^w- 
drawing together the edges of a blade of grass with ^^^^^yP^^^- 
bands of silk. In form they do not differ from other hesperid larvae. 

Chrysalis. — Not as yet accurately known. 

(i) Ancyloxypha numitor, Fabricius, Plate XLVII, Fig. 2, 
^ (Numitor). 

Butterfly. — The upper side is correctly delineated in the plate. 
On the under side the fore wings are black, margined on the 
costa and on the outer margin with reddish-fulvous. The hind 
wings are pale fulvous. Expanse, .75-95 inch. 

Early Stages. — What has been said in reference to these in con- 
nection with the description of the genus must suffice for thespecies. 

This pretty little insect is widely distributed, and abounds 
among grasses about watercourses. It ranges from the province 
of Quebec to eastern Florida, thence westward across the Missis- 
sippi Valley as far as the Rocky Mountains. 



Genus COPiEODES, Speyer 

Butterfly. — The antennae are very short; the club is thick, 
straight, rounded at the tip; the palpi are as in the preceding 
genus. The neuration of the wings is represented in the cut. 
The abdomen is slender, extending beyond the hind margin of 
the secondaries. The male is provided in most species with a 
linear stigma. 

Early Stages. — These have not as yet been described. 

(i) Copaeodes procris, Edwards, Plate XLVll, Fig. 9, 5 (Pro- 
cris). 

Butterfly. — The plate gives an excellent idea of the upper side 
of this diminutive species. On the under side the wings are col- 

345 




Genus Copaeodes 

ored as on the upper side, save that the fore wings at the base 
near the inner margin are blackish, and that the hind wings are a 
trifle paler than on the upper side. The sexes 
do not differ in color. Expanse, .75-1.00 
inch. 

This pretty little butterfly is a Southern spe- 
cies, is found plentifully in Texas and Arizona, 
and occurs also very commonly in southern 
California. 

(2) Copaeodes wrighti, Edwards, Plate 
XLVII, Fig. 10, 5 (Wright's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This species may be easily dis- 
tinguished from the preceding by the dark 
Fig. 165.— Neuration fringes of both the fore and the hind wing 
of the genus Copceodes. ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ different arrangement of the discal 

stigma on the fore wing. On the under side it is colored very 
much as procris. Expanse, .75-1. 10 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species is found in the Mohave Desert and southern Cali- 
fornia. 

(3) Copseodes myrtis, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 11, ^ 
(Myrtis). 

Butterfly. — This diminutive little species may be readily 
recognized by the plate. The fore wings are somewhat broadly 
margined with dusky at the apex and along the outer margin; 
the hind wings on the costa are broadly and on the outer edge 
narrowly margined with dusky. On the under side the fore 
wings are blackish at the base. Expanse, .75 inch. 

The only specimens of this butterfly that I have ever seen 
came from Arizona. The type is figured in the plate. 



Genus ERYNNIS, Schrank 

Butterfly. — The antennae are short, less than half the length of 
the costa; the club is robust, with a very minute terminal crook; 
the palpi have the third joint minute, suberect, and bluntly coni- 
cal. There is a discal stigma on the fore wing of the male. 

Egg. — Somewhat spherical. 

Caterpillar. — Feeds upon grasses, and is stouter in form than 

346 




Genus Erynnis 

most hesperid larvae, and sluggish in proportion to its stoutness. 
It does not make a nest, but conceals itself between the leaves of 
grass at the point where they unite with the stem, 
and is not very difficult to discover. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is elongated, cylin- 
drical. Our knowledge of this stage is not very 
accurate as yet. 

(i) Erynnis manitoba, Scudder, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 2, S ; Fig. 3, ? (The Canadian Skipper). 

Butterfly, $ . — The upper side of the wings is 
depicted in the plate. On the under side the wings Neuration^^"^ 
are paler, the fore wings fulvous on the cell, pale the genus Eryn- 
gray at the apex and on the outer margin. There *^"' enlarged. 
is a black shade at the base of the primaries, and a black streak 
corresponding in location to the discal stigma on the upper side. 
The hind wings are pale ferruginous, except a broad streak along 
the inner margin, which is whitish. All the light spots of the 
upper side of both wings reappear on the under side, but are more 
distinctly defined, and are pearly-white in color. 

? .—The female, on the under side of the fore wing, has the 
black discal streak replaced by a broad ferruginous shade. The 
hind wings are darker, and the light spots stand forth more con- 
spicuously upon the darker ground. Expanse, $, 1.25 inch; ?, 
1.30 inch. 

Early Stages. — These remain to be ascertained. 

The Canadian Skipper is found across the entire continent 
north of a line roughly approximating the boundary between the 
United States and the Dominion of Canada. Along the Western 
Cordilleras it descends into the United States, as far south as 
Colorado and northern California. 

(2) Erynnis morrisoni, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 26, $ ; 
Fig. 27, ? (Morrison's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings in both sexes is suffi- 
ciently well delineated in the plate to obviate the necessity for 
description. On the under side the fore wings are pale fulvous, 
black at the base and ferruginous at the tip, the ferruginous 
shade interrupted by the subapical pale spots, which on this side 
of the wing are pearly-white. The hind wings are deep ferrugi- 
nous, obscured on the inner margin by long pale-brown hairs. 
From the base to the end of the cell there is a broad silvery-white 

347 



Genus Erynnis 

ray. Beyond the cell the curved postmedian band of fulvous 
spots which appears above reappears as a band of pearly-white, 
which stands forth conspicuously on the dark ground. Expanse, 
$, 1.20 inch; ?, i. 20-1. 35 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species ranges from southern Colorado to Arizona. 

(3) Erynnis sassacus, Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 13, $ (The 
Indian Skipper). 

Butter fly. -^1 he upper side of the male is as shown in the 
plate. The female is larger, the fulvous ground-color paler, the 
outer marginal shades darker, and the discal stigma is replaced 
by a dark-brown shade. On the under side in both sexes the 
wings are pale fulvous, with the spots of the upper side feebly re- 
produced as faint lighter spots. The fore wings in both sexes are 
black at the base. Expanse,^, 1. 10-1.25 inch; ?, i. 25-1. 35 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar, which is plumper than most 
hesperid larvse, feeds on grasses. 

The insect ranges from New England to Georgia, and westward 
to Colorado. 

(4) Erynnis ottoe, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 11, $> \ Fig. 
12, $ (Ottoe). 

Butterfly. — Considerably larger than the preceding species. 
The wings of the male on the upper side are pale fulvous, nar- 
rowly bordered with black. The discal stigma is dark and promi- 
nent. The female has the wings on the upper side more broadly 
but more faintly margined with dusky. The wings of both sexes 
on the under side are uniformly pale fulvous or buff, marked with 
dark brown or blackish at the base of the fore wings. Expanse, 
$, 1.35 inch; ?, 1.45-1.50 inch. 

Early 5/a^^5.— Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is Kansas and Nebraska. 

(5) Erynnis metea, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. ^3, $ ; Fig. 
34, 9 (The Cobweb Skipper). 

Butterfly.— The upper side of the wings is fairly well repre- 
sented in the plate, the male being a little too red, and the wings 
at the base and the discal stigma not being dark enough. On the 
under side the wings are brown, darker than on the upper side. 
The pale markings of the upper side are all repeated below as 
distinct pearly-white spots, and in addition on the hind wings 
near the base there is a curved band of similar white spots. Ex- 
panse, 6, 1.20 inch; $, i. 25-1. 30 inch. 

348 



I 



Genus Erynnis 

Early Stages. — We know as yet but little of these. 
The species occurs in New England, New York, and west- 
ward to Wisconsin. 

(6) Erynnis uncas, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 27, $> ; Fig. 
28, ? (Uncas). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings of both sexes is well 
represented in the plate. On the under side in both sexes the 
wings are beautifully marked with conspicuous pearly-white 
spots on a greenish-gray ground. The spots are defined in- 
wardly and outwardly by dark olive shades and spots. Expanse, 
$ , 1.30 inch; ? , 1.55 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know nothing of these. 

The insect ranges from Pennsylvania to Colorado and Mon- 
tana. 

(7) Erynnis attalus, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 2^, $ (At- 
tains). 

Butterfly. — The male is fairly well depicted in the plate, but 
the light spots are too red. The female is larger and darker. 
On the under side the wings are dusky, with the light spots re- 
produced in faint gray. Expanse, 6, 1.25 inch; ?, 1.45 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species occurs very rarely in New England, is found 
from New Jersey to Florida and Texas, and ranges westward to 
Wisconsin and Iowa. 

(8) Erynnis sylvanoides, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 44, 
^ (The Woodland Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is well shown in the 
plate. The female on the upper side has less fulvous, the wings 
being prevalently fuscous, and the red color reduced to a spot at 
the end of the cell. There is a median band of fulvous spots on 
both wings. On the under side in both sexes the wings are 
quite pale gray, with the costa near the base and the cell of the 
primaries reddish. The primaries at the base near the inner mar- 
gin are black. The spots of the upper side reappear, but are pale 
and faint. Expanse, i. 25-1. 35 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species ranges along the Pacific coast from British Co- 
lumbia to California, and eastward to Colorado. 

(9) Erynnis leonardus, Harris, Plate XLVII, Fig. 35, 6 ; 
Fig. }6, ? (Leonard's Skipper). 

Butterfly.— Stouter 2ind larger than the preceding species, and 

349 



Genus Thymelicus 

notably darker in coloring. The upper side of the wings is 
shown in the plate. On the under side the wings are dark brick- 
red. The primaries are blackish on the outer half, interrupted 
by the spots of the median series, which on the under side are 
large, distinct, and shade from pale fulvous to white toward the 
inner margin. The secondaries have a round pale spot at the 
end of the cell, and a curved median band of similar spots, cor- 
responding in location to those on the upper side. Expanse, $ , 
1.25 inch; $,1.35 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are only imperfectly known. The cat- 
erpillar feeds on grasses. 

The butterfly, which haunts flowers and may easily be cap- 
tured upon them, ranges from New England and Ontario south- 
ward to Florida, and westward to Iowa and Kansas. 

(10) Erynnis snowi, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 29, $ ; Fig. 
30, ? (Snow's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings of both sexes is well 
represented in the plate. On the under side the wings are uni- 
formly reddish-brown, with the primaries black at the base, and 
the median spots enlarged near the inner margin and whitish, as 
in the preceding species. The light spots of the upper side re- 
appear below as pale spots, which are well defined on the dark 
ground-color. Expanse, i. 25-1. 40 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species ranges from southern Colorado to Arizona. 



Genus THYMELICUS, Hubner 

Butterfly. — The antennae are short, less than half the length of 
the costa; the club is stout and short, somewhat crooked just at 
the end. The third joint of the palpi is conical, almost concealed 
in the thick vestiture of the second joint. The neuration is given 
in the cut. 

Egg. — The Qgg is hemispherical, with the surface marked by 
irregular angular cells formed by slightly raised lines. 

Caterpillar.— y\\t caterpillars feed on grasses. They are long 
and slender, thicker behind than before, covered with short hair. 
They are generally dark in color, and not green as are the cater- 
pillars in most of the hesperid genera. 

350 



Explanation of Plate XLVII 



1. Painpbila mandaii, Edwards, (J^. 22. 

2. Aiicyloxyplhi iiiiinitor, Fabricius, (^. 23. 

3. Oartsvia garita, Re3.k'nt, (J\ 24. 

4. Oarisma poweshiek, Parker, (J'. 2s. 
f^. Anih[vscirtc$ vicilis, Edwards, (J^. 20. 

6. Ainhh'scirtc's samoset, Scudder, rT- 27. 

7. .^iiibJfscirtes a'Ji us, Edwards, 9- 28. 

8. Aiubhscirtes simius, Edwards, rf'. 29. 
Q. Copivodcs procris, Edwards, (J\ 30. 

10. Co^rt'o^r.s—u.'/7^7'//, Edwards, (i^. ^1. 

11. CopiTodes uiviiis. Edwards, rj'. ^2. 

12. Hcsperia scriptiira, Boisduval, 9- ^v 

13. Hcsperia centaurece, Ranibur, r^. ^4. 

14. Hesperia ccespitalis, Boisdiwn], '^ . 3s. 
13. Hi'spcria xantlnis, Edwards, (J*. 36. 
10. Ainhlyscirtes tcxtor, Edwards, (j^, ^7. 

iiuder side. 38. 

17. /yt'5^rrm «.r55//i-, Edwards, J''. ^9. 

18. Hesperia montivaga, Reakirt, J^. 40. 

19. Hesperia domicella, Erichson, (J\ 41. 

20. Limochorcs tatimas, Fabricius, (^. 42. 

21. Poanes massasoit,Sc\.\ddex, (^. 4^. 

44. Et'vniiis sylvaiioid( 



Poancs massasoit, Scudder, y . 
Erynnis attains, Edwards, rf . 
Politcs peckms, Kirby, (^. 
Polites peckiits, Kirby, $ . 
PoUtcs mar don, Edwards, .:^\ 
Erynnis iiiicas^ Edwards, rj^. 
Erynnis uncas, Edwards, 9 • 
Erynnis snoivi, Edwards, (^. 
Erynnis snoici, Edwards, 9 . 
Atrytonc'taxiJcs, Edwards, (^. 
Atrytonc taxilcs, Edwards, 9 • 
Erynnis nietea, Scudder, (^ . 
Erynnis mctca, Scudder, 9 • 
Erynnis Jeonardus, Harris, rj*. 
Erynnis Jeonardus, Harris, 9 • 
Atryione ;ahulon, Boisd.-Lec, c^. 
Atrytonc ^ahulon, Boisd.-Lec, 9- 
Atrytone pocahontas, Scudder, 9 • 
Thynicticus hrcttus, Boisd.-Lec, ^. 
Thymelicus hrettus, Boisd.-Lec, 2. 
Polites sahuleti, Edwards, rf . 
Polites sahuleti , Edwards, 9 ■ 
.V, Boisduval, ,j^. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLVII. 




COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND, 




Genus Thymelicus 

Chrysalis. — I can discover no account of any observations 
made upon the chrysalids of this genus. 

(i) Thymelicus brettus, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate 
XL VII, Fig. 40, 6 ; Fig. 41, $ (The Whirlabout). 

Butterfly.— The male on the upper side resembles Hylephila 
phylcBtis, but may be distinguished by the broader and darker 
spots on the under side of the wings. The costal 
and outer margins of the secondaries are also gen- 
erally more broadly bordered with fuscous than in 
phylceus, a fact not shown in the specimen figured 
in the plate. The female is quite different from the 
female oi phylceus, as will be seen by a comparison 
of the figures of the two sexes. Expanse, 5 , 1. 15 
inch; ? , 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are only partially known, p^^ 16 — 
The caterpillar feeds on grasses. Neuration of the 

The insect is very rare in the North, a few speci- ^^""^niJ^^J ^^^" 
mens having been taken in New England and Wis- 
consin. It is found commonly in the Carolinas, and thence south- 
ward to the Gulf, and is abundant in the Antilles, Mexico, and 
Central America. 

(2) Thymelicus setna, Boisduval, Plate XLVI, Fig. 2S, $ ; 
Fig. 29, ? ; Plate VI, Fig. 42, chrysalis (The Volcanic Skipper). 

Butterfly.— Both sexes are well represented on the upper side 
in the plate. On the under side the wings are paler, with the 
light spots of the upper side repeated. Expanse, 5 , i.oo inch; 
? , 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages.— V^ hat we know of these is well stated in the 
pages of Dr. Scudder's great work. The caterpillar usually feeds 
on grasses. 

The species ranges from New England, Ontario, and Wis- 
consin on the north to the Gulf, and as far west as Iowa and 
Texas. 

(3) Thymelicus mystic, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 22, $ ; 
Fig. 2^, ? (The Long-dash). 

Butterfly. — No description of the upper side is needed, the 
figures in the plate being sufficient to enable identification. On 
the under side the primaries are fulvous on the costa at the base. 
The remainder of the primaries and the secondaries are dark fer- 
ruginous, with the light spots of the upper side all repeated 



Genus Atalopedes 

greatly enlarged, pale, and standing out boldly upon the dark 
ground-color. The hind wings are pale brown on the inner mar- 
gin. Expanse, $, i.ioinch; $, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been elaborately described by 
Scudder. The caterpillar feeds on grasses, making a tubular nest 
for itself among the leaves. 

The insect ranges through southern Canada and New Eng- 
land to Pennsylvania, and westward to Wisconsin. 



Genus ATALOPEDES, Scudder 

Butterfly. — Antennae short, less than half the length of the 
costa; club short, stout, crooked just at the end; the palpi as in 
the preceding genus. The cut shows the neuration. The only 
mark of distinction between this genus and the 
two genera that follow is found in the shape of 
the discal stigma on the wing of the male, which 
is described as follows by Dr. Scudder: *' Discal 
stigma in male consisting of, first, a longitu- 
dinal streak at base of middle median interspace, 
of shining black, recurved rods; second, of a 
semilunar field of dead-black erect rods in the 
lowest median interspace, overhung above by 
long, curving scales; followed below by a short, 
ration of^thrgenus Small striga of shining black scales, and outside 
Atalopedes, en- by a large field of erect, loosely compacted 
^^'^'^- scales." 

£^^.— Hemispherical, covered with a network of delicate raised 
lines describing small polygons over the surface; minutely 
punctate. 

Caterpillar. — Cylindrical, tapering backward and forward; 
head large; the neck less constricted than in the genus Eudamus 
or in the genus Thanaos; dark in color. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is slender, cylindrical, a little 
humped upon the thorax, with the tongue-sheath free and pro- 
jecting to the end of the fifth abdominal segment. 

(i) Atalopedes huron, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 4, S ; 
Fig. 5, ? ; Plate VI, Figs. 43, 47, chrysalis (The Sachem). . 
Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings in both sexes is well 

352 




Genus Polites 

represented in the plate. On the under side the wings are paler, 
with the light spots of the upper side faintly repeated. Expanse, 
S , 1. 15 inch; ? , 1.35 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are described in full with painstaking 
accuracy by Scudder in ''The Butterflies of New England." The 
caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

The species ranges from southern New York to Florida, 
thence westward and southward into Mexico. 

Genus POLITES, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennse and the palpi are as in the pre- 
ceding genus; the neuration of the wings is also very much 
the same. This is another genus founded by Dr. 
Scudder upon the shape of the discal stigma in the 
wing of the male. His description of this feature is 
as follows: *' Discal stigma of male consisting of an 
interrupted, gently arcuate or sinuate streak of dead- 
black retrorse scales or rods, edged below, especially 
in the middle, by a border of similar, but dust- 
colored, erect rods, and followed beneath by an p^^ 160 — 
inconspicuous large area of loosely compacted, erect, Neuration of 
dusky scales." ISef^^^l 

Egg. — Approximately hemispherical, the height, 
however, being greater than in the tgg of the preceding genus; 
reticulated, the lines forming hexagonal figures upon the surface. 

Caterpillar, etc. — Of the stages beyond the tgg we know as 
yet comparatively little. The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

(i) Polites peckius, Kirby, Plate XLVII, Fig. 24, $ ; Fig. 
25, ? (Peck's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This little species, the upper side of which in 
both sexes is correctly shown in the plate, has the under side of 
the wings dark brown, with the light spots of the upper side 
greatly enlarged, especially upon the disks of the wings, fused, 
and pale yellow, thus contrasting strongly with the rest of the 
wings. Expanse, $> , i. 00 inch; ?, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — These are not thoroughly known as yet. The 
larva feeds on grasses. 

Peck's Skipper ranges from Canada southward to Virginia, 
and west to Kansas and Iowa. 

353 




Genus Hylephila 

(2) Polites mardon, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 26, $ (The 
Oregon Skipper). 

Butterfly. — On the under side the wings are pale gray, with 
the light spots of the primaries and a curved median band of 
spots on the secondaries whitish. Expanse, $, i.io inch; ?, 
1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The only specimens I have, including the types, were taken 
in Oregon and Washington. 

(3) Polites sabuleti, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 42, $ ; Fig. 
43, $ (The Sand-hill Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Small, the male on the upper side looking like a 
diminutive and darkly bordered phylams. On the under side the 
wings are paler than on the upper side; the still paler spots of 
the discal areas are defined outwardly and inwardly by elongated 
dark spots. Expanse, i.oo-i.io inch. 

Ea rly Stages. — Unknown. 

The habitat of this species is California. 

Genus HYLEPHILA, Billberg 

Butterfly. — The antennae are very short, scarcely one third the 
length of the costa of the fore wing; the club is robust and 
short, with a very minute crook at the end ; the palpi are as in 
the two preceding genera. The neuration of the 
wings is represented in the cut. 

Early Stages. — As yet but partially known. 
The larva feeds on grasses, and the mature form 
has been figured by Abbot, a copy of whose draw- 
ing is given by Dr. Scudder in Plate 77 of "The 
Butterflies of New England." 

(i) Hylephila phylaeus, Drury, Plate XLVI, 
Fig. 18, 6 ; Fig. 19, ? ; Plate VI, Fig. 39, chrysalis 

Neu'r'uion'Sti;; (The Fiery Skipper). 

genus Hylephila, Butterfly. — The upper side is correctly shown 
enlarged. |^ ^^^q plate. On the under side the wings are 

pale yellow, with a few small, round spots on the margin and 
disk of the hind wings, a black patch at the base, large black 
marginal spots, and a central, interrupted, longitudinal black 
streak on the disk of the primaries. Expanse, 1.15-1.25 inch. 

354 




Genus Prenes 

The insect ranges from Connecticut to Patagonia, over all 
the most habitable parts of the New World. I have taken it 
frequently in southern Indiana, where I often have collected in 
recent years. 



Genus PRENES, Scudder 



Butterfly. — The antennae are short, not half the length of the 
costa. The head is broad, and the antennae are inserted widely 
apart. The club is moderate, terminating in a fine point which is 
bent back at right angles, forming a distinct crook. The abdomen 
is long and slender, but does not project beyond the hind margin 
of the secondaries. The fore wings are pointed at the apex and 
are relatively longer and narrower than in the preceding genus. 
The neuration is illustrated in the cut. 

Early Stages. — These have not yet been studied, 
(i) Prenes ocola, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 34, $ (The Ocola 
Skipper). 

Butterfly. — Accurately depicted in the plate. The under side 
is like the upper side, but a shade paler. The under side of the 
abdomen is whitish. Expanse, i. 45-1. 60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Un- 
known. 

This is a Southern spe- 
cies, found commonly in 
the Gulf States, and rang- 
ing northward to Penn- 
sylvania, southern Ohio, 
and Indiana. 




Fig. 171. — Neuration 
of the genus Prenes, 
enlarged. 



Genus CALPODES, 
Hubner 




r, ,, , Fig. 172. — Neuration 

Katner large, of the genus Calpodes, 



Butterfly 

stout; head broad; anten- enlarged. 
nae as in the preceding genus, but stouter. The neuration, con- 
siderably enlarged, is accurately delineated in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, ornamented with irregular, more or less 
pentagonal cells. 

355 



Genus Lerodea 

Caterpillar. — Cylindrical, slender, tapering forward and back- 
ward from the ninth segment, rapidly diminishing in size poste- 
riorly; the head relatively small, the neck not much strangulated; 
spiracles surrounded by radiating blackish bristles. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is relatively slender, gently convex 
both on the ventral and dorsal aspects, with a curved delicate 
frontal tubercle. The tongue-case is long and projects for a con- 
siderable distance beyond the somewhat short cremaster. 

(i) Calpodes ethlius, Cramer, Plate XLV, Fig. 3, ? ; Plate 
VI, Fig. 48, chrysalis (The Brazilian Skipper). 

Butterfly. — There can be no mistaking this robust and thick- 
bodied species. The wings on the under side are dull olive, 
blackish at the base of the primaries, with all the spots of the 
upper side repeated. Expanse, 2.00-2.15 inches. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the canna. 

It is common in the Gulf States, and ranges north to South 
Carolina. A stray specimen was once taken at West Farms, New 
York. Southward it ranges everywhere through the Antilles to 
Argentina, in South America. 



Genus LERODEA, Scudder 

Butterfly.— The antennae are about half as long as the costa; 
the club is robust, slightly elongated, with a distinct crook at the 
extremity; the palpi have the third joint erect, minute, and bluntly 
conical. The neuration is represented in the cut. 

Early Stages.— These are not known, 
(i) Lerodea eufala, Edwards, Plate XLVI, 
Fig- 33^ ? (Eufala). 

Butterfly.— The plate shows the upper side 
of the female. The male is not different, ex- 
cept that the fore wings are a little more pointed 
at the apex. The under side is like the upper 
side, but a shade paler. The lower side of the 
abdomen is whitish. When seen on the wing 
the creature looks like a small Prenes ocola. 
Expanse, 1.10-1.20 inch. 
.• ^'""^ ; 73.-Neura- £^^/ 5/^^YJ5. -Unknown. 

tion of the genus Le- ^ & . , ^ ,,- /- 

rodea, enlarged. This butterfly IS found in the Gulf States. 

356 





Genus Limochores 



Genus LIMOCHORES, Scudder 

Butterfly.— l\\e antennae are about half as long as the costa; 
the club is robust, elongate, with a very short terminal crook; the 
palpi have the third joint erect, short, bluntly conical. 
The male has a linear discal stigma on the upper side 
of the fore wing, as shown in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, somewhat flattened on the 
top, the surface broken up by delicate raised lines 
into pentagonal cells. 

Caterpillar. — Largest on the fourth and fifth ab- 
dominal segments, tapering to either end. The lar- pj^ 174.— 
vse feed on grasses, and construct a tube-like nest Neuration of 
of delicate films of silk between the blades. mocborlT en- 

C/;ry5a/z5.— Comparatively slender, strongly con- larged. 
vex on the thoracic segments and on the dorsal side of the last 
segments of the abdomen. On the ventral side the chrysalis is 
nearly straight. The cremaster, which is short, is bent upward 
at an oblique angle with the line of the ventral surface. 

(i) Limochores taumas, Fabricius, Plate XL VII, Fig. 20, 
$ ; Plate VI, Fig. 44, chrysalis (The Fawny-edged Skipper). 

Butterfly.— Tho upper side of the male is excellently por- 
trayed in the plate. The female is without the tawny edge 
on the fore wing, the entire wing being olivaceous, with three 
small subapical spots and a median row of four spots beyond 
the end of the cell, increasing in size toward the inner margin. 
On the under side in both sexes the wings are uniformly dull 
olivaceous, with the spots of the upper side repeated. The costa 
of the male is edged with red on this side, as well as on the upper 
side. Expanse, $, i. 00 inch; ?, 1.20 inch. 

Early Stages.— The reader who wishes to know about them 
may consult the pages of "The Butterflies of New England." 
The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

The insect ranges from Canada to the Gulf, and westward to 
Texas, Colorado, and Montana. 

(2) Limochores manataaqua, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 30, 
? (The Cross-line Skipper). 

Butterfly.— The male on the upper side is dusky-olive, with a 
black discal streak below the cell, which is slightly touched with 

351 



Genus Limochores 

reddish, becoming deeper and clearer red on the costa at the base. 
The wings on the under side are more or less pale gray, with a 
transverse series of pale spots on the primaries, and a very faint 
curved discal series of similar spots on the secondaries. The 
female, the upper side of which is well shown in the plate, is 
marked below much like the male. Expanse, 1.10-1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — These have been described by Scudder. 

The insect occurs in New England and Canada, and ranges 
westward to Nebraska. 

(3) Limochores pontiac, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 16, <^ ; 
Fig. 17, ? (Pontiac). 

Butterfly. — This fine insect is so well represented in the plate 
as to require but little description. The wings are pale red, clouded 
with dusky on the under side, the spots of the upper side being 
indistinctly repeated. Expanse, 6, 1. 15 inch; ?, 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — LWWq is known of these. 
The insect ranges from Massachusetts to Iowa and Nebraska, 
and seems to have its metropolis about the southern end of Lake 
Michigan. 

(4) Limochores palatka, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 21, 6 
(The Palatka Skipper). 

Butterfly.— 1 he upper side of the male needs no description. 
The female closely resembles the female of L. byssus, which is 
shown in the plate at Fig. 20, but differs from the female of that 
species in having the median spots on the primaries much reduced 
in size, the band of spots being greatly interrupted beyond the 
end of the cell. On the hind wing the female has the entire sur- 
face of the secondaries inside of the broad outer band fulvous, as 
shown in the figure of the male, and not simply marked by a 
transverse narrow band of spots. On the under side the fore 
wings are bright fulvous, clouded with black at the base and 
near the outer angle. The hind wings are uniformly dull red- 
dish-brown. This species has been identified by Dr. Scudder 
with a species named dion by Edwards, but which is a very 
different thing. Expanse, $, i. 50-1.65 inch; ?, 1.90-2.00 inches. 

Early Stages. — We know nothing of these. 

The insect is confined to Florida, all the specimens which I 
have seen coming from the region of the Indian River. 

(5) Limochores byssus, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 20, $ 
(Byssus). 

358 



Genus Euphyes 

Butterfly. — Allied to the preceding species. The discal stigma 
of the male upon the fore wings is much longer than in L pa- 
latka. The outer margin of the secondaries is not as sharply 
defined as in that species, but shades insensibly into the lighter 
greenish-fulvous of the basal part of the wing. The female on 
the upper side is distinguished from the female of the preceding 
species by the restriction of the discal band of spots on the hind 
wing to a few small light-colored spaces beyond the end of the 
cell, and by the regular continuation of the band of yellow spots 
across the primaries from the subapical spots to the submedian 
nervule near the middle of the inner margin. On the under side 
the primaries and the secondaries are very bright, clear orange- 
red, with the base and inner margin of the primaries brightly 
laved with blackish. The median series of spots in the male are 
very faintly indicated on the fore wings, but are more strongly 
indicated on those of the female. Expanse, 5, 1.45 inch; ?, 
1.65 inch. 

Early Stages. — We know little of these. 

The insect is found in Florida. 

(6) Limochores yehl, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 40, $ (Skin- 
ner's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is shown in the plate. 
On the under side the wings are lighter, the secondaries uni- 
formly pale cinnamon-brown, marked with a semicircle of four 
yellowish round spots, with a small spot on the cell toward the 
base. Expanse, i. 25-1. 35 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The species has been taken in Florida, and is as yet not com- 
mon in collections. The figure is that of the type. 



Genus EUPHYES, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennae have the club stout, elongate, fur- 
nished with a short crook at the end; the palpi are densely 
scaled; the third joint is slender, bluntly conical, projecting be- 
yond the vestiture of the second joint. The neuration is shown 
in the cut. 

Egg. — Hemispherical. 

Caterpillar. — The head small, body cylindrical, tapering for- 

359 




Genus Euphyes 

ward and backward from the middle, the body profusely covered 
with minute tapering hairs arising from small, wart-like protu- 
berances. 

Chrysalis. — Thus far undescribed. 

(i) Euphyes verna, Edwards, Plate XL VI, Fig. 32, $ (The 
Little Glass-wing). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is correctly delineated 
in the plate. On the under side the wings are paler, inclining 
to purplish-red. The spots of the upper side are repeated, but in 
addition about the middle of the hind wings there 
is a semicircle of pale spots. Expanse, 6 , 1. 1 5 inch ; 
? , 1.35 inch. 

Early Stages. — We do not know much of these; 
what little we do know may be found recorded in 
the pages of ''The Butterflies of New England." 
The caterpillar feeds on grasses. 

It ranges from southern New England to Vir- 
FiG. 175-— ginia, westward to Kansas, and northward to the 

Neuration of the . r ^^^ j. ^^ • -^ • ^\^ • 

genus Euphyes^ provmce of Alberta. It is quite common in Ohio, 
enlarged. Indiana, and Illinois. 

(2) Euphyes metacomet, Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 31, $ 
(The Dun Skipper). 

Butterfly.— The male is dark in color on the upper side, and 
on the under side the wings are a shade lighter, the lower side 
of the abdomen being generally paler. The female has some 
faint traces of translucent apical spots near the costa, and two 
minute translucent spots on either side of the second median 
nervule near its origin. On the under side the spots of the 
upper side reappear. There is a faint trace of a semicircle of 
pale spots about the middle of the hind wing. The female 
specimens vary on the under side from pale brown to a dis- 
tinctly purplish-brown. Expanse, 6 , 1. 15 inch; $, 1.30 inch. 

Early stages. — Next to nothing is known of these. 

It ranges from Quebec to the Carolinas, and westward to 
Texas, New Mexico, and the British possessions east of the 
Rocky Mountains, as far north as the latitude of the northern 
shores of Lake Superior. 



360 



Explanation of Plate XLVIIl 



Tlhiuaos persiiis, Scudder, (^\ 
Thanaos soinnus, Lintner, (^. 
Thaiiaos ncevius, Lintner, 9 • 
Thanaos martial is, Scudder, (J', 
Thorvbes hathvlliis, Smith and Ab- 
bot, 9. 
Thoiyhes pj'lades, Scudder, 9 • 
Thanaos petroniits, Lintner, (^ . 
Lerema accius, Smith and Abbot, (^ . 
Thanaos pacnviiis, Lintner, 9- 



18 



Thanaos hiciliiis, Lintner, (J\ 
Thanaos juvenalis, Fabricius, 9- 
Thanaos fiineraJis, Lintner, '^. 
Thoiyhes epigena, Butler, ^\ 
Pholisora lihya, Scudder, (J'. 
Thanaos horatius, Scudder, rf'. 
Pholisora hayhursti,, Edwards, 9 • 
Thanaos icelns, Lintner, ^. 
Colias eurytheme, Roisduval, 9, '^Z- 
hino. 



The Butterfly Book. 



Plate XLVIII. 







COPYRIGHTED BY W. J. HOLLAND 



Genus Oligoria 



Genus OLIGORIA, Scudder 




Butterfly. — The antennae are as in the preceding genus; the 
palpi have the third joint minute and almost entirely concealed 
in the thick vestiture of the second joint. The 
neuration is represented in the cut. 

Early Stages. — We know very little of these, 
and there is here a field for investigation. 

(i) Oligoria maculata, Edwards, Plate 
XLVl, Fig. 35, 6 (The Twin-spot). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of the male is as 
shown in the plate. The female closely resem- 
bles the male, but the spots on the fore wing are 
larger. On the under side the wings are brown, 
almost as dark as on the upper side. The pri- Fig. 176.— Neura- 
maries are whitish near the outer angle. The ^}?J' ^^ ^"^^ ^^'f' 

^ Ohgoria, enlarged. 

spots of the upper side of the primaries are re- 
produced on the lower side. The hind wings have three con- 
spicuous pearly-white spots about the middle, two located one on 
either side of the second median nervule, and one removed from 
these, located between the upper radial and the subcostal nervule. 
Expanse, $ , i .40 inch ; ? , i . 50 inch. 

Early Stages. — But little is known of these. 

This is a Southern species, found abundantly in Florida, and 
ranging northward into Georgia and the Carolinas. A speci- 
men is reported to have been taken near Albany, New York, and 
diligent collecting may show that it has a far more northern 
range than has heretofore been supposed. 



Genus POANES, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennae are short; the club is stout, bent, 
acuminate at the tip. The third joint of the palpi is slender, cy- 
lindrical, short. The neuration of the genus is shown in the cut. 

Early Stages. — Nothing is known of these, and they await in- 
vestigation. 

(i) Poanes massasoit, Scudder, Plate XL VII, Fig. 21,6; Fig. 
22, $ (The Mulberry- wing). 

361 



Genus Poanes 



Butterfly. — The upper side of the wings in both sexes is cor- 
rectly shown in the plate. On the under side the fore wings 
are black, with the costa and the outer margin bordered with 
reddish, with three small subapical light spots 
and two or three median spots. On the under side 
the hind wings are bright yellow, bordered on the 
costa and on the outer margin for part of their dis- 
tance with reddish-brown. The female on the 
under side is more obscurely marked than the male, 
and the hind wings are more or less gray in many 
specimens, lacking the bright yellow which appears 
Neuration oFthe ^P^" ^^^ wings of the male. There is considerable 
genus Poanes, variation on the under side of the wings. Expanse, 
enlarged. 6, 1. 1 5 inch; ?, 1.20 inch. 

Early Stages. — Not known. 

The species ranges from New England westward as far as 
Nebraska, and its range does not appear to extend south of Penn- 
sylvania, though it has been reported from Colorado, and even 
from northern Texas, in the West. 




Genus PHYCANASSA, Scudder 

Butterfly. — Antennae short; club straight, with a small crook 
at the end. The palpi are as in the preceding genus, but a trifle 
longer. The neuration is shown in the cut, 
and is very much like that of the preceding 
genus. 

Early Stages. — These are wholly unknown. 

(i) Phycanassa viator, Edwards, Plate 
XLVl, Fig. 14, 5 ; Fig. 15, $ (The Broad- 
winged Skipper). 

jB////^r/?>'.— Accurately delineated in the 
plate. On the under side the wings are as on 
the upper side, but paler, and the secondaries 
are traversed from the base to the middle of 
the outer margin by a pale light-colored longi- 
tudinal ray, which is more or less obscured in 
some specimens, especially of the female. The light spots of the 
upper side appear indistinctly on the under side. Expanse, $ , 
1.45 inch; ? , 1.60 inch. 

362 




Fig. 178.— Neura- 
tion of the genus Phy- 
canassa, enlarged. 



Genus Phycanassa 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

It is not uncommon in the Gulf States, and has been found as 
far north as New Jersey, northern Illinois, and Wisconsin. 

(2) Phycanassa howardi, Skinner, Plate XLVl, Fig. 38, 5 
(Howard's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The figure in the plate gives the upper side of the 
male, in which the discal streak is composed of light-colored 
scales of the same tint as the rest of the wing, in this respect re- 
sembling the allied P. aaroni. The under side of the wings is 
described by Dr. Skinner as follows: ''Superiors with tawny 
central area and border same as upper side. There is a large 
triangular spot extending into the wing from the base. The 
tawny color above this spot is of a darker hue than that below 
and outside of it. Inferiors very light brown, generally with 
four or five very faint tawny spots in the central area." Expanse, 
^ , 1.50 inch; ? , 1.60 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The home of this species is Florida. 

(3) Phycanassa aaroni, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 37, $> 
(Aaron's Skipper). 

Butterfly. — This small species, the male of which is figured 
in the plate, may be easily recognized from the figure there given. 
On the under side the fore wings are black at the base; the mid- 
dle area of the wing is tawny, paler than on the upper side, and 
bordered as above, but the border below is cinnamon-brown and 
not fuscous. The hind wings on the under side are uniformly 
light cinnamon-brown, without any spots. The female is like the 
male, but larger, the colors somewhat lighter and the markings 
not so well defined. Expanse, 6 , i.oo inch; ? , 1.25 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The specimens thus far contained in collections have all been 
taken about Cape May, in New Jersey, in the salt-marshes. 

Genus ATRYTONE, Scudder 

Butterfly. — The antennae have a stout club, somewhat elon- 
gate, and furnished with a short crook at the end. The palpi are 
very much as in the preceding genus. The neuration is shown 
in the cut. There is no discal stigma on the fore wing of the 
male. 

363 




Genus Atrytone 

Egg. — The tgg is hemispherical, somewhat broadly flattened 
at the apex, covered with small cells, the inner surface of which 
is marked with minute punctulations. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar feeds upon com- 
mon grasses, making a loose nest of silk for 
itself at the point where the leaf joins the stem. 
The head is small; the body is cylindrical, thick, 
tapering abruptly at either end. 

Chrysalis. — Covered with delicate hair; the 
tongue-case free. 

(i) Atrytone vitellius, Smith and Abbot, Plate 
XLVl, Fig. 6, 5 (The Iowa Skipper). 
Fig. 179.— Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is as 

Neuration of the ghown in the plate. The female on the upper side 

genus Atrytone, ^ ^^ 

enlarged. has the hind wings almost entirely fuscous, very 

slightly yellowish about the middle of the disk. The fore wings 
have the inner and outer margins more broadly bordered with fus- 
cous than the male, and through the middle of the cell there runs 
a dark ray. On the under side the wings are bright pale yellow, 
with the inner margin of the primaries clouded with brown. Ex- 
panse, ^ , 1.25 inch; ? , 1.45 inch. 

Early Stages. — Very little is known of these. 

The species ranges through the Gulf States, and northward in 
the valley of the Mississippi as far as Nebraska and Iowa. It 
seems to be quite common in Nebraska, and probably has a wider 
distribution than is reported. 

(2) Atrytone zabulon, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLVII, 
F^g- 37' ^ 5 Fig- 38' ? (The Hobomok Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side of both sexes is shown in the plate. 
The color on the disk of the wings is, however, a little too red. 
On the under side the wings are bright yellow, with the bases and 
the outer margin bordered with dark brown. Expanse, $ , 1.25 
inch; $ , 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — The caterpillar feeds upon grasses. The life- 
history has been described with minute accuracy by Dr. Scudder. 

The species ranges from New England to Georgia, and west- 
ward to the Great Plains. It is very common in Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and the valley of the Ohio. 

Dimorphic van pocahontas, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 39, ? . 
This is a melanic, or black, female variety of ^abulon, which is 

364 



Genus Atrytone 

not uncommon. It is remarkable because of the white spots on 
the primaries and the dark color of the under side of the wings. 

(3) Atrytone taxiles, Edwards, Plate XLVIl, Fig. 31, $ ; Fig. 
^2, $ (Taxiles). 

Butterfly. — The fore wings on the under side of the male are 
bright yellow, black at the base, slightly clouded on the outer 
margin with pale brown. The hind wings on the under side in 
this sex are still paler yellow, margined externally with pale 
brown, and crossed near the base and on the disk by irregular 
bands of pale brown. In the female sex the fore wings on the un- 
der side are fulvous, marked much as in the male, but darker, espe- 
cially toward the apex, where the subapical spots and two small 
pale spots beyond the end of the cell near the outer margin in- 
terrupt the brown color. The hind wings on the under side 
are pale ferruginous, crossed by bands of lighter spots, and mot- 
tled with darker brown. Expanse, 5, 1.45 inch; ?, 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The range of this species is from Colorado and Nevada to 
Arizona. 

(4) Atrytone delaware, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 24, $ ; 
Fig. 25, $ (The Delaware Skipper). 

Butterfly. — No description of the upper side of the wings is 
necessary. On the under side the wings are bright orange-red, 
clouded with black at the base and on the outer angle of the fore 
wings. Expanse, ^, i. 25-1. 35 inch; ?, 1.35-1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Very little is known of these. 

The butterfly is found from southern New England and north- 
ern New York as far south as Florida and Texas, ranging west 
to the Yellowstone and southern Colorado. 

(5) Atrytone melane, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 7, S ; Fig. 
8, $ (The Umber Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side somewhat resembles 
A. labulon, var. pocahontas; the female likewise closely resem- 
bles specimens of this variety. The wings on the under side 
are ferruginous, clouded with blackish toward the base of 
the inner angle, the light spots of the upper side being repeated. 
The hind wings on the under side are reddish, with a broad 
irregular curved median band of pale-yellow spots. In the 
female the band of spots is far more obscure. Expanse, $, 
1.30 inch; ? , 1.50 inch. 

365 



Genus Lerema 



Early Stages. — Unknown. 

The insect is found in southern California. 



Genus LEREMA, Scudder 




Butterfly. — The antennae are as in the preceding genus; the 
palpi have the third joint erect, short, conical. The neuration is 
represented in the cut. The male has a linear glandular streak 
on the upper side of the fore wing. 

Egg. — Hemispherical, covered with more or 
less regularly pentagonal cells. 

Caterpillar. — The caterpillar feeds upon 
grasses. The body is slender, tapering forward 
and backward; the head is small. 

Chrysalis. — The chrysalis is slender, smooth, 
with a tapering conical projection at the head, 
and the tongue-case long and free, reaching al- 
most to the end of the abdomen. 
F1G.180.— Neu- (0 Lerema accius, Smith and Abbot, Plate 
ration of the genus XLVllI, Fig. 8, $ ; Plate VI, Fig. 46, chrysalis 

Lerema, enlarged. / * • >. 

^ (Accius). 

Butterfly. — The male on the upper side is dark blackish-brown, 
with three small subapical spots, and one small spot below these, 
near the origin of the third median nervule. The female is ex- 
actly like the male, except that it has two spots, the larger one 
being placed below the small spot corresponding to the one on 
the fore wing of the male. The wings on the under side are 
dark fuscous, somewhat clouded with darker brown, the spots 
of the upper side reappearing on the under side. Expanse, ^ , 
1.40 inch; ? , 1.50 inch. 

Early Stages. — Very little has been written upon the early 
stages. 

The butterfly ranges from southern Connecticut to Florida, 
thence westward to Texas, and along the Gulf coast in Mexico. 

(2) Lerema hianna, Scudder, Plate XLVl, Fig. 9, ^ ; Fig. 10, 
? (The Dusted Skipper). 

Butterfly. — The upper side is accurately represented in the 
plate. The wings on the lower side are as on the upper side, a 
trifle paler and somewhat grayer on the outer margin. Expanse, 
^ , 1. 13 inch; ? , 1.25 inch. 

366 



Genus Megathymus 

Early Stages. — Unknown. 

It ranges through southern New England, westward to Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa, and Nebraska, in a comparatively narrow strip of country. 

(3) Lerema Carolina, Skinner, Plate XLVl, Fig. 36, 5 (The 
Carolina Skipper). 

Butterfly. — On the upper side the butterfly is as represented 
in the plate. The spots are repeated on the under side of the 
fore wing, but less distinctly defined. The costa is edged with 
brownish-yellow. The hind wings on the under side are yellow, 
spotted with small dark-brown dots. Expanse, $> , i.oo inch. 
The female is unknown. 

Early Stages. — Wholly unknown. 

This species has thus far been found only in North Carolina, 
and is still extremely rare in collections. The figure in the plate 
represents the type. 1 have seen other specimens. I place it 
provisionally in the genus Lerema, though it undoubtedly does 
not belong here, and probably may represent a new genus. 
Lacking material for dissection, I content myself with this 
reference. 

Genus MEGATHYMUS, Riley 

This genus comprises butterflies having very stout bodies, 
broad wings, strongly clubbed antennae, very minute palpi. The 
caterpillars are wood-boring in their habits, living in the pith and 




Fig, 181, — Megathymus jyuccce, 9- 

underground roots of different species of Yucca. The life-his- 
tory of the species represented in the cuts has been well described 

367 



Genus Megathymus 

by the late Professor C. V. Riley, and the student who is curious 
to know more about this remarkable insect will do well to con- 
sult the "Eighth Annual Report of the State Entomologist of 




Fig. 182. — Megathymus yuccce: a, egg, magnified; h, egg from which larva has 
escaped; hh, bbb, unfiatched eggs, natural size; c, newly hatched larva, magnified; 
cc, larva, natural size; d, head, enlarged to show the mouth-parts; e, maxillary 
palpi; /, antenna; g, labial palpi; b, spinneret. 



Missouri " (p. 169), or the ''Transactions of the St, Louis Acad- 
emy of Science " (vol. iii, p. }2}), in which, with great learning, 
the author has patiently set forth what is known in reference to 
the insect. 

The genus Megathymus is referred by some writers to the 
Castniidce, a genus of day-flying moths, which seem to connect 
the moths with the butterflies ; but the consideration of the ana- 
tomical structure of this insect makes such a reference impos- 
sible. The genus properly 
represents a subfamily of the 
Hesperiidce, which might be 
named the Megathymince. 'Yhe 
species represented in our cuts 
is Megathymus yuccas, Boisdu- 
val and Leconte. There are a 
number of other species of 
Megathymus that are found in our Southern States, principally in 
Texas and Arizona. They are interesting insects, the life-history 
of which is, however, in many cases obscure, as yet. 




Fig. 183.- 



-Chrysalis of Megathymus 
yuccce. 



368 



Conclusion 

We here bring to a conclusion our survey of the butterflies of 
North America. There are, in addition to the species that have 
been described and figured in the plates, about one hundred and 
twenty-five other species, principally Hesperiidce, which have 
not been mentioned. The field of exploration has not by any 
means been exhausted, and there is no doubt that in the lapse of 
time a number of other species will be discovered to inhabit our 
faunal limits. 

The writer of these pages would deem it a great privilege to 
aid those who are interested in the subject in naming and iden- 
tifying any material which they may not be able to name and 
identify by the help of this book. In laying down his pen, at 
the end of what has been to him a pleasurable task, he again re- 
news the hope that what he has written may tend to stimulate a 
deeper and more intelligent interest in the wonders of creative 
wisdom, and takes occasion to remind the reader that it is true, 
as was said by Fabricius, that nature is most to be admired in 
those works which are \esist—' 'Natura maxime miranda in 
minimis,'' 




369 



INDEX 



aaroni, Phycanassa, 363 

Abbot, John, 70 

abbotti, Papilio, 307 

abdomen, 7, 17 

aberrations, 24 

acadica, Thecla, 242 ; Pieris, 280 

acastus, Melitaea, 143 

accius, Lerema, 366 

Achalarus, genus, 325 ; cellus, 326; lycidas, 

325 

acis, Thecla, 240, 246 

acmon, Lycaena, 266 

Acraea, genus, 162 

Acrasinas, subfamily, 162 

Actinomeris, 157 

Adelpha, genus, 187 ; californica, 187 

adenostomatis, Thecla, 245 

adiante, Argynnis, 123 

Admiral, The Red, 170 

Admirals, The While, 182 ; Hulsf s, 185 ; 
Lorquin's, 185 

asmiha, Thorybes, 325 

aenus, Amblyscirtes, 341 

aetna, Thymelicus, 351 

affinis, Thecla, 249 

afranius, Thanaos, 334 

agarithe, Catopsilia, 287 

Ageronia, genus, 193 ; feronia, 194 ; fornax, 
194 

Agraulis, genus, 96 

Agrion, genus of dragon-flies, 86 

ajax, Papilio, 307 

alberta, Brenthis, 135 

albinism, 24 

albinos, 64 

alcestis, Argynnis, 107 ; Thecla, 241 

alexandra, Colias, 292 

aliaska, Papilio, 312 

ahcia, Chlorippe, 190 

alma, Melitgea, 147 

alope, Satyrus, 215 

alpheus, Pholisora, 331 

Alpines, The, 208 ; Alaskan, 209 ; Colo- 
rado, 209 ; Common, 210 ; Red-streaked, 
209 

Althaea, 170 

Amarantaceae, 330 

Amarantus, 335 

Amblyscirtes, genus, 339 ; asnus, 341 ; samo- 
set, 340 ; simius, 341 ; textor, 341 ; vialis, 
* 340 

American Entomological Society, 73 



ammon, Lycaena, 270 

Amorpha californica, 289 

ampelos, Coenonympha, 207 

amymone, Cystineura, 177 

amyntula, Lycasna, 268 

anal angle of wing, 19 

Anartia, genus, 174 ; jatrophae, 174 

Anatomy of Butterflies, 14-25 

Ancyloxypha, genus, 344 ; numitor, 345 

andria, Pyrrhaneea, 9, 192 

androconia, 18, 19 

Angle-wings, The, 163; Colorado, 165; 
Graceful, 166 

anicia, Melitaea, 140 

Animal Kingdom, The Place of Butterflies 
in the, 58 

annetta, Lycaena, 266 

Anosia, genus, 81; berenice, 82, 84; plex- 
ippus, 4, 6, 7, II, 12, 14, 15, 63, 82, 171 ; 
strigosa, 84 

antennae of caterpillar, 6; of butterfly, 14, 
16, 23, 61 

Antennaria, 170 

Anthocharis, genus, 282 

Anthrenus, a museum pest, 53 

antiacis, Lycaena, 261 

antiopa, Vanessa, 5, 7, 94, 169 

Antirrhinum, 173 

antonia, Chlorippe, 189 

aortal chamber, 23 

aphrodite, Argynnis, 107 

apparatus, collecting, 26 ; for breeding 
butterflies, 34 ; for mounting butterflies, 
39 ; for inflating caterpillars, 45 ; for pre- 
serving specimens, 48 ; pins, 56 ; forceps, 
56 

Aquilegia canadensis, 334 

aquilo, Lycaena, 263 

Arabis, 284 

arachne, Melitaea, 148 

Arachnida, 59 

arctic butterflies, 171 

Arctics, The, 218 ; Bruce's, 223 ; Greater, 
220 ; Labrador, 223 ; Macoun's, 221 ; 
Mead's, 222 ; Uhler's, 222 

Argynnis, genus, 96, 99, loi, 161, 172; 
adiante, 123 ; alcestis, 107 ; aphrodite, 18, 
107 ; artonis, 123 ; atlantis, 108 ; atossa, 
122 ; behrensi, 115 ; bischoffi, 124 ; brem- 
neri, 113 ; callippe, 118 ; carpenteri, 106; 
chitone, 116; cipris, 107; cho, 124; Co- 
lumbia, III; Cornelia, no; coronis, 117; 



371 



Index 



cybele, io6 ; diana, 103 ; edwardsi, 119 ; 
egleis, 126 ; electa, iii ; eurynome, 125 ; 
halcyone, 116; hesperis, 112; hippolyta, 
112 ; idalia, 103 ; inornata, 122 ; lais, 109 ; 
laura, 120 ; leto, 105 ; liliana, 119 ; maca- 
ria, 121; meadi, 119; monticola, 114; 
montivaga, 126 ; nausicaa, 108 ; neva- 
densis, 118 ; nitocris, 105 ; nokomis, 104 ; 
opis, 124 ; oweni, 109 ; platina, 117 ; pur- 
purescens, 114; rhodope, 115 ; rupestris, 
120 ; semiramis, 121; snyderi, 118; ze- 
rene, 113 

ariadne, Coiias, 29 

ariane, Satyrus, 216 

Aristolochia, 315, 316 

army-worm, 237 

Arnold, Sir Edwin, quotations from, 214, 
258 

arota, Chrysophanus, 252 

arrangement, of specimens, 52 ; of species, 
62 

arsace, Thecla, 248 

arthemis, Basilarchia, 184 

Arthropoda, definition of, 59 ; subdivisions 

of- 59 
artonis, Argynnis, 123 
Asama-yama, volcano, 150 
Asclepias, 81 
Asimina triloba, 308 
astarte, Brenthis, 135 
aster, Lycasna, 266 
asterias, Papilio, 314 
Astragalus, 240 
astyanax, Basilarchia, 184 
atala, Eumasus, 237 
atalanta, Pyrameis, 170 
Atalopedes, genus, 352 ; huron, 352 
atlantis, Argynnis, 108 
atossa, Argynnis, 122 
Atrytone, genus, 363 ; delaware, 365 ; me- 

lane, 365 ; pocahontas, 364 ; taxiles, 365 ; 

vitellius, 364; zabulon, 364 
attalus, Erynnis, 349 
augusta, Melitaea, 141 
augustus, Thecla, 247 
ausonides, Euchloe, 283 
australis, Caleplielis, 233 
autolycus, Thecla, 241 
Azalea occidentalis, 166 

bachmanni, Libythea, 227 

bairdi, Papilio, 313 

baits for butterflies, 32 

Banded Reds, The, 175 

Baptisia, 333 

Barbauld, Mrs., quotation from, 76 

barnesi, Phyciodes, 155 

baroni, Melitaea, 141 ; Satyrus, 216 

base of wing, 19 

Basilarchia, genus, 182 ; arthemis, 184 ; 

astyanax, 183 ; disippus, 3, 8, 84, 185 ; 

eros, 186; floridensis, 186; hulsti, 84, 

185; lorquini, 185; proserpina, 184; 

pseudodorippus, 185 ; weidemeyeri, 185 
Bates, H. W., on study of butterflies, 3; as 

a collector, 338 
batesi, Phyciodes, 154 
bathyllus, Thorybes, 325 
battoides, Lycaena, 264 
beani, Melitaea, 140 



beating for lepidoptera, 33 

beckeri, Pieris, 277 

Beelzebub, the " god of flies," 334 

behrensi, Argynnis, 115 

behri, Coiias, 294 ; Parnassius, 306 ; Thecla, 
247 

bellona, Brenthis, 134 

Belt, " Naturalist in Nicaragua," 91 

berenice, Anosia, 84 

bischoffi, Argynnis, 124 

Blake & Co., forceps, 56 

bleaching wings of butterflies, 20 

bJenina, Thecla, 245 

blow-fly, holding middle place in scale of 
animal existence, 271 

Blues, The, 236, 258 ; Arrow-head, 262 ; 
Aster, 266 ; Behr's, 260, 264 ; Boisduval's, 
260; Bright, 259 ; Colorado, 264 ; Com- 
mon, 267; Couper's, 261 ; Dotted, 264; 
Dwarf, 269; Eastern tailed, 268; Eyed, 
261; Florida, 269; Gray, 263; Greenish, 
260 ; Indian River, 270 ; Labrador, 263 ; 
Marine, 270; Orange-margined, 265; 
Pygmy, 269, 271 ; Reakirt's, 268 ; Rustic, 
263 ; Scudder's, 265 ; Shasta, 265 ; Silvery, 
262 ; Small, 262 ; Sonora, 263 ; Varied, 
259 ; Western tailed, 268 ; West Indian, 
270 

Boehmeria, 170 

Boisduval, Dr. J. A., 70 

Boisduval and "Leconte, " Histoire G^n^- 
rale et Monographie des Lepidopteres et 
des Chenilles de I'Amdrique Septentrio- 
nale," 70 

boisduvali, Brenthis, 132 

Boisduval's Marble, 285 

bolli, Melitaea, 147 

Books about North American Butterflies, 
69 

boopis, Satyrus, 216 

borealis, Calephelis, 232 

boxes for preserving collections, 48 

brain, 22, 23 

breeding butterflies, 34-37 

breeding-cages, 35, 36 

bremneri, Argynnis, 113 

Brenthis, genus, 128, 224 ; alberta, 135 ; 
astarte, 135; bellona, 134; boisduvali, 
132 ; chariclea, 132 ; epithore, 135 ; freija, 
132; frigga, 133 ; helena, 131; mrontinus, 
131 ; myrina, 129 ; polaris, 133 ; triclaris, 
130 

brettus, Thymelicus, 351 

brevicauda, Papilio, 313 

British Museum, 338 

brizo, Thanaos, 332 

bronchial tubes, 22 

Brongniart, M. Charles, 196 

Brooklyn Entomological Society, 73 

Brown, The Gemmed, 202 ; Henshaw's, 
202 

brucei, OEneis, 223; Papilio, 313 

Brush-footed Butterflies. See Nymphalidae 

bryoniae, Pieris, 279 

Buckeye, The, 173 

Buckland, Frank, story of, 68 

"Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society," 

73 
bumblebees in Australia, 256 
Butterflies' Fad, The, 186 



372 



Index 



" Butterflies and Moths of North America," 

Strecker, 72 
" Butterflies of New England, The," by 

S. H. Scudder, 72 ; by C. J. Maynard, 72 
" Butterflies of North America," by W. H. 

Edwards, 71 
Butterflies, Widely Distributed, 171 
Butterfly, Baird's, 313 ; Bruces, 313 ; 

Chryxus, 221 ; Holland's, 314 ; Iduna, 

220; Varuna, 222; White Mountain, 222 
Butts, Mary, quotation from, 251 
byssus, Limochores, 358 

cabinets, 50 

casnius, Calephelis, 232 

cassonia, Meganostoma, 289 

csespitalis, Hesperia, 328 

Calais, CEneis, 221 

calanus, Thecla, 243 

Calephelis, genus, 232 ; austrahs, 233 ; bo- 
realis, 232 ; caenius, 232 ; nemesis, 233 

Calicoes, The, 193 ; Orange-skirted, 194 ; 
White-skirted, 194 

California, Coenonympha, 205 

californica, Adelpha, 187 ; Mechanitis, 87 ; 
Vanessa, 168 

callias, Erebia, 209 

Callicore, genus, 178 ; clymena, 178 

caliippe, Argynnis, 118 

Callosune, genus, 162 

Calpodes, genus, 355 ; ethHus, 356 

calverleyi, Papilio, 314 

Camberwell Beauty, The, 169 

camillus, Phyciodes, 155 

canthus, Satyrodes, 200 

Cardamine, 284 

cardui, Pyrameis, 170, 171 

Carduus, 170 

carinenta, Libythea, 227 

Carnegie Museum, The, 49, 50, 338 

carohna, Lerema, 367 

carpenteri, Argynnis, 106 

Carryl, Charles Edward, quotation from, 
208 

caryas, Pyrameis, 170 

Cassia, 286 

Castniidas, family, 368 

Caterpillar and thcx-lnt. The, 316 

caterpillars, structure, form, color, etc., 5- 
II ; social habits, 8 ; nests, 8 ; wood- 
boring, 8; moulting, 9; manner of de- 
fense, 9 ; protected by color, 8 ; duration 
of life of, 10 ; preservation of, 44-48 ; 
carnivorous, 9. See Feniseca 

Catopsilia, genus, 285 ; agarithe, 287 ; 
eubule, 286 ; philea, 286 

catullus, Pholisora, 330 

Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, 168 

cecrops, Thecla, 246 

cellus, Achalarus, 326 

celtis, Chlorippe, 189 

Celtis, genus of plants, 188 

centaureas, Hesperia, 327 

Cerasus (Wild Cherrv), 310 

Ceratinia, genus, 88 ; lycaste, 88 ; var. 
negreta, 88 

cethura, Euchloe, 284 

chalcedon, Melitsea, 139 

chalcis, Thecla, 244 

chara, Melitasa, 146 



chariclea, Brenthis, 132 

charitonius, Heliconius, 92 

charon, Satyrus, 217 

Chenopodium album, 330 

Chicken-thief, a supposed, 33 

Chionobas, genus, 218 

chiron, Timetes, 180 

chitone, Argynnis, 116 

Chlorippe, genus, 188 ; ahcia, 190; antonia, 

189 ; celtis, 189; clyton, 190; flora, 191; 

leilia, 190 ; mentis, 190 
chrysalis, form of, 11; color, 12; duration 

of hfe of, 13 ; preservation of, 43 
chrysippus, Danais, 182 
chrysomelas, Colias, 291 
Chrysophanus, genus, 251 ; arota, 252 ; 

editha, 253; epixanthe, 254; gorgon, 

253 ; helloides, 254 ; hypophlaeas, 254; 

mariposa, 254 ; rubidus, 255 ; sirius, 

255 ; snowi, 255 ; thoe, 253 ; virginiensis, 

252 ; xanthoides, 253 
cipris, Argynnis, 107 
citima, Thecla, 239 
Citrus, 311 
clara, Lycaena, 259 
Clark, Willis G., quotation from, 250 
Classification of Butterflies, 58 
Claudia, Euptoieta, 99 
cleis, Lemonias, 232 
Clerck, Charles, 69 ; " Icones," 69 
clio, Argynnis, 124 
CHtoria, 322 
clitus, Thanaos, 336 
clodius, Parnassius, 305 
club-men, 176 
clymena, Callicore, 178 
clypeus, 14, 15 
clytie, Thecla, 247 
clyton, Chlorippe, 190 
Cnicus, 170 
Codling-moth, 257 
coenia, Junonia, 173 
Coenonympha, genus, 205; ampelos, 207; 

California, 205; elko, 206; eryngii, 250; 

galactinus, 205 ; haydeni, 207; inornata, 

206; kodiak, 207; ochracea, 206; pam- 

philoides, 207 ; pamphilus, 207 ; typhon, 

206 
Colasnis, genus, 94; delila, 95; julia, 95 
Cold, In the Face of the, 224; effects of, on 

butterflies, 225 
Coleridge, S. T., quotation from, 306 
Colias, genus, 161, 163, 289; alexandra, 

292 ; ariadne, 291 ; behri, 294 ; chrysome- 
las, 291 ; elis, 290 ; eriphyle, 291 ; eury- 
theme, 290 ; interior, 292; keewaydin, 
291; meadi, 290; nastes, 293; pelidne, 

293 ; philodice, 17, 291 ; scudderi, 293 
collecting apparatus, 26-34 
collecting-jars, 28-30 

Collections and Collectors, 337 

colon, Melitaea, 140 

colon. The, 22 

color, of eggs of butterflies, 4 ; of caterpil- 
lars, 8 

Columbia, Argynnis, iii 

comma, Grapta, 165 

Comstock, John Henry, " A Manual for 
the Study of Insects," 74 

comyntas, Lycaena, 268 



373 



Index 



Cook, Eliza, quotation from, 198 

Copaeodes, genus, 345 ; myrtis, 346 ; pro- 
cris, 345 ; wrighti, 346 

Coppers, The, 236, 251; American, 254; 
Bronze, 253 ; Great, 253 ; Least, 254 ; Ne- 
vada, 252; Purplish, 254; Reakirfs, 254; 
Ruddy, 255 ; Snow's, 255 

coresia, Timetes, 180 

Cornelia, Argynnis, no 

coronis, Argynnis, 117 

costal margin of wing, 19 

costal vein, 20, 21 

couperi, Lycaena, 261 

Cowan, Frank, quotations from, 90, 299 

Cowper, quotation from, 275 

coxa, 17, 18 

Cramer, Peter, 69 ; " PapillonsExotiques," 
69 

cremaster, 11 

creola, Debis, 199 

Creole, The, 199 

Crescent-spots, The, 150; Pearl, 153 

cresphontes, Papilio, 311 

creusa, Euchloe, 283 

Crimson-patch, The, 159 

crocale, Synchloe, 160 

Crustacea, 59 

crysalus, Thecla, 239 

cybele, Argynnis, 106 

Cystineura, genus, 177; amymone, 177 

cythera, Lemonias, 230 

daedalus, Lycaena, 260 

Dagger-wings, The, 179 ; Many-banded, 

180; Ruddy, 180 
damaris, Terias, 296 
damon, Thecla, 246 
Danais chrysippus, 182 
"darning-needles," 86 
daunus, Papilio, 310 
Debis, genus, 198 ; creola, 199 ; portlandia, 

199 
delaware, Atrytone, 365 
delia, Terias, 298 
deHla, Colaenis, 95 
Dermestes, a museum pest, 53 
diana, Argynnis, 103, 127 
Dichora, genus, 195 
Diclippa, 157 
dimorphism, 23 
Dione, genus, 96; vanillas, 97 
dionysius, Neominois, 213 
Dircenna, genus, 89 ; klugi, 89 
disa, Ereliia, 209 
discal area of wing, 19 
discocellular veins, 21 
discoidalis, Erebia, 209 ; Thecla, 246 
disippus, Basilarchia, 3, 8, 84, 185 
Dismorphia, genus, 273 ; melite, 274 
Distribution of Butterflies, 25 
Dog-face Butterflies, 288 ; Californian, 288 ; 

Southern, 289 
Doherty, William, 338 
domicella, Hesperia, 327 
dorsal vessel, 22 
dorus, Plestia, 322 
Drake, Joseph Rodman, quotation from, 

320 
Druce, Herbert, 338 
dryas, Grapta, 165 



drying-boxes, 42 

drying-ovens, 46, 47 

dumetorum, Thecla, 249 

duryi, Lemonias, 230 

Dusky-wings, The, 324, 332; Afranius', 334; 
Buder's, 325 ; Dark, 333 ; Dreamy, 333 ; 
Funereal, 336; Horace s, 336 ; Juvenal's, 
335; Lucihus', 333; Martial's, 335; Nae- 
vius', 336 ; Northern, 324; Mrs. Owen's, 
325; Pacuvius", 336; Persius', 334; Pe- 
tronius', 335 ; Sleepy, 332 ; Southern, 325 

Dyar, Harrison G., 186 

dymas, Melitaea, 145 

eagle, white-headed, 63 

editha, Chrysophanus, 253 ; Melitaea, 142 

Edwards, W, H., Author of " Butterflies of 

North America," vi, 71 ; types of butter- 
flies named by, vi 
edwardsi, Argynnis, 119 ; Thecla, 243 
eggs of butterflies, 3-5 ; how to secure, 34; 

preparation and preservation of, 43 
egleis, Argynnis, 126 
elada, Melitaea, 145 
elathea, Terias, 298 
electa, Argynnis, in 
Elfin, Banded, 249 ; Brown, 247 ; Hoary, 

248 
elis, Colias, 290 
elko, Coenonympha, 206 
Elwes, Henry J., 338 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, quotations from, 

197. 319 
Emperor, The Mountain, 190; The Tawny, 

190 
enoptes, Lycaena, 264 
" Entomologica Americana," 73 
"Entomologist, The Canadian," 73 
entomology, definition of, 59; in high 

schools, 257 
envelopes for butterflies, 37 
Epargyreus, genus, 322 ; tityrus, 323 
epigena, Thorybes, 325 
epipsodea, Erebia, 210 
epithore, Brenthis, 135 
epixanthe, Chrysophanus, 254 
Erebia, genus, 208, 224 ; callias, 209 ; disa, 

209 ; discoidalis, 209 ; epipsodea, 210 ; 

ethela, 210 ; magdalena, 211 ; mancinus, 

209 ; Sofia, 210 ; tyndarus, 210 
Eresia, genus, 157 ; frisia, 157; ianthe, 158 ; 

punctata, 158 ; texana, 158 ; tulcis, 158 
Ericaceae, 244 
eriphyle, Colias, 291 
eros, Basilarchia, 186 
Eryoininae, subfamily, 228 
eryngii, Coenonympha, 205 
Erynnis, genus, 346; attains, 349; leonar- 

dus, 349 ; manitoba, 347 ; metea, 348 ; 

morrisoni, 347 ; ottoe, 348 ; sassacus, 

348; snowi, 350 ; sylvanoides, 349 ; uncas, 

349 

eryphon, Thecla, 248 

ethela, Erebia, 210 

Ethiopian Faunal Region, 161 

ethlius, Calpodes, 356 

eubule, Catopsilia, 286 

Euchloe, genus, 282 ; ausonides, 283 ; ce- 
thura, 284 ; creusa, 283 ; flora, 282 ; genu- 
tia, 4, 284; juha, 283; lanceolata, 285; 



374 



Index 



morrisoni, 284 ; pima, 284 ; reakirti, 282 ; 

rosa, 284 ; sara, 282 ; stella, 283 
Eudamus, genus, 320 ; proteus, 321 
eufala, Lerodea, 356 
Eumasus, genus, 237; atala, 237; minyas, 

237 

Eunica, genus, 175; monima,i76; tatila, 176 

Euphorbiaceae, 192 

Euphyes, genus, 359; metacomet, 360; 
verna, 360 

Eupioeinae, subfamily, 78, 80 ; protected in- 
sects, 84 ; Indo-Malayan, 161 

Euptoieta, genus, 98 ; claudia, 99 ; hegesia, 

ICO 

eurydice, Meganostoina, 288 

eurymedon, Papilio, 308 

eurynome, Argynnis, 125 

eurytheme, Colias, 290 

eurytus, Neonympha, 203 

Exchanges, 344 

exilis, Lycaena, 269 

external angle of wing, 19 

external margin of wing, 19 

eyes, of caterpillars, 6 ; of butterflies, 14, 16 

fabricii, Grapta, 164 
Fabricius, Johann Christian, 69 
Fad, The Butterflies', 186 
Families of Butterflies, 64 
Family names, 63 
Faun, The, 165 
Faunal Regions, 161 
faunus, Grapta, 165 
favonius, Thecla, 240 
Fawcett, Edgar, quotation from, 228 
felicia, Nathalis, 281 
femur, 17, 18 

Feniseca, genus, 250; tarquinius, 9, 251 
feronia, Ageronia, 194 - 
Field, Eugene, quotation from, 74 
field-boxes, 30 
fiava, Terias, 296 

Flint, Charles L., edition of Harris" Re- 
port, 71 
flora, Chlorippe, 191 ; Euchloe, 282 
floridensis, Basilarchia, 186 ; Papilio, 307 
food of caterpillars, 10 
food-plants, Selection of, by female butter- 

Food-reservoir, 22 

forceps, 56 

fomax, Ageronia, 194 

Fossil Insects, 195 

freija, Brenthis, 132 

French, Professor G. H., 72 

frigga, Brenthis, 133 

frisia, Eresia, 157 

Fritillary, The Variegated, 99 ; Mexican, 
100 ; Regal, 103 ; Great Spangled, 106 ; 
Miss Owen's, no ; Behr's, 114 ; Behrens', 
115; Skinner's, 117; Snyder's, 118; Ed- 
wards', 119; CUff-dwelling, 120; Plain, 
122; Bischoff's, 124; Silver-bordered, 
129; Hiibner's, 130; White Mountain, 
131 ; Boisduval's, 132 ; Lapland, 132 ; 
Polar, 133 ; Meadow, 134 

front, definition of, 14 

fuliginosa, Lycaena, 258 

fulla, Lycaena, 259 

funeralis, Thanaos, 336 



gabbi, Meiitaea, 144 ; Satyrus, 216 

Galactia, 333 

galactinus, Coenonympha, 205 

ganglia, 22, 23 

garita, Oarisma, 343 

Geirocheilus, genus, 211 ; tritonia, 211 

gemma, Neonympha, 202 

genoveva, Junonia, 174 

genus, definition of. 63 

genutia, Euchloe, 284 

Gerardia, 173 

Geyer, Karl, 70 

Gibson, William Hamilton, quotation from, 

.93 ^ . 
gigas, CEneis, 220 

Glass-wing, The Little, 360 

glaucon, Lycaena, 264 

glaucus, Papiho, 309 

Gnaphalium, 170 

Goatweed Butterfly, The, 192 ; Morrison's, 

193 

Godman, F. D., 338 

gorgon, Chrysophanus, 253 

Gossamer-wing, The Sooty, 258 

gracihs, Grapta, 166 

Grapta, genus, 163 ; comma, 5, 165 ; dryas, 
165; fabricii, 164; faunus, 165; gracilis, 
166 ; harrisi, 165 ; hylas, 165 ; interroga- 
tionis, 164 ; marsyas, 165 ; progne, 166 ; 
satyrus, 165 ; silenus, 166 ; umbrosa, 164 ; 
zephyrus, 166 

greasy specimens, 54 

Grossulaceas, 167 

grunus, Thecla, 238 

gundlachia, Terias, 295 

Hackberry Butterflies, 188, 189 

Hair-streaks, The, 236, 237 ; Acadian, 242; 
Banded, 243; Behr's, 247; Boisduval's, 
238; Bronzed, 244; Colorado, 239; Com- 
mon, 242 ; Coral, 250 ; Drury's, 246 ; 
Early, 249; Edwards', 243; Gray, 245; 
Great Purple, 239 ; Green-winged, 249 ; 
Green White-spotted, 249; Hedge-row, 
244; Henry's, 248; Hewitson's, 245; 
Martial, 240 ; Nelson's, 245 ; Olive, 246 ; 
Southern, 240; Striped, 244; Texas, 241 ; 
Thicket, 245 ; White-M, 240; Wittfeld's. 
241 

halcyone, Argynnis, 116 

halesus, Thecla, 239 

Hamadryas, genus, 85 

Hannington, Bishop, 172 

hanno, Lycaena, 269 

Harris, Dr. T. W., 70; " Report on the 
Insects of Massachusetts which are Inju- 
rious to Vegetation," 71 

harrisi, Grapta, 165 ; MeUtaea, 144 

Harvester, The, 251 

Haworth, quotation from, 236 

haydeni, Coenonympha, 207 

hayhursti, Phohsora, 331 

head, of butterfly, 14; of caterpillar, 6 

heart, 22, 23 

hegesia, Euptoieta, 100 

Heine, quotation from, 281 

helena, Brenthis, 131 

Heliconiinae, subfamily, 78, 91, 162 

Heliconius, genus, 92, 162; charitonius, 92 

helloides, Chrysophanus, 254 



375 



Index 



Hemans, Mrs. Felicia, quotation from, 303 

henrici, Thecla, 248 

henshawi, Neonympha, 202 

hermodur, Parnassius, 306 

Hesperia, genus, 326 ; caespitalis, 328 ; cen- 
taureae, 327 ; domicella, 327 ; montivaga, 
327 ; nessus, 329 ; scriptura, 328 ; xanthus, 
328 

Hesperiidae, family, 21, 66, 318; fossil, 196 

Hesperiinae, subfamily, 320 

hesperis, Argynnis, 112 

Heterocera, 62 

Heterometabola, 59 

heteronea, Lycsena, 259 

hi arm a, Lerema, 366 

hibernaculum of Basilarchia, 183 

hibernation of caterpillars, 10, 37 

hippolyta, Argynnis, 112 

Hoary-edge, The, 326 

hoffmanni, Mehtaea, 143 

Holland, Philemon, quotation from trans- 
lation of Livy, 85 

hollandi, Papilio, 314 

Hood, Thomas, quotation from, 237 

horatius, Thanaos, 336 

Hornaday, W. T., vii 

Hosackia argophylla, 249 

howardi, Phycanassa, 363 

Hiibner, Jacob, 69 ; works of, 70 

Hugo's " Plower to Butterfly," 74 

hulsti, Basilarchia, 84, 185 

humuh, Thecla, 242 

Humulus, 170 

huntera, Pyrameis, 170 

Hunter's Butterfly, 170 

huron, Atalopedes, 352 

hylas, Grapta, 165 

Hylephila, genus, 354 ; phylaeus, 354 

Hypanartia, genus, 175 ; lethe, 175 

Hypolimnas, genus, 180 ; misippus, 171, 
181 

hypophlseas, Chrysophanus, 254 

ianthe, Eresia, 158 

icarioides, Lycasna, 260 

icelus, Thanaos, 333 

idalia, Argynnis, 103 

iduna, CEneis, 220 

ilaire, Tachyris, 276 

imago, the, 13 

Immortality, 57 

Indigofera, 335 

Indo-Malayan Faunal Region, 161 

indra, Papilio, 312 

ines, Thecla, 247 

inflating larvae, 44 

ingelow, Jean, quotation from, 150, 188 

inner margin of wing, 19 

inornata, Argynnis, 122; Coenonympha, 

206 
Insect pests, 53 
Insecta, 59 
Insects, Fossil, 194 
Instinct, 280 
interior, Colias, 292 
interrogationis, Grapta, 164 
intestine, 22, 23 
iole, Nathalis, 281 
irus, Thecla, 248 
ismeria, Phyciodes, 152 



isola, Lycaena, 268 
isophthalma, Lycaena, 269 
isthmia, Mechanitis, 87 
Ithomiinae, subfamily, 78, 85, 162 
itys, Thecla, 243 
ivallda, CEneis, 222 

Jackson, Helen Hunt (H. H.), quotation 

from, 318 
j-album, Vanessa, 168 
janais, Synchloe, 159 
Japan, Collecting in, 149 
jatrophae, Anartia, 174 
jucunda, Terias, 298 
juha, Colaenis, 95 ; Euchloe, 283 
Juniperus virginiana, 246 
Junonia, genus, 172 ; coenia, 173 ; geno- 

veva, 174 ; lavinia, 173 
jutta, CEneis, 222 
juvenalis, Thanaos, 335 

Kansas grasshopper, 257 
Karlsbader pins, 56 
keewaydin, Colias, 291 
Kenia, Mount, 172 

Key to Subfamilies of Nymphalidae, 79 
Kilima-njaro, 172 
Kirby, Beard, & Co.'s pins, 56 
klugi, Dircenna, 89 
kodiak, Coenonympha, 207 
Kricogonia, genus, 287 ; lyside, 287 ; te- 
rissa, 287 

labels, 52 

labial palpi. See Palpi 

labium, of caterpillar, 6 ; of butterfly, 16 

labrum, of caterpillar, 6 ; of butterfly, 14 

lacinia, Synchloe, 159 

Lady, The Painted, 170, 171 ; The West 

Coast, 170 
lasta, Thecla, 249 
lais, Argynnis, 109 
Lamb's-quarter, 330 
lanceolata, Euchloe, 285 
lappets, 17 

Laria, genus of moths, 224; rossi, 224 
larva. See Caterpillar 
laura, Argynnis, 120 
Lauraceae, 192 
Lavatera assurgentiflora, 171 
lavinia, Junonia, 173 
Leaf-wings, The, 191 
leanira, Melitasa, 146 
Leconte, Major John E., 70 
legs, of caterpillars, 7 ; of butterflies, 17 
leilia, Chlorippe, 190 
Lemonias, genus, 229 ; cleis, 232 ; cythera, 

230; duryi, 230; mormo, 229; nais, 230 ; 

palmeri, 231 ; virgulti, 230 ; zela, 231 
Lemoniidae, 65, 228 
leonardus, Erynnis, 349 
Leopard-spots, The, 178 
Lepidoptera, 60 ; diurnal, 61 
Lerema, genus, 366; accius, 366; Carolina, 

367 ; hianna, 366 
Lerodea, genus, 356 ; eufala, 356 
Lespedeza, 324 
lethe, Hypanartia, 175 
ieto, 105 
libya, Pholisora, 331 



376 



Index 



Libythea, genus, 226; bachmanni, 227; 
carinenta, 227 ; labdaca, 195 

Libytheinae, subfamily, 78, 226 ; fossil, 
196 

liliana, Argynnis, 119 

limbal area of wing, 19 

Limochores, genus, 357 ; byssus, 358 ; ma- 
nataaqua, 357; palatka,358; pontiac, 358; 
taumas, 357; yehl, 359 

Linnaeus, 58, 69 

liparops, Thecla, 244 

lisa, Terias, 297 

Literature relating to North American 
butterflies, 69 

Long-dash, The, 351 

lorquini, Basilarchia, 185 

lower discocellular vein, 21 

lower radial vein, 20, 21 

lucia, Lycasna, 267 

lucilius, Thanaos, 333 

Luther's Saddest Experience, 100 

Lycaena, genus, 258 ; acmon, 266 ; ammon, 
270 ; amyntula, 268 ; annetta, 266 ; an- 
tiacis, 261 ; aquilo, 263 ; aster, 266 ; bat- 
toides, 264 ; clara, 259 ; comyntas, 268 ; 
couperi, 261 ; daedalus, 260 ; enoptes, 
264 ; exilis, 269 ; fuliginosa, 258 ; fulla, 
259 ; glaucon, 264 ; hanno, 269 ; hetero- 
nea, 259 ; icarioides, 260 ; isola, 268 ; 
isophthalma, 269; lucia, 267; lycea, 259; 
lygdamas, 262; marginata, 267; marina, 
270 ; melissa, 265 ; mintha, 260 ; neg- 
lecta, 267; nigra, 267; pheres, 261; 
piasus, 268 ; podarce, 263 ; pseudargio- 
lus, 4, 267 ; rustica, 263 ; saspiolus, 260 ; 
sagittigera, 262 ; scudderi, 265 ; shasta, 
265 ; sonorensis, 263 ; speciosa, 262 ; 
theonus, 270 ; violacea, 267 ; xerxes, 261 

Lycaenidae, 66, 161, 236 

lycaste, Ceratinia, 88 

lycea, Lycasna, 259 

lycidas, Achalarus, 325 

lygdamas, Lycaena, 262 

lyside, Kricogonia, 287 

macaria, Argynnis, 121 

MacDonald, George, quotation from, 201 

macglashani, Melitaea, 140 

machaon, Papilio, 312 

macouni, CEneis, 221 

maculata, Ohgoria, 361 

magdalena, Erebia, 211 

Malachites, The, 194 ; The Pearly, 195 

Malacopoda, 59 

m-album, Thecla, 240 

Malpighian vessel, 22, 23 

manataaqua, Limochores, 357 

mancinus, Erebia, 209 

mandan, Pamphila, 342 

mandibles of caterpillar, 6 

manitoba, Erynnis, 347 

Many-banded Dagger-wing, The, 180 

marcellus, Papilio, 308 

marcia, Phyciodes, 153 

mardon, Polites, 354 

marginata, Lycaena, 267 

marina, Lycagna, 270 

mariposa, Chryjophanus, 254 

maritima, Satyrus, 215 

marsyas, Grapta, 165 



martiahs, Thecla, 240 ; Thanaos, 335 

massasoit, Poanes, 361 

Maxillae, of caterpillars, 6; of butterflies, 14 

Maynard, C. J., 72, 73 

McDonald, quotation from, 177 

meadi, Argynnis, 119; Satyrus, 216 ; Colias, 

290 
Mechanitis, genus, 86; cahfornica, 87; 

isthmia, 87; polymnia, 88 
median area of wing, 19 
median nervules, 21 
median vein, 20, 21 
Meganostoma, genus, 288 ; caesonia, 289 ; 

eurydice, 288 
Megathyminae, subfamily, 368 
Megathymus, genus, 367 ; yuccae, 368 
melane,'Atrytone, 365 
melanism, 24 
melinus, Thecla, 242 
melissa, Lycaena, 265 
Melitaea, genus, 137, 161, 163 ; acastus, 143; 

alma, 147 ; anicia, 140 ; arachne, 148 ; 

augusta, 141; baroni, 141; beani, 140; 

bolli, 147; chalcedon, 139; chara, 146; 

colon, 140; dymas, 145; editha, 142; 

elada, 145; gabbi, 144 ; harrisi, 144 ; hoff- 

manni, 143 ; leanira, 146 ; macglashani, 

140 ; minuta, 148 ; nubigena, 141 ; nym- 

pha, 148 ; palla, 143 ; perse, 146; phaeton, 

4, 138 ; rubicunda, 142 ; taylori, 142; 

thekla, 147 ; wheeleri, 141 ; whitneyi, 143 ; 

wrighti, 147 
melite, Dismorphia, 274 
menapia, Neophasia, 275 
mesothorax, 17, 23 
Metabola, 60 
metacomet, Euphyes, 360 
Metal-marks, The, 228 
Metal-marks, The, 230; Behr's, 230; 

Dury's, 230 ; Dusky, 233 ; Little, 232 ; 

Northern, 232 ; Palmer's, 231 ; Southern, 

233 

metathorax, 17, 23 

metea, Erynnis, 348 

mexicana, Terias, 296 

micropyle, 4 

middle discocellular vein, 21 

milberti, Vanessa, 169 

mildew, 54 

Milkweed Butterfly. See Anosia 

Mime, The, 274 

Mimic The, 181 

Mimicry, 24, 235 

mintha, Lycaena, 260 

minuta, Melitaea, 148 

minyas, Eumaeus, 237 

misippus, Hypohmnas, 171, 181 

"Missouri Reports," The, by C. V. Riley, 73 

Monarch, The, 82 

monima, Eunica, 176 

Monkey, story about, 68 ; butterflies dis- 
tasteful to, 92 

monstrosities, 24 

montana, Phyciodes, 156 

monticola, Argynnis, 114 

montinus, Brenthis, 131 

montis, Chlorippe, 190 

montivaga, Argynnis, 126; Hesperia, 327 

monuste, Pieris, 277 

Moore, Thomas, quotation from, 58 



377 



Index 



Moravian Brethren, 127 

mormo, Lemonias, 229 

Mormon, The, 229 

morpheus, Phyciodes, 154 

Morris, Rev. John G., " Catalogue of the 
Described Lepidoptera of North Amer- 
ica," 71 

morrisoni, Erynnis, 347 ; Euchloe, 284 ; 
Pyrrhanaea, 193 

moths, how to distinguish, from butterflies, 
62 

mould on specimens, 54 

moulting of caterpillars, 9 

mounting butterflies, 38 ; English method, 
39 ; continental method, 39 ; on setting- 
boards, 40; on setting-blocks, 42 

Mount Washington, N. H,, 220 

Mourning-cloak, The, 169 

Mulberry-wing, The, 361 

Munkittrick, quotation from, 128 

muscles of head of butterfly, 15, 16 

mylitta, Phyciodes, 155 

Myriapoda, 59 

myrina, Brenthis, 129 

myrtis, Copaeodes, 346 

mystic, Thymelicus, 351 

naevius, Thanaos, 336 

nais, Lemonias, 230 

names, family, 63 ; generic, 63 ; specific, 

63 ; scientific, 66 ; popular, 68 ; use of, 

67 
NaphthaHne as a preventative of infection, 

53 

Naphthaline cones, 53 

napi, Pieris, 279 

nastes, Cohas, 293 

Nathalis, genus, 281 ; iole, 281 ; felicia, 281 

nausicaa, Argynnis, 108 

Nearctic Faunal Region, 161, 163 

neglecta, Lycasna, 267 

negreta, Ceratinia, 88 

nelsoni, Thecla, 245 

nemesis, Calephehs, 233 

Neominois, genus, 212 ; dionysius, 213 ; 
ridingsi, 213 

Neonympha, genus, 201 ; eurytus, 18, 203 ; 
gemma, 202 ; henshawi, 202 ; mitchelli, 
203 ; phocion, 202 ; rubricata, 204 ; sosy- 
bius, 204 

Neophasia, genus, 274 

Neotropical Faunal Region, 161, 162 

nephele, Satyrus, 215 

nervous system of lepidoptera, 22, 23 

nervules, 21 

nessus, Hesperia, 329 

nets, 26-28 ; the use of, 31 

nevadensis, Argynnis, 118 

" News, The Entomological," 73 

"New York Entomological Society, Jour- 
nal of the," 73 

Nicholas, Grand Duke, 338 

nicippe, Terias, 296 

nigra, Lycasna, 267 

niphon, Thecla, 249 

nitocris, Argynnis, 105 

nitra, Papilio, 312 

nokomis, Argynnis, 104 

Nova Scotian, The, 222 

nubigena, Mehtaea, 141 



number of species of butterflies in the 

United States, -25 
numitor, Ancyloxypha, 345 
nycteis, Phyciodes, i»;i 
nympha, Mehtaea, 148 
Nymphahdae, 65,77; subfamihes of, 78; 

fossil, 196 
Nymphalinae, subfamily, 78, 93 ; eggs of, 

94; Indo-Malayan, 161 
Nymphs, The (see Nymphalinae) ; Eyed, 

198 ; Common Grass, 200 ; Spangled, 201 

Oarisma, genus, 343 ; garita, 343.; powe- 
sheik, 343 

Oberland, Bernese, 172 

Oberthiir, M. Charles, 338 

occidentaHs, Pieris, 278 

ochracea, Coenonympha, 206 

ocola, Prenes, 355 

CEneis, genus, 218, 224; brucei, 223; Ca- 
lais, 221 ; chryxus, 221 ; gigas, 220 ; iduna, 
220 ; ivallda, 222 ; jutta, 222 ; macouni, 
221; semidea, 222; taygete, 223; uhleri, 
222 ; varuna, 222 

oesophagus, of butterfly, 15, 16, 23 ; of 
caterpillar, 22 

oetus, Satyrus, 218 

oleracea-hiemalis, Pieris, 279 

Ohgoria, genus, 361 ; maculata, 361 

olympus, Satyrus, 215 

opis, Argynnis, 124 

Orange-tips, The, 282 ; Falcate, 284 ; Pima, 
284 ; Reakirt's, 282 

oregonia, PapiHo, 314 

Ornithoptera, genus, 162, 272 ; paradisea, 
162 ; victoria, 162 

orseis, Phyciodes, 154 

osmateria, 9 

ottoe, Erynnis, 348 

outer angle of wing, 19 

oviduct, 23 

oweni, Argynnis, 109 

Packard, A. S., " Guide to the Study of 
Insects," 74; "A Text-book of Ento- 
mology," 74 

packing specimens, 55 

pacuvius, Thanaos, 336 

Palasarctic Faunal Region, 161 

palamedes, Papilio, 315 

palatka, Limochores, 358 

palla, Melitasa, 143 

pallida, Pieris, 297 

palmeri, Lemonias, 231 

palpi, of caterpillars, 6 ; of butterflies, 16, 

23 

Pamphila, genus, 342 ; mandan, 342 

Pamphilinae, subfamily, 339 

pamphiloides, Coenonympha, 207 

pamphilus, Coenonympha, 207 

papering specimens, 37 

Papilio, genus, 161, 162, 272, 306; abbotti, 
307 ; ajax, 307; aliaska, 312 ; antimachus, 
162; asterias, 6, 13, 314; bairdi, 313; 
brevicauda, 313 ; brucei, 313 ; calverleyi, 
314; cresphontes, 311; daunus, 310; 
eurymedon, 308; floridensis, 307; glau- 
cus, 309; hollandi, 314; indra, 312 ; ma- 
chaon, 312 ; marcellus, 308 ; nitra, 312 ; 
oregonia, 314 ; palamedes, 315 ; philenor, 



378 



Index 



6, 12, 315; pilumnus, 310; polydamas, 
316 ; rutalus, 309 ; telamonides, 308 ; 
thoas, 311 ; troilus, 9, 315 ; turnus, 3, 23, 
309; walshi, 307; zolicaon, 312 
"Papilio," journal devoted to entomology, 

73 

Papilionidae, 66, 272 

Papilioninae, subfamily, 304 ; fossil, 196 

paradisea, Ornithoptera, 162 

Parnassians, The, 304 

Parnassius, genus, 304 ; behri, 306 ; clo- 
dius, 305 ; hermodur, 306 ; smintheus, 306 

Passifiora, 96 

passion-flower, 92, 97, 98, 99 

Patched Butterflies, The, 159 

paulus, Satyrus, 217 

Peacock Butterflies, 172 

Peacock, The White, 174 

Pearly-eye, The, 199 

peckius, Polites, 353 

pectus, 17 

pegala, Satyrus, 215 

pelidne, Colias, 293 

Periodical literature of entomology, 73 

perse, Melitsea, 146 

persius, Thanaos, 334 

petronius, Thanaos, 335 

phaeton, Melitaea, 138 

phaon, Phyciodes, 153 

pheres, Lycsena, 261 

philea, Catopsilia, 286 

philenor, Papilio, 315 

philodice, Colias, 291 

phocion, Neonympha, 202 

Pholisora, genus, 330 ; alpheus, 331 ; Catul- 
lus, 330 ; hayhursti, 331 ; libya, 331 

Phycanassa, genus, 362 ; aaroni,363 ; how- 
ardi, 363 ; viator, 362 

Phyciodes, genus, 150; barnesi, 155; batesi, 
154; camillus, 155 ; ismeria, 152 ; marcia, 
153 ; montana, 156 ; morpheus, 154 ; my- 
litta, 155 ; nycteis, 151 ; orseis, 154 ; 
phaon, 153; picta, 156; pratensis, 154; 
tharos, 153 ; vesta, 152 

phylasus, Hylephila, 354 

piasus, Lycaena, 268 

picta, Phyciodes, 156 

Pierinas, subfamily, 272 ; fossil, 196 

Pieris, genus, 276; acadica, 280; beckeri, 
277; bryonias, 279; monuste, 277; napi, 
279 ; occidentalis, 278 ; oleracea, 5, 13, 
18 ; oleracea-hiemalis, 279 ; pallida, 279 ; 
protodice, 12, 278 ; rapae, 280 ; sisymbri, 
278 ; vernalis, 278 ; virginiensis, 279 

pilumnus, Papilio, 310 

pima, Euchloe, 284 

pins, 56 

Piperaceae, 192 

Plantago, 173 

platina, Argynnis, T17 

Plestia, genus, 322 ; dorus, 322 

plexippus, Anosia, 82 

Pliny, quotation from, 85 

Poanes, genus, 361 ; massasoit, 361 

pocahontas, Atrytone, 364 

podarce, Lycaena, 263 

Podostomata, 59 

polaris, Brenthis, 133 

Polites, genus, 353 ; mardon, 354 ; peckius, 
353 ; sabuleti, 354 



polydamas, Papilio, 316 

polymnia, Mechanitis, 88 

polymorphism, 23 

pontiac, Limochores, 358 

Pope, Alexander, quotation from, 304 

Populus, 169 

portia, Pyrrhanaea, T93 

portlandia, Debis, 199 

potato-bug, 257 

powesheik, Oarisma, 343 

pratensis, Phyciodes, 154 

precostal veins of Erycininae, 228 

Prenes, genus, 355 ; ocola, 355 

proboscis of butterflies, 14-16, 23 

procris, Copaeodes, 345 

progne, Grapta, 166 

prolegs, of caterpillars, 7 ; anal, 8 

proserpina, Basilarchia, 184 

protective mimicry, 25 

proterpia, Terias, 295 

proteus, Eudamus, 321 

prothorax, 17, 23 

protodice, Pieris, 278 

pseudargiolus, Lycaena, 267 

pseudodorippus, Basilarchia, 185 

" Psyche," journal devoted to entomology, 

73 
Ptelea, 311 

punctata, Eresia, 158 
pupa. See Chrysalis 
Purple,The Banded, 184 ; The Red-spotted, 

purpurescens, Argynnis, 114 

pylades, Thorybes, 324 

Pyrameis, genus, 169 ; atalanta, 170 ; car- 

dui, 170, 171 ; caryae, 170 ; huntera, 170 ; 

indica, 172 
Pyrrhanaea, genus, 191 ; andria, 9, 192 ; 

morrisoni, 193; portia, 193 
Pyrrhopyge, genus, 319; araxes, 319 
Pyrrhopyginae, subfamily, 319 

Queen, The, 84 
Queens, The Tropic, 180 
Quercus, chrysolepis, 239 
Question-sign, The, 164 

Race after a Butterfly, 127 

Ramsay, Allan, quotation from, 316 

rapae, Pieris, 280 

Reakirt, 87-90 

reakirti, Euchloe, 282 

rectum, 22, 23 

Red Rain, 299 

Reds. The Banded, 175 

Regions, Faunal, 161 

relaxing specimens, 41 

Repairing broken specimens, 55 

Rhamnus californicus, 309 

rhodope, Argynnis, 115 

Rhopalocera, origin of term, 16 ; suborder 

of lepidoptera, 60, 62 
Ribes, 252 

ridingsi, Neominois, 213 
Riley, James Whitcomb, quotation from, 

276 
Riley, Professor C. V., vii, 73, 80, 256 
Ringlets, The, 205; Alaskan, 207; Cali- 

fornian, 205 ; Elko, 206 ; Hayden's, 207 ; 



379 



Index 



Ochre, 206; Plain, 206; Ringless, 207; 

Utah, 207 
Robinia pseudacacia, 323 
Rogers, quotation from, 294 
rosa, Kuchloe, 284 
Ross, Commander James, 224 
Rossetti, Christina, quotation from, 294 
rossi, Laria, 224 
Rothschild, Hon. Walter, 338 
rubicunda, Melitaea, 142 
rubidus, Chrysophanus, 255 
rubricata, Neonympha, 204 
Ruddy Dagger-wing, The, 180 
Rumex, 253 

rupestris, Argynnis, 120 
Russell, quotation from, 339 
rustica, Lycaena, 263 
rutulus, Papilio, 309 

sabuleti, Polites, 354 

Sachem, The, 352 • 

saepiolus, Lycajna, 260 

soeiMum, Thecla, 244 

sagittigera, Lycaena, 262 

samoset, Amblyscirtes, 340 

sara, lOuchloe, 282 

sassacus, Erynnis, 348 

sassafras, 315 

Satyr, The, 165 

Satyrinai, subfamily, 78, 197 ; fossil, 196 

Satyrs, The : Baron's, 216 ; Boisduval's, 
218; Carolinian, 204 ; Gabb's, 216; Geor- 
gian, 202 ; Little Wood-, 203 ; Mead's, 
216; Mitcliell's, 203; Red, 204; Ridings', 
213 ; Scudder's, 213 

SatyVodes, genus, 200 ; canthus, 200 

Satyrus, genus, 214 ; alo])e, 215 ; ariane, 
216; baroni, 216; boopis, 216 ; charon, 
217; gabbi, 216 ; maritima, 215 ; meadi, 
216 ; nephele, 215 ; oetus, 218 ; olymjius, 
paulus, 217 ; pegala, 215 ; sthenele, 
texana. 215 



215 

218 i 
satyrus, Grapta, 165 
sauer-kraut, 257 
Saxifraga, 306 
scales of wings, 18 



how to remove, 19 ; 



arrangement on wmg, 20 

scale-insects, injuricnis to orange-trees, 256 

Schaus, William, 160 

scriptura, Hesperia, 328 

Scudder, Dr. S. H., author of" The But- 
terflies of New England," vi, vii, 72, 73 

Scudderi, Lycaena, 265 ; Colias, 293 

Sedum, 306 

segments constituting external skeleton of 
caterpillar, 6 

semidea, OCneis, 222 

semiramis, Argynnis, 121 

setting-blocks, 39 

setting-boards, 39 

setting-needles, 40 

sex, 64 

sex-signs, 64 

Shakespeare, quotations from, 91, 205, 
218, 273 

Shasta, Lycaena, 265 

shellac, 55 

Shelley, quotation from, 26 

"Shingling" butterflies when packing for 
shipment, 55 



Sigourney, Mrs., quotation from, 57 

silenus, Grapta, 166 

Silver-spot, Arizona, 108 ; Bremner's, 113 ; 
Columbian, iii ; Mead's, 119; Moun- 
tain, 108; New Mexican, 107; Nevada, 
118; Northwestern, 109; Owen's, 119 

simasthis, Thecla, 246 

simius, Amblyscirtes, 341 

sirius, Chrysophanus, 255 

Sisters, The, 187; Californian, 187 

sisymbri, Pieris, 278 

Sisymbrium, 284 

siva, Thecla, 246 

size, 271 

Skinner, Dr. Henry, 325, 363 

Skippers, The, 318 ; Aaron's, 363 ; Arctic, 
342 ; Brazilian, 356 ; Broad-winged, 362 ; 
Bronze, 341 ; Canadian, 347; Carolina, 
367; Checkered, 327; Cobweb, 348; 
Cross-line, 357 ; Delaware, 365 ; Dun, 
360; Dusted, 366; Erichson's, 327; 
Fiery, 354; Golden-banded, 326; Griz- 
zled, 327 ; Hayhurst's, 331 ; Hobomok, 
364; Howard's, 363 ; Indian, 348 ; Iowa, 
364; IvConard's, 349; Long-tailed, 321; 
Morrison's, 347; Ocola, 355; Oregon, 
354; Palatka, 358 ; Peck's, 353 ; Pepper- 
and-salt, 340 ; Roadside, 340; Sand-hill, 
354 ; Short-tailed, 322 ; Silver-spotted, 
323; Skinners, 359; Small-checkered, 
328; Snow's, 350; Tawny-edged, 357; 
Two-banded, 328 ; Umber, 365 ; Vol- 
canic, 351; Woodland, 340; Woven- 
. winged, 341; Wright's, 346 ; Xanthus, 
328 

Slosson, Mrs. Annie Trumbull, quotation 
from, 233 

Small Sulphurs, 294 ; Gundlach's, 295 

smintheus, Parnassius, 306 

Smith, Herbert H., 338 

Smith, Sir James Edward, 70 

Smith and Abbot, " The Natural History 
of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of 
Georgia," 70 

Snout-butterflies, 226, 227; Southern, 227 

Snow, Cliancellor F. H., 255 

snowi, Chrysophanus, 255 ; Erynnis, 350 

snyderi, Argynnis, 118 

Sofia, Erebia, 210 

somnus, Thanaos, 333 

sonorensis, Lycaena, 263 

Sooty-wing, The, 330 ; Mohave, 331 

sosybius, Neonympha, 204 

species, definition of, 62 

speciosa, Lycaena, 262 

Spenser, Edmund, Quotation from, 226 

spermatheca, 23 

spicewood, 315 

spinetorum, Thecla, 2^5 

spinneret, 6, 22 

spinning-vessel, 22 

Staudinger, Dr. Otto, 338 

Stella, Euchloe, 283 

steneles, Victorina, 195 

sthenele, Satyrus, 218 

stomach, 22, 23 

Strecker, Herman, 72 

strigosa, Anosia, 84 

subcostal nervules, 21 

subcostal vein, 20, 21 



380 



M/\y 191949 



Index 



subfamily names, 63 

submedian vein, 20, 21 

suboesophageal ganglion, 22, 23 

"sugaring," 32 

Sulphurs, The, 272, 289; Alexandra, 292; 
Arctic, 293 ; Behr's, 294; Cloudless, 286 ; 
Common, 291 ; Gold-and-black, 291 ; 
Great, 285; Labrador, 293; Large Orange, 
287; Little, 297; Mead's, 290; Pink- 
edged, 292 ; Red-barred, 286 ; Scudder's, 
293 ; Strecker's, 290 

Superstitions, 90 

Suspicious Conduct, 136 

Swallowtails, The, 272, 306; Alaskan, 312; 
Common Eastern, 314; Giant, 311; 
Newfoundland, 313 ; Pipe-vine, 315 ; 
Spice-bush, 315 ; Tiger, 309 

Swinburne, quotation from, 272 

sylvanoides, Erynnis, 349 

Synchloe, genus, 159 ; crocale, 160 ; janais, 
159 ; lacinia, 159 

Systasea, genus, 329 ; zampa, 329 

Tachyris, genus, 275 ; ilaire, 276 

tacita, Thecla, Plate XXIX, Fig. 30 

tarquinius, Feniseca, 251 

tarsi, 17, 18 

tatila, Eunica, 176 

taumas, Limochores, 357 

taxiles, Atrytone, 365 

taygete, CEneis, 223 

taylori, Melitasa, 142 

tegulae, 17 

telamonides, Papiho, 308 

Tennyson, quotation from, 213 

Terias, genus, 294; damaris, 296; delia, 
298 ; elathea, 298 ; flava, 296 ; gundlachia, 
295 ; jucunda, 298 ; lisa, 297 ; mexicana, 
296 ; nicippe, 296 ; proterpia, 295 ; west- 
woodi, 297 

terissa, Kricogonia, 287 

testis, 22 

texana, Eresia, 158; Satyrus, 215 

textor, Amblyscirtes, 341 

Thanaos, genus, 332 ; afranius, 334 ; brizo, 

332 ; clitus, 336 ; funeralis, 336 ; horatius, 
336 ; icelus, 333 ; Juvenalis, 335 ; lucihus, 

333 ; martialis, 335 ; naevius, 336 ; pacu- 
vius, 336 ; persius, 334 ; petronius, 335 ; 
somnus, 333 

tharos, Phyciodes, 153 

Thecla, genus, 237; acadica, 242; acis, 
240, 246 ; adenostomatis, 245 ; affinis, 
249; alcestis, 241 ; arsace, 248 ; augustus, 
247; autolycus, 241 ; behri, 247; blenina, 
245 ; calanus, 243 ; cecrops, 246 ; chalcis, 
244 ; citima, 239 ; clytie, 247 ; crysalus, 
239; damon, 246; discoidalis, 246; dume- 
torum, 249 ; edwardsi, 243 ; eryphon, 248; 
favonius, 240 ; grunus, 238 ; halesus, 239; 
henrici, 248; humuli, 242; ines, 247; 
irus, 248; itys, 243; laeta, 249; liparops, 
244; m-album, 240; martialis, 240; meli- 
nus, 242; nelsoni, 245; niphon, 249; 
saepium, 244; simaetuis, 246; siva, 246; 
spinetorum, 245 ; tacita, Plate XXIX, 
Fig. 30 ; titus, 250 ; wittfeldi, 241 

thekla, Mehtaea, 147 

theonus, Lycsena, 270 

Thibet, 172 



thoas, Papilio, 311 

thoe, Chrysophanus, 253 

thorax, 7, 14, 17, 22, 23 

Thoreau, Quotation from, 93 

Thorybes, genus, 324; aemilia,325; bathyl- 
lus, 325 ; epigena, 325 ; pylades, 324 

Thymehcus, genus, 350 ; aetna, 351 ; bret- 
tus, 351 ; mystic, 35£ 

tibia, 17, 18 

tiger, 63 

Timetes, genus, 179; chiron, 180; coresia, 
180; petreus, 180 

tip for inflating tube, 46 

titus, Thecla, 250 

tityrus, Epargyreus, 323 

Tokyo, 149 

Tongue. See Proboscis 

Tortoise, The Compton, 168 

Tortoise-shells, The, 167; the California, 
168 ; Milbert's, 169 

tracheae, 15, 22 

" Transactions of the American Entomo- 
logical Society," 73 

transformations, egg to caterpillar, 5 ; 
caterpillar to chrysalis, 11 ; chrysalis to 
butterfly, 13 

triclaris, Brenthis, 130 

tritonia, Geirocheilus, 211 

trochanter, 17, 18 

troilus, Papilio, 315 

tulcis, Eresia, 158 

turnus, Papiho, 309 

Turritis, 285 

Twin-spot, The, 361 

tyndarus, Erebia, 210 

types of butterflies named by W. H. Ed- 
wards, vi ; used in preparation of this 
book, vii 

typhon, Coenonympha, 206 

uhleri, CEneis, 222 

Umbelliferae, 312, 313, 314 

umbrosa. Grapta, 164 

uncas, Erynnis, 349 

Uncle Jotham's Boarder, 233 

United States Department of Agriculture, 

49. 73 
United States National Museum, 73 
upper discocellular vein, 21 
upper radial vein, 20, 21 
Urtica, 164, 169 
urtica, Vanessa, 169 
Urticaceae, 164, 165 
Utihty of Entomology, The, 256 

Vanessa, genus, 167; antiopa, 5, 7, 94, 169; 
californica, 168 ; j-album, 168 ; milberti, 
169; urticae, 169; vau-album, 168; xan- 
thomelas, 168 

vanillae, Dione, 97 

varieties, 64; insular, 64 

varuna, CEneis, 222 

vau-album, Vanessa, 168 

veins of wings, 20, 21 

verna, Euphyes, 360 

vernalis, Pieris, 278 

Vertex, definition of, 14 

vesta, Phyciodes, 152 

vialis, Amblyscirtes, 340 

viator, Phycanassa, 362 



381 



Index 



Viceroy, The, 185 

victoria, Ornithoptera, 162 

Victorina, genus, 194; steneles, 195 

violacea, Lycaena, 267 

violets, 98, 102 

Violet-wings, The, 175 ; The Dingy, 176 

virginiensis, Chrysophanus, 252 ; Pieris, 

279 
virgulti, Lemonias, 230 
vitellius, Atrytone, 364 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 92, 338 

walshi, Papilio, 307 

Walsingham, Lord, 338 

weidemeyeri, Basilarchia, 185 

westwoodi, Terias, 297 

wheeleri, Melitasa, 141 

Whirlabout, The, 351 

White Admirals, The, 182 

White Peacock, The, 174 

Whites, The, 272 ; Becker's, 277 ; Cabbage, 
280 ; California, 278 ; Common, 278 ; 
Florida, 276 ; Great Southern, 277 ; Mus- 
tard, 279; Pine, 275 ; Western, 278 

whitneyi, Melitasa, 143 

Wilcox, Ella Wheeler, quotation from, 186 

wings of butterflies, 18, 21 

winter quarters of Basilarchia, 183 



Wistaria, 322 

wittfeldi, Thecla, 241 

Wood-nymphs, The, 214 ; Clouded, 215 ; 

Common, 215 ; Dark, 217 ; Least, 218 • 

Small, 217; Southern, 215 
wrighti, Melitaea, 147 ; Copaeodes, 346 
writers, early, upon butterflies of North 

America, 69; later, 71 

xanthoides, Chrysophanus, 253 
xanthomelas, Vanessa, 168 
xanthus, Hesperia, 328 
xerxes, Lycasna, 261 

"Yale Literary Magazine," 100 

yehl, Limochores, 359 

Yellow, The Dwarf, 281 ; The Fairy, 298 

The Mexican, 296 ; Westwood's, 297 
yuccas, Megathymus, 368 

zabulon, Atrytone, 364 
zampa, Systasea, 329 
Zebra, The. See Charitonius 
zela, Lemonias, 231 
zephyrus, Grapta, 166 
zererie, Argynnis, 113 
zolicaon, Papiho, 312 



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